new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged Art Gallery Renaissance Classical Realism Portraits Landscapes Sculptures

The Isle of Mull[6] (Scottish Gaelic An t-Eilean Muileach, pronounced [ən 'tjelan ˈmuləx]) or just Mull (English and Scots: [mʌl]; Scottish Gaelic: Muile, [ˈmulə] (About this soundlisten)) is the second-largest island of the Inner Hebrides (after Skye) and lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute.

 

Covering 875.35 square kilometres (337.97 sq mi), Mull is the fourth-largest Scottish island and has the same rank as regards Great Britain. In the 2011 census the usual resident population was 2,800.[2] In 2001 the figure was 2,667.[7] In the summer these are supplemented by many tourists. Much of the population lives in colourful Tobermory, the only burgh on the island until 1973 and its capital.

 

Tobermory hosts Mull's only single malt Scotch whisky distillery, Tobermory distillery (formerly Ledaig).[8] The isle has numerous sports and the Highland Games competition in July. It also has at least four castles including the towering keep of Moy Castle. A much older stone circle is beside Lochbuie on the south coast.

 

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support").[1] The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

 

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action (the final work is called "a painting"). The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, pottery, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials, including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, and even whole objects.

 

Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, gesture (as in gestural painting), narration (as in narrative art), and abstraction (as in abstract art).[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in still life and landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism) or political in nature (as in Artivism).

 

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha (or other images of Eastern religious origin).

 

Color, made up of hue, saturation, and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers, and scientists, including Goethe,[3] Kandinsky,[4] and Newton,[5] have written their own color theory.

 

Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).

 

Painters deal practically with pigments,[6] so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, Cobalt blue, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like a C note) is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it.

 

Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as metal, plastic, sand, cement, straw, leaves or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.

 

Rhythm

 

Jean Metzinger, La danse (Bacchante) (c.1906), oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm, Kröller-Müller Museum

Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature; a characteristic of the alliance between Symbolist writers and Neo-Impressionist artists:

 

I ask of divided brushwork not the objective rendering of light, but iridescences and certain aspects of color still foreign to painting. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables, I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature. (Jean Metzinger, circa 1907)[7]

  

Piet Mondrian, Composition en rouge, jaune, bleu et noir (1921), Gemeentemuseum Den Haag

Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian,[8][9] is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value.[8]

 

Music was important to the birth of abstract art since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky often used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings "improvisations" and described more elaborate works as "compositions". Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher,"[10] and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions. Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that (for example), yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet; black is the color of closure, and the end of things; and that combinations of colors produce vibrational frequencies, akin to chords played on a piano. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the piano and cello.[11][12] Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms, colors and musical sounds.[13]

 

Music defines much of modernist abstract painting. Jackson Pollock underscores that interest with his 1950 painting Autumn Rhythm (Number 30).[14]

 

History

Main article: History of painting

 

Prehistoric cave painting of aurochs (French: Bos primigenius primigenius) ), Lascaux, France

 

The oldest known figurative painting is a depiction of a bull that was discovered in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Indonesia. It was painted 40,000 years ago or earlier.

Until 2018, the oldest known paintings were believed to be about 32,000 years old, at the Grotte Chauvet in France. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. Cave paintings were then found in Indonesia in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave believed to be 40,000 years old. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old.[15] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, Mexico,[16] etc. In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions.

 

The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—notably Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Dadaism—challenged the Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.[citation needed]

 

Modern and Contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as a whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century defy the previous "declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments—their merits are left to the public and the marketplace to judge.

 

Aesthetics and theory

Main article: Theory of painting

A relief against a wall shows a bearded man reaching up with his hands as his clothes are draped over his body.

Nino Pisano, Apelles or the Art of painting in detail (1334–1336); relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular. Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting.[17] By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Italian: La Pittura è cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind").[18] Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former.[citation needed] Although he did not refer to painting in particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.

 

Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music, for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[19][20] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[21][22] In his essay, Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.

 

Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.[23]

 

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[24] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world—nature—which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[25] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:

 

A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.[26]

 

Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.

 

Oil

 

Honoré Daumier, The Painter (1808–1879), oil on panel with visible brushstrokes

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

 

Pastel

 

Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait of Louis XV of France (1748), pastel

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[27] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[28] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.

 

Acrylic

 

Ray Burggraf, Jungle Arc (1998), acrylic paint on wood

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but may also impede the artist's ability to work quickly.

 

Watercolor

 

John Martin, Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), watercolor

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Finger-painting with watercolor paints originated in China. Watercolor pencils (water-soluble color pencils) may be used either wet or dry.

 

Ink

 

Sesshū Tōyō, Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486), ink and light color on paper

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink's carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

 

Hot wax or encaustic

 

Encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Egypt (6th-century)

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.

 

The technique was the normal one for ancient Greek and Roman panel paintings, and remained in use in the Eastern Orthodox icon tradition.

 

Fresco

 

White Angel (fresco), Mileševa, Serbia

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko], which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

 

Gouache

Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[29]

 

Enamel

 

Jean de Court (attributed), painted Limoges enamel dish in detail (mid-16th century), Waddesdon Bequest, British Museum

Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with powdered glass; minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Unlike most painted techniques, the surface can be handled and wetted Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[30] but have also been used for other purposes. Limoges enamel was the leading centre of Renaissance enamel painting, with small religious and mythological scenes in decorated surrounds, on plaques or objects such as salts or caskets. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[31] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[32]

 

Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

 

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.

 

Tempera

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long-lasting, and examples from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

 

Water miscible oil paint

Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

 

Digital painting

Main article: Digital painting

Digital painting is a method of creating an art object (painting) digitally or a technique for making digital art on the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester, etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors, and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create a particular piece of work on the computer.[33]

 

Painting styles

Main article: Style (visual arts)

Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques, and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:

 

Western

Modernism

Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[34][35] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[36]

 

Impressionism

 

Claude Monet's 1872 Impression, Sunrise inspired the name of the movement

The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.

 

Abstract styles

Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, colour and line to create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[37][38] Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement that combined the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools—such as Futurism, Bauhaus and Cubism, and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[39]

 

Action painting, sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[40] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).

 

Other modernist styles include:

 

Color Field

Lyrical Abstraction

Hard-edge painting

Pop art

Outsider art

The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[41] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.

 

Photorealism

Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art[42][43][44] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.

 

Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully-fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[45]

 

Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the artistic and literary production of those affiliated with the Surrealist Movement. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, the uncanny, the unconscious, unexpected juxtapositions and non-sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.

 

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

 

See also: Outline of painting § Styles of painting

East Asian

Chinese

Tang Dynasty

Ming Dynasty

Shan shui

Ink and wash painting

Hua niao

Southern School

Zhe School

Wu School

Contemporary

Japanese

Yamato-e

Rimpa school

Emakimono

Kanō school

Shijō school

Superflat

Korean

Islamic

Arabic miniature

Mughal miniature

Ottoman miniature

Persian miniature

Indian

Oriya school

Bengal school

Kangra

Madhubani

Mysore

Rajput

Mughal

Samikshavad

Tanjore

Warli

Kerala mural painting

African

Tingatinga

Contemporary art

1950s

Abstract Expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Lyrical Abstraction

New York Figurative Expressionism

New York School

1960s

Abstract expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Abstract Imagists

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Color field

Computer art

Conceptual art

Fluxus

Happenings

Hard-edge painting

Lyrical Abstraction

Minimalism

Neo-figurative

Neo-Dada

New York School

Nouveau Réalisme

Op Art

Performance art

Pop Art

Postminimalism

Washington Color School

Kinetic art

1970s

Arte Povera

Ascii Art

Bad Painting

Body art

Artist's book

Feminist art

Installation art

Land Art

Lowbrow (art movement)

Photorealism

Postminimalism

Process Art

Video art

Funk art

Pattern and Decoration

1980s

Appropriation art

Culture jamming

Demoscene

Electronic art

Figuration Libre

Graffiti Art

Live art

Mail art

Postmodern art

Neo-conceptual art

Neo-expressionism

Neo-pop

Sound art

Transgressive art

Video installation

Institutional Critique

NeoGeo

1990s

Bio art

Cyberarts

Cynical Realism

Digital Art

Information art

Internet art

Massurrealism

Maximalism

New media art

Software art

New European Painting

Young British Artists

2000s

Digital Painting

Hyperrealism

Classical Realism

Relational art

Street art

Stuckism

Superflat

Pseudorealism

Videogame art

Superstroke

VJ art

Virtual art

Indigenous Art

Types of painting

Allegory

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions, or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.

