palaia fokaia, greece 1.2020
"Impressionist" (low-resolution), inland images taken on a remedial digital tablet amidst a New Year winter stay in Παλαιά Φώκαια (Palaia Fokaia), between some months in Κυψέλη (Kipséli) and a week in the Παλαιό Φάληρο (Palaio Faliro) area of Athens proper, before departing for Italy - 1-8 January, 2020.


Palaia Fokaia (Παλαιά Φώκαια, "Old Phocaea") is a seaside town in East Attica, Greece, located on the Saronic Gulf coast between Sounio and Anavyssos in the southeastern part of the Attica peninsula, and is part of the greater Athens metropolitan area. Since 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality of Saronikos, of which it is a municipal unit with an area of 22.944 km2 and a population of 3,436. The community of Palaia Fokaia includes the settlements: Thymari - Agia Fotini, Katafygi and the Settlement of the Agricultural Bank of Greece. There are low mountains south and east of the town. It lies 2 km south of Anavyssos, 9 km west of Lavrio and 36 km southeast of Athens centre. Greek National Road 91 (Athens - Sounio) passes through the town. The municipal unit includes the village of Thymari and the small, rocky and deforested island of Patroklos, which is uninhabited.

The settlement of Palaia Fokea was created in the 1920s as a settlement of refugees from the Phocaea of Asia Minor, named Palaia Fokaia and not "Nea" as is customary in refugee settlements. In 1250 AD, inhabitants of Fokaia founded a new village 9 km north of Fokaia, which was named Nea Fokaia. In the following years, the settlement that was located in the ancient site was named Palaia Fokaia to distinguish it from the newer one. The refugees who settled in the area of Anavyssos and came from Palaia Fokaia, did not give the settlement they founded the name Nea Fokaia because there was another village in Asia Minor with the namesake. Thus the new settlement retained the name "Palaia Fokaia", which was the name of their particular homeland. The settlement was initially included in the community of Kalivia Thorikou, while from 1947 it was a separate community, and recognized within the borders of the community in 1971 and the settlement of Thymari. The community of Palaia Fokaia occupied an area of 23 and had a population of 2,051 inhabitants, according to the 2001 census. In 2011, it was abolished with the implementation of the Kallikratis program, joining the new municipality of Saronikos.

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Ancient History.

Palea Fokea is a city built in the northwest part of the Asia Minor peninsula. It was founded in the 8th BC century by settlers of Fokida led by the Athenian Philogenes. Its inhabitants were adventurous sailors and were the first to build "five-masted ships", light ships with fifty oars, the city being one of the 12 Ionian cities and its merchant navy competing with the Phoenician navy. They gained wealth and power through trade and founded many colonies.

The Fokians were the first to travel by ship to Gibraltar and built trading posts in many parts of the Mediterranean. From the 7th century BC began to establish colonies, the most important being: Lampsakos on the shores of the Hellespont, Elea in lower Italy, Alar in 565 BC with a very large port in Corsica, and Tartisos off the coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Another important one is Marseille in 600 BC, which founded new colonies such as Nicaea (C Κυte d'Azur), Olivia (Coast of the Mountains). From Marseilles the letters spread to neighboring peoples and the Phocaeans became the first civilization in the west before the Romans. When in 540 BC, they were conquered by the Persians, they boarded their ships and asked to buy Oinousses, islands of Chios to settle. The Chians, however, refused and so left for their other colonies.
Phocaea also minted the Phocaean stator as a gold coin. Its bay was divided into two ports, the Naval Station (large shore) and Lampitra (Small shore).
Pytheas, a great Greek seafarer, the first to see the glaciers of the B. Ocean, came from Marseilles.

