Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus)
Black-winged stilt description
A globally widespread wading bird (3), the black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is characterised by its extremely long, red legs, white stomach and, true to its name, jet-black wings (4). Its distinctive legs make up around 60 percent of its overall height, providing it with a feeding advantage over other waders in deeper waters (2). Young birds can be distinguished by a dash of dark feathers on the usually white head (4).
Length: 38 cm (2)
Wingspan: 75 cm (2)
180 g (2)
Black-winged stilt biology
The diet of the black-winged stilt is variable according to season, but typically comprises aquatic insects, molluscs, crustaceans, spiders, worms, tadpoles, small fish, fish eggs and seeds (3). With its long legs, it can wade into deeper water, where it may be seen snatching insects that hover over the water’s surface, dipping its head below the water to catch small fish, or pulling small worms from the mud (5).
Black-winged stilts residing in northern regions migrate over long distances to reach their southern wintering grounds (3). Although it will often breed in solitude, the black-winged stilt is a typically social bird and can be found in groups of up to a thousand during the winter migration (3).
During breeding, parental investment is high from both male and female birds, with males devoting a significant amount of time to nest building and egg incubation (6). This parental team appears to be monogamous, as while the male stays behind to tend the nest, the foraging female remains faithful (6). The nest is either a depression in hard ground or arranged on a floating mass of vegetation, preferably situated with all-round visibility (3).
Black-winged stilt range
The vast geographical range of the black-winged stilt extends as far as Africa, Europe, Asia and even the United States (3). Its population in 2009 was estimated to be between 450,000 and 780,000, with a massive estimated range of 30,800,000 square kilometres (3).
Black-winged stilt habitat
The black-winged stilt can be found on the shores of large, inland water bodies and estuarine or coastal habitats (3). Its breeding habitat is typically freshwater or brackish (slightly salty) wetlands with a sand, mud or clay bed (3).
Black-winged stilt threats
Due to its large range and abundance, the black-winged stilt does not qualify for a threatened status on the IUCN Red List (1). However, potential threats include future outbreaks of diseases such as avian influenza and avian botulism (3). As with all waterbird species the effects of climate change, particularly the deterioration of wetlands, also pose a possible future threat (7). Migratory waterbirds in particular may be vulnerable due to their dependence on networks of wetlands (8).
Black-winged stilt conservation
The black-winged stilt is among the species included in the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (8) which aims to conserve migratory waterbird species throughout their flyways (8).