 

Bodegón

 

Francisco de Zurbarán, Still Life with Pottery Jars (Spanish: Bodegón de recipientes) (1636), oil on canvas, 46 x 84 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid

In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet, and the vanitas. In Spain, there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.

 

Figure painting

A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude. Figure painting may also refer to the activity of creating such a work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art since the first Stone Age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted in various styles throughout history.[46] Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.

  

Reza Abbasi, Two Lovers (1630)

Illustration painting

Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines, and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable artworks that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and the United States.

 

Landscape painting

Main article: Landscape art

 

Andreas Achenbach, Clearing Up, Coast of Sicily (1847), The Walters Art Museum[47][48]

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. The sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.

 

Portrait painting

Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.[49]

 

Still life

 

Otto Marseus van Schrieck, A Forest Floor Still-Life (1666)

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects—which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.

 

Veduta

A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Bril painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.

The Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, is located on New Bridge Street. The gallery was designed in the Baroque style with Art Nouveau elements by architects Cackett & Burns Dick and is now a Grade II listed building.[1] It was opened in 1904 and is now managed by Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums and sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. In front of the gallery is the Blue Carpet. The building is Grade II listed.[2]

 

The gallery collection contains paintings, watercolours and decorative historical objects, including Newcastle silver.[3] In the early 1880s, Newcastle was a major glass producer in the world and enamelled glasses by William Beilby[4] are on view along with ceramics (including Maling pottery), and diverse contemporary works by emerging UK artists. It has a programme of regularly rotating exhibitions[3] and has free entry.

 

The gallery's collection of seminal paintings includes John Martin's dramatic The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah,[5] as well as important works by Sir Joshua Reynolds,[6] Edward Burne-Jones (Laus Veneris),[7], Isabella and the Pot of Basil from 1868 by William Holman Hunt,[8] and Ben Nicholson.[4] Local paintings include pictures by Ralph Hedley.[9] There is also an extensive collection of 18th- and 19th-century watercolours and drawings, including work by J. M. W. Turner[4] and John Sell Cotman.

 

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support").[1] The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

 

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action (the final work is called "a painting"). The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, pottery, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials, including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, and even whole objects.

 

Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, gesture (as in gestural painting), narration (as in narrative art), and abstraction (as in abstract art).[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in still life and landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism) or political in nature (as in Artivism).

 

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha (or other images of Eastern religious origin).

 

Color and tone

Color, made up of hue, saturation, and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers, and scientists, including Goethe,[3] Kandinsky,[4] and Newton,[5] have written their own color theory.

 

Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).

 

Painters deal practically with pigments,[6] so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, Cobalt blue, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like a C note) is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it.

 

Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as metal, plastic, sand, cement, straw, leaves or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.

 

Rhythm

 

Jean Metzinger, La danse (Bacchante) (c.1906), oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm, Kröller-Müller Museum

Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature; a characteristic of the alliance between Symbolist writers and Neo-Impressionist artists:

 

I ask of divided brushwork not the objective rendering of light, but iridescences and certain aspects of color still foreign to painting. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables, I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature. (Jean Metzinger, circa 1907)[7]

  

Piet Mondrian, Composition en rouge, jaune, bleu et noir (1921), Gemeentemuseum Den Haag

Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian,[8][9] is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value.[8]

 

Music was important to the birth of abstract art since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky often used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings "improvisations" and described more elaborate works as "compositions". Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher,"[10] and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions. Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that (for example), yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet; black is the color of closure, and the end of things; and that combinations of colors produce vibrational frequencies, akin to chords played on a piano. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the piano and cello.[11][12] Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms, colors and musical sounds.[13]

 

Music defines much of modernist abstract painting. Jackson Pollock underscores that interest with his 1950 painting Autumn Rhythm (Number 30).[14]

 

History

Main article: History of painting

 

Prehistoric cave painting of aurochs (French: Bos primigenius primigenius) ), Lascaux, France

 

The oldest known figurative painting is a depiction of a bull that was discovered in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Indonesia. It was painted 40,000 years ago or earlier.

Until 2018, the oldest known paintings were believed to be about 32,000 years old, at the Grotte Chauvet in France. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. Cave paintings were then found in Indonesia in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave believed to be 40,000 years old. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old.[15] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, Mexico,[16] etc. In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions.

 

The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—notably Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Dadaism—challenged the Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.[citation needed]

 

Modern and Contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as a whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century defy the previous "declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments—their merits are left to the public and the marketplace to judge.

 

Aesthetics and theory

Main article: Theory of painting

A relief against a wall shows a bearded man reaching up with his hands as his clothes are draped over his body.

Nino Pisano, Apelles or the Art of painting in detail (1334–1336); relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular. Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting.[17] By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Italian: La Pittura è cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind").[18] Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former.[citation needed] Although he did not refer to painting in particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.

 

Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music, for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[19][20] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[21][22] In his essay, Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.

 

Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.[23]

 

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[24] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world—nature—which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[25] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:

 

A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.[26]

 

Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.

 

Oil

 

Honoré Daumier, The Painter (1808–1879), oil on panel with visible brushstrokes

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

 

Pastel

 

Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait of Louis XV of France (1748), pastel

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[27] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[28] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.

 

Acrylic

 

Ray Burggraf, Jungle Arc (1998), acrylic paint on wood

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but may also impede the artist's ability to work quickly.

 

Watercolor

 

John Martin, Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), watercolor

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Finger-painting with watercolor paints originated in China. Watercolor pencils (water-soluble color pencils) may be used either wet or dry.

 

Ink

 

Sesshū Tōyō, Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486), ink and light color on paper

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink's carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

 

Hot wax or encaustic

 

Encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Egypt (6th-century)

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.

 

The technique was the normal one for ancient Greek and Roman panel paintings, and remained in use in the Eastern Orthodox icon tradition.

 

Fresco

 

White Angel (fresco), Mileševa, Serbia

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko], which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

 

Gouache

Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[29]

 

Enamel

 

Jean de Court (attributed), painted Limoges enamel dish in detail (mid-16th century), Waddesdon Bequest, British Museum

Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with powdered glass; minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Unlike most painted techniques, the surface can be handled and wetted Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[30] but have also been used for other purposes. Limoges enamel was the leading centre of Renaissance enamel painting, with small religious and mythological scenes in decorated surrounds, on plaques or objects such as salts or caskets. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[31] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[32]

 

Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

 

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.

