The Temple to the Sun God (el Templo del Sol), the Ingapirca Fortress is an Archaeological Complex (authentically Incan-Cañari construction) at 3,180 meters (10,433 ft) above sea level, Cañar Province, the Southern Highlands, Ecuador.
The most important building, not only of the monumental complex of Ingapirca but also of the entire North of the Inca Empire was and is this elliptical Temple whose major axis is 37.10 m by 12.36 m of the minor and 4.10 m Tall. It has 11 parallel rows whose perfectly joined joints and sores present a careful work of padded and overlapping ashlars according to the traditional norms of classical Cuzco architecture. Its construction was due to a process of adaptation of the elliptical design conceived by the Inca architect on the outcrop of a rock that stood out in that place at the top of a deep ravine. This rock was shaped like an ellipse and proceeded to coat it with those symmetrically carved blocks.
Although the external parts of the joints have a perfect union, internally you can check the use of mortar based on a clay with a high cement content and that exists only in Ingapirca which, due to its presentation and color, the farmers follow calling with the quichua terminology of "quillucaca" (yellow droppings). The temple is linked to the Ceremonial Square through a ramp that ascends to a trapezoidal door in the center of the major axis, on its south side. When passing this door, one encounters a beautiful typically Inca niche and the wall of the evil called "guard body", so it must be turned to the sides where two small opposite stairways arise that allow to reach the temple platform. From there the view is wonderful because the entire Hatun Cañar Valley is dominated and the ruins of the monument are appreciated.
The elliptical platform is divided in its central part by the presence of two enclosures whose fronts face opposite, one towards the east and the other towards the west. These two rooms are separated by a mediating wall with evidence of trapezoidal niches or niches; while in its north and south walls, which end in tall gables, two niches the size of a man appear and match the entrance doors to each enclosure. This building with two opposite environments and without windows is considered the sanctuary of the sun. In the opinion of the archaeastronomic scholars, through its doors the rays of the rising sun (eastern room) and the west (western room) entered the niches of the mediating wall, indicating periods of illumination and shadow according to the periodic variations in the output and sunset of the star king. According to Ziólkowski's experiments, the eastern room would have been illuminated in the period of the December solstice, while the western one in the June solstice, a phenomenon interpreted by Aboriginal priests and sages to announce their feasts and the beginning of sowing and harvesting respectively in the fields.
On the northern part of the Temple, that is, in Barranco, four retaining walls, now restored and consolidated, stand out, giving it a total contrast with the south side; because while in this sector everything is flat and accessible, in Barranco everything is pending and rugged. These contrasts generate in the visitor two different attitudes: the one of security and the other of anguish and vertigo. In any case, the danger is annulled with the presence of an extraordinary Inca wall that extends from the Ellipse to the West, separating the cozy spaces of the Akllahuasi from those inaccessible from the precipice. It is the wall that still keeps intact the original finish of its carvers and builders from five hundred years ago.