1914-1922 Planning and Execution of Persecutions.
Central Asia was the largest part of ecumenical Greece, being 530,000, while metropolitan Greece is 130,000 So when Greece lost it in 1453 and in 1922 with the persecutions, it lost its economic power and shrank by four-fifths its size and financial strength.
In 1915 Greece, division raged again (1915), Venizelos resigns for the second time, and the central powers (Germany, Austria, Hungary) defeat.
Young Turks believe that their big day has arrived. The German military finds in the face of the neo-Turks the ruthless executor of the most barbaric measures, the recruitment of the Christian population, joining the infamous labor battalions, the displacement of the coastal population, measures of the Turks re-signed by the German general Liman von Sanders. The reason for this anti-Greek attitude was that Turkey was a large and easy-going Asian country - booty for all forms of exploitation. Its geographical location, Mosul's oils and navigation were its targets. These efforts confronted the Greek presence that for centuries held the reins of all economic sectors and especially shipping.
On May 14, 1914, the Minister of Interior of Turkey, Talat, sent a telegram to the Commander-in-Chief of Izmir: "..... It is urgent for political reasons to force the Greeks living on the shores of Central Asia to evacuate their villages and settle in the provinces of Erzurum and others. If they refuse to be transported to the indicated places, you will be pleased to see oral instructions to our Muslim brothers, as for all kinds of deviants force the Greeks to expatriate themselves at will. 'Do not forget to obtain in this case from these immigrants a certificate confirming that they are leaving the hearths of their own initiative so that no political issues arise.'" The plan of the diversions, that is, massacres and persecutions, was implemented in the most brutal and inhuman way by the Turks, the test starting from Palea and Nea Fokea.
Documented by French archaeologist Sartio and the team of Mansier, Carlier and Dandrias, Sartio came from Marseilles and made archeological excavations at that time. In his book "The looting of Phocaea and the expulsion of the Ottoman Greeks of Central Asia" and Mansier in his description, "The last days of Phocaea" plot the massacre and persecution of its inhabitants.
In a document of the Austrian embassy (April 3, 1917): "The Grand Vizier and Foreign Minister asked me and the German ambassador to let our governments know that military reasons of paramount importance are forcing the Turkish government to displace from Ayvalik and its environs, a population of 10 to 15,000 Greeks. The Turkish government has stated that General Liman von Sanders insists on the implementation of this measure. 'Residents should leave their homes within a certain period of time, but they are free to choose the place of their new residence inland.'" The continuation of the document is more revealing, "Under these circumstances, I FORCED the Turkish Ministry of War, where Ember Pasha, as well as the government, resisted the execution of the aforementioned measures."
And then the catastrophe of 1922.

Recent History.
Founded by Phocaea, Marseille's inhabitants did not forget their origin in any case, sincerely expressing their love and affection for the ancient Diocese, when in fact they celebrate the third millennium as the founding of their city with magnificent celebrations, and they invited the Mayor of Phocaea of Marseille. The younger inhabitants of Phocaea Asia Minor were sailors but at the same time cultivated the rich land of their region. The main source of prosperity was the salt flats, the richest salt flats in the Mediterranean. P. and N. Fokaia were cities with a Greek population for the most part, P. Fokea with 12,000 inhabitants, 9,000 Greeks and 3,000 Turks and N. Fokea with 7,500 inhabitants, 6,500 Greeks and 1,000 Turks. Here, people spoke only Greek, even the Turks. It had schools, churches and many chapels. The metropolitan church was Agia Irini. Another large church was Agia Triada, Agios Nikolaos and Agios Konstantinos to the north. The church of the Holy Trinity was built by the workers of the saltworks, holding a grand 7-day festival there where local musicians played violins, oud, santouri, organ (lantern), drums.
It was said to be a good life ruined by the Turks in June 1914. The archaeologist Sartio writes: "Her rich nobles left the cities barefoot because these shoes had also been removed. Unheard of sacrileges were committed in the temples". Mansier of the team of archaeologists says: "At night the city was looted. We are told a woman is on the verge of death because she was raped by 17 Turks. A total of 81 people were killed, including 17 women, so that with their own eyes, in the most barbaric times, all the characteristics of the destruction of a city, namely: theft, looting, arson, murder and disgrace of women."About a thousand inhabitants landed on fishing boats and sailed from Phocaea to Mytilene. Others landed on a large French sailboat loading salt from the port of Foca.
El. Iliopoulos, Consul General of England, who arrived in the city two days after its evacuation, was informed that in the canteens of the city butchers were hung pieces of human meat with "G" meatballs - that is, Greek meat. But the catastrophe was complete in 1922. More than 1,500,000 Greeks of ecumenical Greece were made by the order of Germany, the Greek division and the failed advance of King Constantine to the interior of Turkey, north of Turkish atrocity. Thus unpunished to today, Turkey carried out in the same century three genocides of different tribes of Central Asia, the Armenians, the Pontians and the Kurds.