 

Tempera

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long-lasting, and examples from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

 

Water miscible oil paint

Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

 

Digital painting

Main article: Digital painting

Digital painting is a method of creating an art object (painting) digitally or a technique for making digital art on the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester, etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors, and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create a particular piece of work on the computer.[33]

 

Painting styles

Main article: Style (visual arts)

Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques, and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:

 

Western

Modernism

Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[34][35] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[36]

 

Impressionism

 

Claude Monet's 1872 Impression, Sunrise inspired the name of the movement

The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.

 

Abstract styles

Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, colour and line to create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[37][38] Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement that combined the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools—such as Futurism, Bauhaus and Cubism, and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[39]

 

Action painting, sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[40] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).

 

Other modernist styles include:

 

Color Field

Lyrical Abstraction

Hard-edge painting

Pop art

Outsider art

The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[41] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.

 

Photorealism

Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art[42][43][44] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.

 

Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully-fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[45]

 

Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the artistic and literary production of those affiliated with the Surrealist Movement. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, the uncanny, the unconscious, unexpected juxtapositions and non-sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.

 

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

 

See also: Outline of painting § Styles of painting

East Asian

Chinese

Tang Dynasty

Ming Dynasty

Shan shui

Ink and wash painting

Hua niao

Southern School

Zhe School

Wu School

Contemporary

Japanese

Yamato-e

Rimpa school

Emakimono

Kanō school

Shijō school

Superflat

Korean

Islamic

Arabic miniature

Mughal miniature

Ottoman miniature

Persian miniature

Indian

Oriya school

Bengal school

Kangra

Madhubani

Mysore

Rajput

Mughal

Samikshavad

Tanjore

Warli

Kerala mural painting

African

Tingatinga

Contemporary art

1950s

Abstract Expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Lyrical Abstraction

New York Figurative Expressionism

New York School

1960s

Abstract expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Abstract Imagists

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Color field

Computer art

Conceptual art

Fluxus

Happenings

Hard-edge painting

Lyrical Abstraction

Minimalism

Neo-figurative

Neo-Dada

New York School

Nouveau Réalisme

Op Art

Performance art

Pop Art

Postminimalism

Washington Color School

Kinetic art

1970s

Arte Povera

Ascii Art

Bad Painting

Body art

Artist's book

Feminist art

Installation art

Land Art

Lowbrow (art movement)

Photorealism

Postminimalism

Process Art

Video art

Funk art

Pattern and Decoration

1980s

Appropriation art

Culture jamming

Demoscene

Electronic art

Figuration Libre

Graffiti Art

Live art

Mail art

Postmodern art

Neo-conceptual art

Neo-expressionism

Neo-pop

Sound art

Transgressive art

Video installation

Institutional Critique

NeoGeo

1990s

Bio art

Cyberarts

Cynical Realism

Digital Art

Information art

Internet art

Massurrealism

Maximalism

New media art

Software art

New European Painting

Young British Artists

2000s

Digital Painting

Hyperrealism

Classical Realism

Relational art

Street art

Stuckism

Superflat

Pseudorealism

Videogame art

Superstroke

VJ art

Virtual art

Indigenous Art

Types of painting

Allegory

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions, or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.

 

Bodegón

 

Francisco de Zurbarán, Still Life with Pottery Jars (Spanish: Bodegón de recipientes) (1636), oil on canvas, 46 x 84 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid

In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet, and the vanitas. In Spain, there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.

 

Figure painting

A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude. Figure painting may also refer to the activity of creating such a work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art since the first Stone Age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted in various styles throughout history.[46] Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.

  

Reza Abbasi, Two Lovers (1630)

Illustration painting

Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines, and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable artworks that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and the United States.

 

Landscape painting

Main article: Landscape art

 

Andreas Achenbach, Clearing Up, Coast of Sicily (1847), The Walters Art Museum[47][48]

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. The sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.

 

Portrait painting

Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.[49]

 

Still life

 

Otto Marseus van Schrieck, A Forest Floor Still-Life (1666)

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects—which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.

 

Veduta

A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Bril painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.

The Shipley Art Gallery is an art gallery in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England, located at the south end of Prince Consort Road. It has a Designated Collection of national importance.[1]

 

Origins

The Shipley Art Gallery opened to the public in 1917. This was made possible by a bequest from wealthy local solicitor and art collector, Joseph Ainsley Davidson Shipley (1822–1909).

 

Shipley was a rather enigmatic person about whom little is known. He was born in Gateshead, near High Street. He was a solicitor in the Newcastle firm of Hoyle, Shipley and Hoyle. From 1884 until his death, he leased Saltwell Park House, now known as Saltwell Towers. Shipley's main passion was art and collecting paintings. He bought his first painting when he was sixteen and by the time he died he had amassed a collection of some 2,500 paintings.

 

On his death, Shipley left £30,000 and all his pictures to the City of Newcastle, which was to build a new gallery to house the collection. This was to be known as "The Shipley Bequest". His will specifically excluded the Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle from benefiting from the bequest, and this clause became the subject of much public discussion, and eventually led to Newcastle's rejection of the bequest. It was only following this that Gateshead Municipal Council was offered the collection. As it was impossible to house all of the paintings, 359 of the pictures recommended by the executors of Shipley's will were selected. A further group was then added by the Gateshead Committee, bringing the total to 504.[2]

 

In 1914, after the sale of the remaining paintings, work began on the new art gallery. The building, which was designed by Arthur Stockwell, M.S.A. of Newcastle, opened on 29 November 1917.[3] The stone entrance portico is distyle in antis – four Corinthian-style stone columns flanked by solid pilasters. These are surmounted by two sculptured figures, one representing the Arts and the other Industry and Learning, by W. Birnie Rhind, RSA. of Edinburgh.[4]

 

Pevsner described the art gallery as a "bold arrangement of a brick central block and lower wings containing galleries".[5] The building was designated as Grade II listed in 1982.[3]

 

Present gallery

The original 504 paintings represented all the main European schools from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Since 1917, the collection has been added to, and now comprises some 10,000 items.

 

William C. Irving's painting, "Blaydon Races" captures the spirit of the traditional Blaydon Races, and takes pride of place at the gallery.[1] The gallery also holds a strong collection of 16th and 17th century Dutch and Flemish paintings, as well as 19th century British works, watercolours, prints, drawings and sculpture.[6]

 

Since 1977 the gallery has become established as a national centre for contemporary craftwork. It has built up one of the best collections outside London, which includes ceramics, wood, metal, glass, textiles and furniture.[7] In 2008, the Shipley opened its Designs for Life gallery which showcases the gallery's collections of contemporary craft and design. The Gallery also hosts a varied programme of temporary exhibitions and has a strong partnership with the V&A Museum in London.

 

The Shipley Art Gallery is managed by Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums on behalf of Gateshead Council.

 

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support").[1] The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

 

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action (the final work is called "a painting"). The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, pottery, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials, including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, and even whole objects.

 

Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, gesture (as in gestural painting), narration (as in narrative art), and abstraction (as in abstract art).[2] Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in still life and landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism) or political in nature (as in Artivism).

 

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha (or other images of Eastern religious origin).

 

Color and tone

Color, made up of hue, saturation, and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers, and scientists, including Goethe,[3] Kandinsky,[4] and Newton,[5] have written their own color theory.

 

Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic (primary) and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).

 

Painters deal practically with pigments,[6] so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, Cobalt blue, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like a C note) is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music. These elements do not necessarily form a melody (in music) of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it.

 

Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as metal, plastic, sand, cement, straw, leaves or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.

 

Rhythm

 

Jean Metzinger, La danse (Bacchante) (c.1906), oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm, Kröller-Müller Museum

Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature; a characteristic of the alliance between Symbolist writers and Neo-Impressionist artists:

 

I ask of divided brushwork not the objective rendering of light, but iridescences and certain aspects of color still foreign to painting. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables, I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature. (Jean Metzinger, circa 1907)[7]

  

Piet Mondrian, Composition en rouge, jaune, bleu et noir (1921), Gemeentemuseum Den Haag

Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian,[8][9] is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value.[8]

 

Music was important to the birth of abstract art since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky often used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings "improvisations" and described more elaborate works as "compositions". Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher,"[10] and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions. Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that (for example), yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet; black is the color of closure, and the end of things; and that combinations of colors produce vibrational frequencies, akin to chords played on a piano. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the piano and cello.[11][12] Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms, colors and musical sounds.[13]

 

Music defines much of modernist abstract painting. Jackson Pollock underscores that interest with his 1950 painting Autumn Rhythm (Number 30).[14]

 

History

Main article: History of painting

 

Prehistoric cave painting of aurochs (French: Bos primigenius primigenius) ), Lascaux, France

 

The oldest known figurative painting is a depiction of a bull that was discovered in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Indonesia. It was painted 40,000 years ago or earlier.

Until 2018, the oldest known paintings were believed to be about 32,000 years old, at the Grotte Chauvet in France. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. Cave paintings were then found in Indonesia in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave believed to be 40,000 years old. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40,000 years old.[15] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, Mexico,[16] etc. In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions.

 

The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced in 1829, photographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—notably Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Dadaism—challenged the Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.[citation needed]

 

Modern and Contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as a whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century defy the previous "declarations" of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Artists continue to make important works of art in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments—their merits are left to the public and the marketplace to judge.

 

Aesthetics and theory

Main article: Theory of painting

A relief against a wall shows a bearded man reaching up with his hands as his clothes are draped over his body.

Nino Pisano, Apelles or the Art of painting in detail (1334–1336); relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for 18th- and 19th-century philosophers such as Kant and Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular. Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting.[17] By the time of Leonardo, painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Italian: La Pittura è cosa mentale" ("English: painting is a thing of the mind").[18] Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former.[citation needed] Although he did not refer to painting in particular, this concept was taken up by painters such as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.

 

Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and, in his aesthetic essay, wrote that painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music, for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[19][20] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[21][22] In his essay, Kandinsky maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.

 

Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, before looking at their meaning for the viewer at the time, and finally analyzing their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.[23]

 

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[24] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world—nature—which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[25] In Mirror of The World, Bell writes:

 

A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.[26]

 

Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.

 

Oil

 

Honoré Daumier, The Painter (1808–1879), oil on panel with visible brushstrokes

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil, such as linseed oil, which was widely used in early modern Europe. Often the oil was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

 

Pastel

 

Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait of Louis XV of France (1748), pastel

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[27] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[28] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.

 

Acrylic

 

Ray Burggraf, Jungle Arc (1998), acrylic paint on wood

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but may also impede the artist's ability to work quickly.

 

Watercolor

 

John Martin, Manfred on the Jungfrau (1837), watercolor

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Finger-painting with watercolor paints originated in China. Watercolor pencils (water-soluble color pencils) may be used either wet or dry.

 

Ink

 

Sesshū Tōyō, Landscapes of the Four Seasons (1486), ink and light color on paper

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink's carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

 

Hot wax or encaustic

 

Encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Egypt (6th-century)

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.

 

The technique was the normal one for ancient Greek and Roman panel paintings, and remained in use in the Eastern Orthodox icon tradition.

 

Fresco

 

White Angel (fresco), Mileševa, Serbia

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko], which derives from the Latin word for fresh. Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

 

Gouache

Gouache is a water-based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water.[29]

 

Enamel

 

Jean de Court (attributed), painted Limoges enamel dish in detail (mid-16th century), Waddesdon Bequest, British Museum

Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with powdered glass; minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Unlike most painted techniques, the surface can be handled and wetted Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[30] but have also been used for other purposes. Limoges enamel was the leading centre of Renaissance enamel painting, with small religious and mythological scenes in decorated surrounds, on plaques or objects such as salts or caskets. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[31] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[32]

 

Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

 

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil protects a surface, except the specific shape to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists.

 

Tempera

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long-lasting, and examples from the first centuries CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint commonly called tempera (though it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

 

Water miscible oil paint

Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

 

Digital painting

Main article: Digital painting

Digital painting is a method of creating an art object (painting) digitally or a technique for making digital art on the computer. As a method of creating an art object, it adapts traditional painting medium such as acrylic paint, oils, ink, watercolor, etc. and applies the pigment to traditional carriers, such as woven canvas cloth, paper, polyester, etc. by means of computer software driving industrial robotic or office machinery (printers). As a technique, it refers to a computer graphics software program that uses a virtual canvas and virtual painting box of brushes, colors, and other supplies. The virtual box contains many instruments that do not exist outside the computer, and which give a digital artwork a different look and feel from an artwork that is made the traditional way. Furthermore, digital painting is not 'computer-generated' art as the computer does not automatically create images on the screen using some mathematical calculations. On the other hand, the artist uses his own painting technique to create a particular piece of work on the computer.[33]

 

Painting styles

Main article: Style (visual arts)

Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques, and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:

 

Western

Modernism

Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[34][35] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[36]

 

Impressionism

 

Claude Monet's 1872 Impression, Sunrise inspired the name of the movement

The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.

 

Abstract styles

Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, colour and line to create a composition that may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[37][38] Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement that combined the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools—such as Futurism, Bauhaus and Cubism, and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[39]

 

Action painting, sometimes called gestural abstraction, is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[40] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).

 

Other modernist styles include:

 

Color Field

Lyrical Abstraction

Hard-edge painting

Pop art

Outsider art

The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[41] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.

 

Photorealism

Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art[42][43][44] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.

 

Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully-fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[45]

 

Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the artistic and literary production of those affiliated with the Surrealist Movement. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, the uncanny, the unconscious, unexpected juxtapositions and non-sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.

 

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

 

See also: Outline of painting § Styles of painting

East Asian

Chinese

Tang Dynasty

Ming Dynasty

Shan shui

Ink and wash painting

Hua niao

Southern School

Zhe School

Wu School

Contemporary

Japanese

Yamato-e

Rimpa school

Emakimono

Kanō school

Shijō school

Superflat

Korean

Islamic

Arabic miniature

Mughal miniature

Ottoman miniature

Persian miniature

Indian

Oriya school

Bengal school

Kangra

Madhubani

Mysore

Rajput

Mughal

Samikshavad

Tanjore

Warli

Kerala mural painting

African

Tingatinga

Contemporary art

1950s

Abstract Expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Lyrical Abstraction

New York Figurative Expressionism

New York School

1960s

Abstract expressionism

American Figurative Expressionism

Abstract Imagists

Bay Area Figurative Movement

Color field

Computer art

Conceptual art

Fluxus

Happenings

Hard-edge painting

Lyrical Abstraction

Minimalism

Neo-figurative

Neo-Dada

New York School

Nouveau Réalisme

Op Art

Performance art

Pop Art

Postminimalism

Washington Color School

Kinetic art

1970s

Arte Povera

Ascii Art

Bad Painting

Body art

Artist's book

Feminist art

Installation art

Land Art

Lowbrow (art movement)

Photorealism

Postminimalism

Process Art

Video art

Funk art

Pattern and Decoration

1980s

Appropriation art

Culture jamming

Demoscene

Electronic art

Figuration Libre

Graffiti Art

Live art

Mail art

Postmodern art

Neo-conceptual art

Neo-expressionism

Neo-pop

Sound art

Transgressive art

Video installation

Institutional Critique

NeoGeo

1990s

Bio art

Cyberarts

Cynical Realism

Digital Art

Information art

Internet art

Massurrealism

Maximalism

New media art

Software art

New European Painting

Young British Artists

2000s

Digital Painting

Hyperrealism

Classical Realism

Relational art

Street art

Stuckism

Superflat

Pseudorealism

Videogame art

Superstroke

VJ art

Virtual art

Indigenous Art

Types of painting

Allegory

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions, or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.