The installation in Anavyssos.
Like all Hellenism in Central Asia, the Phocaeans fled to the nearest islands, Athens and Piraeus.
The late Ath. Papoutsis gave the following information on 20/2/1960 to Mr. Ap. "Proteus" and with elections elected Mr. Vassilis Tsouros, military doctor, Panagiotis Zinane, infantry officer, Ath. A. Papoutsis, Evagg. Pouloudas, Anastasios Ananidis and Ioannis Staveras, one of his goals being to choose an area for installation: "We went to Kassandra, Halkidiki, with a week's hassle. But it was far from Athens and the place was uninhabited. We left disappointed, we are Papoutsis Ath, Metalikis A. and X iotis N. We started looking for the installation of Anavyssos."
In Anavyssos, there were salt pans that a company had, recruiting people who knew better about salt production. Finding Christoulis Karapiperis an excellent craftsman, the took a team of 20-25 patriots who all worked. After the first year they had 2,000 tons more salt, the company so pleased it asked asked to hire all the Phocaeans that existed, electing a committee of Hatzis Karpouzis, Ioannis Dede, Ath. Papoutsis to take care of the installation.
At that time Athens - Lavrio had a train. The committee took the train and left Keratea. From there, Anavyssos walked down to the salt pans to see the place and the estates belonging to Petraki Monastery, where everyone could settle, then uninhabited with only one small church, Agios Georgios.
Later asking the Ministry of Agriculture for permission to settle in Anavyssos, they were refused because the area was intended for a team from Aretsou, Constantinople. Finally, on October 15, 1920, by order of the Ministry of Welfare and a boat, they reached the salt pans and stayed in 50 tents. In 10 days other families arrived by boat and took 100 tents, the tented area owned by relatives from Kalivia.
The new settlers went to the Minister and asked him to make a statement in the newspapers, that the Phocaeans will settle in Anavyssos because they are salt bars that produce salt, the statement read in the villages and stopped the settlement's current accounting. The families had come from Chalkida, Volos, Crete, went to Piraeus for work, others made charcoal and many worked in the saltworks. But as soon as the second winter came and they saw that the restoration was not taking place, a few were forced to leave for Piraeus and Athens. With no trees or water on the beach of Anavyssos, they lived from the saltworks and were given tools to immediately open a well. Unfortunately, from October 1924 to March 1926 they remained in tents, 19 months of agony. Every three months they had changes of government, and of the 160 original families, only 90 remained.
In March 1926, Pangalos ordered the arrival of the topographic service of the Ministry of Agriculture to define the settlement. He took 7,500 acres from the Petraki Monastery, 1,000 acres from the Logothetis estate, 400 acres from the area of Agios Georgios, yet they still did not have a church. Mr. Beis had set up 20 shacks for the settlers, the settlers taking materials from these to build their church.
Their President, "Garyfalos Papoutsis, came and we asked him and he sent us 100,000 and we started to build the school. We all helped together and the contractor who built it did not get a single drachma. He was a good man, his name was Hermes Philip. The school was built in 1932. For 4 years we paid a teacher to send the children to school." In 1947, Palaia Fokaia became a Community.

Contemporary History.
The first years of the exile, among the other difficulties faced by the refugees, was their non-acceptance by the Greeks of Metropolitan Greece.
The area of P. Fokea - Anavyssos was uninhabited, owned mainly by the Petraki monastery and also rented by the inhabitants and cattle breeders of the surrounding villages for grazing or cultivation. The settlement of the refugees brought several disputes between them, but their cohabitation and acquaintance resulted in mutual respect, acceptance, friendship with good cooperation, coexistence, prestige. Indeed, from the pre-war era, the nomadic cattle breeders began to settle permanently and to add vitality to the life of the village with their strength and hard work. In fact, after 1947, when it became a Community, the life of the village entered an upward course with important infrastructure projects carried out.
In 1954-55 the town's main road opened and connected the village with urban centers, leading to developments in tourism and an increasing population.
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