 

Bodegón

 

Francisco de Zurbarán, Still Life with Pottery Jars (Spanish: Bodegón de recipientes) (1636), oil on canvas, 46 x 84 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid

In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many subgenres: the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet, and the vanitas. In Spain, there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.

 

Figure painting

A figure painting is a work of art in any of the painting media with the primary subject being the human figure, whether clothed or nude. Figure painting may also refer to the activity of creating such a work. The human figure has been one of the contrast subjects of art since the first Stone Age cave paintings, and has been reinterpreted in various styles throughout history.[46] Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.

  

Reza Abbasi, Two Lovers (1630)

Illustration painting

Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines, and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable artworks that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and the United States.

 

Landscape painting

Main article: Landscape art

 

Andreas Achenbach, Clearing Up, Coast of Sicily (1847), The Walters Art Museum[47][48]

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. The sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.

 

Portrait painting

Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.[49]

 

Still life

 

Otto Marseus van Schrieck, A Forest Floor Still-Life (1666)

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects—which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.

 

Veduta

A veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Bril painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.

184 X 189 cm.

 

Piero di Cosimo (2 January 1462 – 12 April 1522), also known as Piero di Lorenzo, was a Florentine painter of the Italian Renaissance.

 

He is most famous for the mythological and allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; he is said to have abandoned these to return to religious subjects under the influence of Savonarola, the preacher who exercised a huge sway in Florence in the 1490s, and had a similar effect on Botticelli. The High Renaissance style of the new century had little influence on him, and he retained the straightforward realism of his figures, which combines with an often whimsical treatment of his subjects to create the distinctive mood of his works. Vasari has many stories of his eccentricity, and the mythological subjects have an individual and quirky fascination.

 

He trained under Cosimo Roselli, whose daughter he married, and assisted him in his Sistine Chapel frescos. He was also influenced by Early Netherlandish painting, and busy landscapes feature in many works, often forests seen close at hand. Several of his most striking secular works are in the long "landscape" format used for paintings inset into cassone wedding chests or spalliera headboards or panelling. He was apparently famous for designing the temporary decorations for Carnival and other festivities.

 

The son of a goldsmith, Lorenzo di Piero, Piero was born in Florence and apprenticed under the artist Cosimo Rosseli, from whom he derived his popular name and whom he assisted in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481.

In the first phase of his career, Piero was influenced by the Netherlandish naturalism of Hugo van der Goes, whose Portinari Triptych (now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence) helped to lead the whole of Florentine painting into new channels.

 

From him, most probably, Cosimo acquired the love of landscape and the intimate knowledge of the growth of flowers and of animal life. The manner of Hugo van der Goes is especially apparent in the Adoration of the Shepherds, at the Berlin Museum.

 

He journeyed to Rome in 1482 with his master, Rosselli. He proved himself a true child of the Renaissance by depicting subjects of Classical mythology in such pictures as the Venus, Mars, and Cupid, The Death of Procris, the Perseus and Andromeda series, at the Uffizi, and many others. Inspired to the Vitruvius' account of the evolution of man, Piero's mythical compositions show the bizarre presence of hybrid forms of men and animals, or the man learning to use fire and tools. The multitudes of nudes in these works shows the influence of Luca Signorelli on Piero's art.

 

During his lifetime, Piero acquired a reputation for eccentricity—a reputation enhanced and exaggerated by later commentators such as Giorgio Vasari, who included a biography of Piero di Cosimo in his Lives of the Artists. Reportedly, he was frightened of thunderstorms, and so pyrophobic that he rarely cooked his food; he lived largely on hard-boiled eggs, which he prepared 50 at a time while boiling glue for his artworks. He also resisted any cleaning of his studio, or trimming of the fruit trees of his orchard; he lived, wrote Vasari, "more like a beast than a man".

 

If, as Vasari asserts, he spent the last years of his life in gloomy retirement, the change was probably due to preacher Girolamo Savonarola, under whose influence he turned his attention once more to religious art. The death of his master Roselli may also have affected Piero's morose elder years. The Immaculate Conception with Saints, at the Uffizi, and the Holy Family, at Dresden, illustrate the religious fervour to which he was stimulated by Savonarola.

 

With the exception of the landscape background in Rosselli's fresco of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Sistine Chapel, there is no record of any fresco work from his brush. On the other hand, Piero enjoyed a great reputation as a portrait painter: the most famous of his work is in fact the portrait of a Florentine noblewoman, Simonetta Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici. According to Vasari, Piero excelled in designing pageants and triumphal processions for the pleasure-loving youths of Florence, and gives a vivid description of one such procession at the end of the carnival of 1507, which illustrated the triumph of death. Piero di Cosimo exercised considerable influence upon his fellow pupils Albertinelli and Bartolomeo della Porta, and was the master of Andrea del Sarto.

 

Vasari gave Piero's date of death as 1521, and this date is still repeated by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica. However, contemporary documents reveal that he died of plague on 12 April 1522.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

-.-

 

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder.

 

The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m2) Sculpture Garden. The Gallery often presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America.

 

For the breadth, scope, and magnitude of its collections, the National Gallery is widely considered to be one of the greatest museums in the United States of America, often ranking alongside the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in Boston, Massachusetts. Of the top three art museums in the United States by annual visitors, it is the only one that has no admission fee. It ranks 2nd in American museums behind the Met for number of annual visitors and 10th in the world.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

For educational non-commercial use only (as to all photo's in my Flickr photostream).

 

Here you find a link to the website of the National Gallery of Art:

www.nga.gov/

 

WASHINGTON, D.C. - NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART - PIERO DI COSIMO (1462-1521) – THE VISITATION WITH ST. NICHOLAS AND ST. ANTHONY ABBOT (c. 1490), detail. SAMUEL H. KRESS COLLECTION ©Hans Ollermann.

  

184 X 189 cm.

 

Piero di Cosimo (2 January 1462 – 12 April 1522), also known as Piero di Lorenzo, was a Florentine painter of the Italian Renaissance.

 

He is most famous for the mythological and allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; he is said to have abandoned these to return to religious subjects under the influence of Savonarola, the preacher who exercised a huge sway in Florence in the 1490s, and had a similar effect on Botticelli. The High Renaissance style of the new century had little influence on him, and he retained the straightforward realism of his figures, which combines with an often whimsical treatment of his subjects to create the distinctive mood of his works. Vasari has many stories of his eccentricity, and the mythological subjects have an individual and quirky fascination.

 

He trained under Cosimo Roselli, whose daughter he married, and assisted him in his Sistine Chapel frescos. He was also influenced by Early Netherlandish painting, and busy landscapes feature in many works, often forests seen close at hand. Several of his most striking secular works are in the long "landscape" format used for paintings inset into cassone wedding chests or spalliera headboards or panelling. He was apparently famous for designing the temporary decorations for Carnival and other festivities.

 

The son of a goldsmith, Lorenzo di Piero, Piero was born in Florence and apprenticed under the artist Cosimo Rosseli, from whom he derived his popular name and whom he assisted in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481.

In the first phase of his career, Piero was influenced by the Netherlandish naturalism of Hugo van der Goes, whose Portinari Triptych (now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence) helped to lead the whole of Florentine painting into new channels.

 

From him, most probably, Cosimo acquired the love of landscape and the intimate knowledge of the growth of flowers and of animal life. The manner of Hugo van der Goes is especially apparent in the Adoration of the Shepherds, at the Berlin Museum.

 

He journeyed to Rome in 1482 with his master, Rosselli. He proved himself a true child of the Renaissance by depicting subjects of Classical mythology in such pictures as the Venus, Mars, and Cupid, The Death of Procris, the Perseus and Andromeda series, at the Uffizi, and many others. Inspired to the Vitruvius' account of the evolution of man, Piero's mythical compositions show the bizarre presence of hybrid forms of men and animals, or the man learning to use fire and tools. The multitudes of nudes in these works shows the influence of Luca Signorelli on Piero's art.

 

During his lifetime, Piero acquired a reputation for eccentricity—a reputation enhanced and exaggerated by later commentators such as Giorgio Vasari, who included a biography of Piero di Cosimo in his Lives of the Artists. Reportedly, he was frightened of thunderstorms, and so pyrophobic that he rarely cooked his food; he lived largely on hard-boiled eggs, which he prepared 50 at a time while boiling glue for his artworks. He also resisted any cleaning of his studio, or trimming of the fruit trees of his orchard; he lived, wrote Vasari, "more like a beast than a man".

 

If, as Vasari asserts, he spent the last years of his life in gloomy retirement, the change was probably due to preacher Girolamo Savonarola, under whose influence he turned his attention once more to religious art. The death of his master Roselli may also have affected Piero's morose elder years. The Immaculate Conception with Saints, at the Uffizi, and the Holy Family, at Dresden, illustrate the religious fervour to which he was stimulated by Savonarola.

 

With the exception of the landscape background in Rosselli's fresco of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Sistine Chapel, there is no record of any fresco work from his brush. On the other hand, Piero enjoyed a great reputation as a portrait painter: the most famous of his work is in fact the portrait of a Florentine noblewoman, Simonetta Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici. According to Vasari, Piero excelled in designing pageants and triumphal processions for the pleasure-loving youths of Florence, and gives a vivid description of one such procession at the end of the carnival of 1507, which illustrated the triumph of death. Piero di Cosimo exercised considerable influence upon his fellow pupils Albertinelli and Bartolomeo della Porta, and was the master of Andrea del Sarto.

 

Vasari gave Piero's date of death as 1521, and this date is still repeated by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica. However, contemporary documents reveal that he died of plague on 12 April 1522.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

-.-

 

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder.

 

The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m2) Sculpture Garden. The Gallery often presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America.

 

For the breadth, scope, and magnitude of its collections, the National Gallery is widely considered to be one of the greatest museums in the United States of America, often ranking alongside the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in Boston, Massachusetts. Of the top three art museums in the United States by annual visitors, it is the only one that has no admission fee. It ranks 2nd in American museums behind the Met for number of annual visitors and 10th in the world.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

For educational non-commercial use only (as to all photo's in my Flickr photostream).

 

Here you find a link to the website of the National Gallery of Art:

www.nga.gov/

 

WASHINGTON, D.C. - NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART - PIERO DI COSIMO (1462-1521) – THE VISITATION WITH ST. NICHOLAS AND ST. ANTHONY ABBOT (c. 1490), detail 2. SAMUEL H. KRESS COLLECTION ©Hans Ollermann.

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Pablo Picasso (/pɪˈkɑːsoʊ, -ˈkæsoʊ/; Spanish: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces.Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso,[1] a series of names honouring various saints and relatives.[9] Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López.[10] His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa.[11] Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later on become an atheist.[12] Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil".[13] From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.

The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from later years.In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria.[15] After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home.[16] Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. The student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently.Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school.At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.Picasso's training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings.[17] During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun.The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting."In 1897, his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.Picasso made his first trip to Paris, then the art capital of Europe, in 1900. There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso; before he had signed Pablo Ruiz y Picasso.Picasso's Blue Period (1901–1904), characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year.[22] Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from the Blue Period, during which Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter – prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects – Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901 he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art..Pablo Picasso, 1905, Au Lapin Agile (At the Lapin Agile) (Arlequin tenant un verre), oil on canvas, 99.1 × 100.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904),] which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, also represented in The Blindman's Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.The Rose Period (1904–1906)[25] is characterized by a lighter tone and style utilizing orange and pink colours, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in 1904.[15] Olivier appears in many of his Rose Period paintings, many of which are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. When someone commented that Stein did not look like her portrait, Picasso replied, "She will".By 1905, Picasso became a favourite of American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse, while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picasso.In 1907 Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.Picasso's African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso painted this composition in a style inspired by Iberian sculpture, but repainted the faces of the two figures on the right after being powerfully impressed by African artefacts he saw in June 1907 in the ethnographic museum at Palais du Trocadéro.[30] When he displayed the painting to acquaintances in his studio later that year, the nearly universal reaction was shock and revulsion; Matisse angrily dismissed the work as a hoax.[31] Picasso did not exhibit Le Demoiselles publicly until 1916.Other works from this period include Nude with Raised Arms (1907) and Three Women (1908). Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities.Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre of cubism, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art. In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry, and Gertrude Stein. Apollinaire was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre in 1911. Apollinaire pointed to his friend Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.Between 1915 and 1917, Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. "Hard-edged square-cut diamonds", notes art historian John Richardson, "these gems do not always have upside or downside".[33][34] "We need a new name to designate them," wrote Picasso to Gertrude Stein: Maurice Raynal suggested "Crystal Cubism".[33][35] These "little gems" may have been produced by Picasso in response to critics who had claimed his defection from the movement, through his experimentation with classicism within the so-called return to order following the war.At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Picasso was living in Avignon. Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle. During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler’s contract had terminated on his exile from France. At this point Picasso’s work would be taken on by the art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. After the loss of Eva Gouel, Picasso had an affair with Gaby Lespinasse. During the spring of 1916, Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles.Towards the end of World War I, Picasso made a number of important relationships with figures associated with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris, and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Erik Satie's Parade, in Rome; they spent their honeymoon near Biarritz in the villa of glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz.After returning from his honeymoon, and in desperate need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg. As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house. This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II.Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant to the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso,.who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer.In 1927 Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Picasso

 

Crystal Cubism (French: Cubisme cristal or Cubisme de cristal) is a distilled form of Cubism consistent with a shift, between 1915 and 1916, towards a strong emphasis on flat surface activity and large overlapping geometric planes. The primacy of the underlying geometric structure, rooted in the abstract, controls practically all of the elements of the artwork.This range of styles of painting and sculpture, especially significant between 1917 and 1920 (also referred to as the Crystal Period, classical Cubism, pure Cubism, advanced Cubism, late Cubism, synthetic Cubism, or the second phase of Cubism), was practiced in varying degrees by a multitude of artists; particularly those under contract with the art dealer and collector Léonce Rosenberg—Henri Laurens, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris and Jacques Lipchitz most noticeably of all. The tightening of the compositions, the clarity and sense of order reflected in these works, led to its being referred to by the French poet and art critic Maurice Raynal as 'crystal' Cubism.Considerations manifested by Cubists prior to the outset of World War I—such as the fourth dimension, dynamism of modern life, the occult, and Henri Bergson's concept of duration—had now been vacated, replaced by a purely formal frame of reference that proceeded from a cohesive stance toward art and life.As post-war reconstruction began, so too did a series of exhibitions at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de L'Effort Moderne: order and the allegiance to the aesthetically pure remained the prevailing tendency. The collective phenomenon of Cubism once again—now in its advanced revisionist form—became part of a widely discussed development in French culture. Crystal Cubism was the culmination of a continuous narrowing of scope in the name of a return to order; based upon the observation of the artists relation to nature, rather than on the nature of reality itself.Crystal Cubism, and its associative rappel à l’ordre, has been linked with an inclination—by those who served the armed forces and by those who remained in the civilian sector—to escape the realities of the Great War, both during and directly following the conflict. The purifying of Cubism from 1914 through the mid-1920s, with its cohesive unity and voluntary constraints, has been linked to a much broader ideological transformation towards conservatism in both French society and French culture. In terms of the separation of culture and life, the Crystal Cubist period emerges as the most important in the history of Modernism.Cubism, from its inception, stems from the dissatisfaction with the idea of form that had been in practiced since the Renaissance.[4] This dissatisfaction had already been seen in the works of the Romanticist Eugene Delacroix, in the Realism of Gustave Courbet, in passing through the Symbolists, Les Nabis, the Impressionists and the Neo-Impressionists. Paul Cézanne was instrumental, as his work marked a shift from a more representational art form to one that was increasingly abstract, with a strong emphasis on the simplification of geometric structure. In a letter addressed to Émile Bernard dated 15 April 1904, Cézanne writes: "Interpret nature in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, the cone; put everything in perspective, so that each side of an object, of a plane, recedes toward a central point."Cézanne was preoccupied by the means of rendering volume and space, surface variations (or modulations) with overlapped shifting planes. Increasingly in his later works, Cézanne achieves a greater freedom. His work became bolder, more arbitrary, more dynamic and increasingly nonrepresentational. As his color planes acquired greater formal independence, defined objects and structures began to lose their identity.'Walpurgis Night, and The Angel that other master Alfred Kubin the Western Window (whose hero is the esoteric scholar John Dee). Picasso was also a member of this Order And it seems the same is true about Picasso, if we can trust the word of Marijo Ariens-Volker, who in her article "Alchemical, Kabbalistic, and Occult Symbolism in the Work of His Contemporaries (discussed in chapter 4), brings up several disturbing arguments. According to this researcher, Picasso, at the beginning of his stay in Paris, lived with his friend Ricardo Vines, who frequented the Librairie du Merveilleux, the general headquarters of the "independent group of esoteric studies" created by Papus. Among those closest to the painter at this time, we find André Salmon, who makes reference to Papus, the Martinists, and the Masons in several of his texts There were also Juan Gris an extremely assiduous Mason 38 Max Jacob, who considered kabbalah as his "life philosophy" and will be, before being expelled by Breton for impenitent Catholicism, frequently published in Littérature, and Guillaume Apollinaire who often spoke of Hermes Tres megistus and whose library held many books by Papus and other Martinists, as well as the official journals of the Order and even a document from the 1908 Spiritualist Congress. According to his grandson, Olivier Widmaier, Picasso was extremely well versed in the kabbalah, read the Zohar, and was a spiritualist his conversations with Brassai, Picasso admitted he had been a "member of an Order during his cubist period," probably the Martinist Order: some of the collages he made at this ime even bear signs that Ariens-Volker analyzes as allusions to the Martinist grade of unknown superior 40 210 Papus (whose "confused mysticism" would be denounced by Gérard Legrand in Médium in November 1953) claimed he had received Martinist initiation from the son of a close friend of Saint-Martin, but he also spent time with the "famous" theoretician of modern occultism, the "priest" (and Mason) Alphonse Louis Constant, alias Eliphas Levi 211 (Osiris is a black god," Breton writes in Arcanum 1 and was part of Helena Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Steel Olcott's Theosophical Society. He wanted to make the Martinist order which was connected with Christian illuminism-a mystical society, "a school of moral chivalry that would strive to develop the spirituality of its members by the study of the invisible world and its laws through the exercise of devotion and intellectual assistance, and by the creation in each spirit of a faith that would be more solid by being based on by Papus's son Phillipe d'Encausse.

 

"Deriving directly from Christian Illuminism, Martinism had to adopt the principles [...]

The Order as a whole is above all a school of moral chivalry, striving to develop the spirituality of its members by studying the invisible world and its laws, by exercising devotion and intellectual assistance and by the creation in each spirit of a faith all the more solid as it is based on observation and on science.

Martinists do not do magic, either white or black. They study, they pray, and they forgive the insults as best they can.

Accused of being devils by some, clerics by others, and black magicians or insane by the gallery, we will simply remain fervent knights of Christ, enemies of violence and revenge, resolute synarchists, opposed to any anarchy from above or from below, in a word from the Martinists. ”

Papus, The Initiation, November 1906

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Cubism

 

T

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Francesco Bassano (1549-1592), active in Bassano and Venice

Autumn, around 1576

For the representation of the autumn, following the ancient tradition of calendar illustation, the vintage forms the main motif. As in the other pictures of this series of seasons, a scene from the Old Testament is represented in the background: the handing over of the tablet of the Law to Moses. Francesco Bassano uses a simple composition scheme: in front of a landscape background the activities of the people, pets and equipment are reproduced with a vividly narrative realism.

 

Francesco Bassano (1549-1592), tätig in Bassano und Venedig

Herbst, um 1576

Für die Darstellung des Herbstes bildet, der alten Tradition der Kalenderillustration folgend, die Weinlese das Hauptmotiv. Wie bei den übrigen Bildern dieser Jahreszeitenserie ist im Hintergrund eine Szene aus dem Alten Testament dargestellt: die Übergabe der Gesetzestafeln an Moses. Francesco Bassano bedient sich eines simplen Kompositionsschemas: Vor einem Landschaftshintergrund sind friesartig aufgereiht die Tätigkeiten der Menschen, Haustiere und verwendete Gerätschaften mit anschaulich erzählendem Realismus wiedergegeben.

 

Austria Kunsthistorisches Museum

Federal Museum

Logo KHM

Regulatory authority (ies)/organs to the Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture

Founded 17 October 1891

Headquartered Castle Ring (Burgring), Vienna 1, Austria

Management Sabine Haag

www.khm.at website

Main building of the Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresa-Square

The Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM abbreviated) is an art museum in Vienna. It is one of the largest and most important museums in the world. It was opened in 1891 and 2012 visited of 1.351.940 million people.

The museum

The Kunsthistorisches Museum is with its opposite sister building, the Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), the most important historicist large buildings of the Ringstrasse time. Together they stand around the Maria Theresa square, on which also the Maria Theresa monument stands. This course spans the former glacis between today's ring road and 2-line, and is forming a historical landmark that also belongs to World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Vienna.

History

Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in his Gallery

The Museum came from the collections of the Habsburgs, especially from the portrait and armor collections of Ferdinand of Tyrol, the collection of Emperor Rudolf II (most of which, however scattered) and the art collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm into existence. Already In 1833 asked Joseph Arneth, curator (and later director) of the Imperial Coins and Antiquities Cabinet, bringing together all the imperial collections in a single building .

Architectural History

The contract to build the museum in the city had been given in 1858 by Emperor Franz Joseph. Subsequently, many designs were submitted for the ring road zone. Plans by August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Null planned to build two museum buildings in the immediate aftermath of the Imperial Palace on the left and right of the Heroes' Square (Heldenplatz). The architect Ludwig Förster planned museum buildings between the Schwarzenberg Square and the City Park, Martin Ritter von Kink favored buildings at the corner Währingerstraße/ Scots ring (Schottenring), Peter Joseph, the area Bellariastraße, Moritz von Loehr the south side of the opera ring, and Ludwig Zettl the southeast side of the grain market (Getreidemarkt).

From 1867, a competition was announced for the museums, and thereby set their current position - at the request of the Emperor, the museum should not be too close to the Imperial Palace, but arise beyond the ring road. The architect Carl von Hasenauer participated in this competition and was able the at that time in Zürich operating Gottfried Semper to encourage to work together. The two museum buildings should be built here in the sense of the style of the Italian Renaissance. The plans got the benevolence of the imperial family. In April 1869, there was an audience with of Joseph Semper at the Emperor Franz Joseph and an oral contract was concluded, in July 1870 was issued the written order to Semper and Hasenauer.

Crucial for the success of Semper and Hasenauer against the projects of other architects were among others Semper's vision of a large building complex called "Imperial Forum", in which the museums would have been a part of. Not least by the death of Semper in 1879 came the Imperial Forum not as planned for execution, the two museums were built, however.

Construction of the two museums began without ceremony on 27 November 1871 instead. Semper moved to Vienna in the sequence. From the beginning, there were considerable personal differences between him and Hasenauer, who finally in 1877 took over sole construction management. 1874, the scaffolds were placed up to the attic and the first floor completed, built in 1878, the first windows installed in 1879, the Attica and the balustrade from 1880 to 1881 and built the dome and the Tabernacle. The dome is topped with a bronze statue of Pallas Athena by Johannes Benk.

The lighting and air conditioning concept with double glazing of the ceilings made ​​the renunciation of artificial light (especially at that time, as gas light) possible, but this resulted due to seasonal variations depending on daylight to different opening times .

Kuppelhalle

Entrance (by clicking the link at the end of the side you can see all the pictures here indicated!)

Grand staircase

Hall

Empire

The Kunsthistorisches Museum was on 17 October 1891 officially opened by Emperor Franz Joseph I. Since 22 October 1891 , the museum is accessible to the public. Two years earlier, on 3 November 1889, the collection of arms, Arms and Armour today, had their doors open. On 1 January 1890 the library service resumed its operations. The merger and listing of other collections of the Highest Imperial Family from the Upper and Lower Belvedere, the Hofburg Palace and Ambras in Tyrol will need another two years.

189, the farm museum was organized in seven collections with three directorates:

Directorate of coins, medals and antiquities collection

The Egyptian Collection

The Antique Collection

The coins and medals collection

Management of the collection of weapons, art and industrial objects

Weapons collection

Collection of industrial art objects

Directorate of Art Gallery and Restaurieranstalt (Restoration Office)

Collection of watercolors, drawings, sketches, etc.

Restoration Office

Library

Very soon the room the Court Museum (Hofmuseum) for the imperial collections was offering became too narrow. To provide temporary help, an exhibition of ancient artifacts from Ephesus in the Theseus Temple was designed. However, additional space had to be rented in the Lower Belvedere.

1914, after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne, his " Estonian Forensic Collection " passed to the administration of the Court Museum. This collection, which emerged from the art collection of the house of d' Este and world travel collection of Franz Ferdinand, was placed in the New Imperial Palace since 1908. For these stocks, the present collection of old musical instruments and the Museum of Ethnology emerged.

The First World War went by, apart from the oppressive economic situation without loss. The farm museum remained during the five years of war regularly open to the public.

Until 1919 the K.K. Art Historical Court Museum was under the authority of the Oberstkämmereramt (head chamberlain office) and belonged to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. The officials and employees were part of the royal household.

First Republic

The transition from monarchy to republic, in the museum took place in complete tranquility. On 19 November 1918 the two imperial museums on Maria Theresa Square were placed under the state protection of the young Republic of German Austria. Threatening to the stocks of the museum were the claims raised in the following weeks and months of the "successor states" of the monarchy as well as Italy and Belgium on Austrian art collection. In fact, it came on 12th February 1919 to the violent removal of 62 paintings by armed Italian units. This "art theft" left a long time trauma among curators and art historians.

It was not until the Treaty of Saint-Germain of 10 September 1919, providing in Article 195 and 196 the settlement of rights in the cultural field by negotiations. The claims of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Italy again could mostly being averted in this way. Only Hungary, which presented the greatest demands by far, was met by more than ten years of negotiation in 147 cases.

On 3 April 1919 was the expropriation of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine by law and the acquisition of its property, including the "Collections of the Imperial House" , by the Republic. Of 18 June 1920 the then provisional administration of the former imperial museums and collections of Este and the secular and clergy treasury passed to the State Office of Internal Affairs and Education, since 10 November 1920, the Federal Ministry of the Interior and Education. A few days later it was renamed the Art History Court Museum in the "Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna State", 1921 "Kunsthistorisches Museum" . Of 1st January 1921 the employees of the museum staff passed to the state of the Republic.

Through the acquisition of the former imperial collections owned by the state, the museum found itself in a complete new situation. In order to meet the changed circumstances in the museum area, designed Hans Tietze in 1919 the "Vienna Museum program". It provided a close cooperation between the individual museums to focus at different houses on main collections. So dominated exchange, sales and equalizing the acquisition policy in the interwar period. Thus resulting until today still valid collection trends. Also pointing the way was the relocation of the weapons collection from 1934 in its present premises in the New Castle, where since 1916 the collection of ancient musical instruments was placed.

With the change of the imperial collections in the ownership of the Republic the reorganization of the internal organization went hand in hand, too. Thus the museum was divided in 1919 into the

Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection (with the Oriental coins)

Collection of Classical Antiquities

Collection of ancient coins

Collection of modern coins and medals

Weapons collection

Collection of sculptures and crafts with the Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments

Picture Gallery

The Museum 1938-1945

Count Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf according to Rigaud. Clarisse 1948 by Baroness de Rothschildt "dedicated" to the memory of Baron Alphonse de Rothschildt; restituted to the Rothschilds in 1999, and in 1999 donated by Bettina Looram Rothschild, the last Austrian heiress.

With the "Anschluss" of Austria to the German Reich all Jewish art collections such as the Rothschilds were forcibly "Aryanised". Collections were either "paid" or simply distributed by the Gestapo at the museums. This resulted in a significant increase in stocks. But the KHM was not the only museum that benefited from the linearization. Systematically looted Jewish property was sold to museums, collections or in pawnshops throughout the empire.

After the war, the museum struggled to reimburse the "Aryanised" art to the owners or their heirs. They forced the Rothschild family to leave the most important part of their own collection to the museum and called this "dedications", or "donations". As a reason, was the export law stated, which does not allow owners to perform certain works of art out of the country. Similar methods were used with other former owners. Only on the basis of international diplomatic and media pressure, to a large extent from the United States, the Austrian government decided to make a change in the law (Art Restitution Act of 1998, the so-called Lex Rothschild). The art objects were the Rothschild family refunded only in the 1990s.

The Kunsthistorisches Museum operates on the basis of the federal law on the restitution of art objects from the 4th December 1998 (Federal Law Gazette I, 181 /1998) extensive provenance research. Even before this decree was carried out in-house provenance research at the initiative of the then archive director Herbert Haupt. This was submitted in 1998 by him in collaboration with Lydia Grobl a comprehensive presentation of the facts about the changes in the inventory levels of the Kunsthistorisches Museum during the Nazi era and in the years leading up to the State Treaty of 1955, an important basis for further research provenance.

The two historians Susanne Hehenberger and Monika Löscher are since 1st April 2009 as provenance researchers at the Kunsthistorisches Museum on behalf of the Commission for Provenance Research operating and they deal with the investigation period from 1933 to the recent past.

The museum today

Today the museum is as a federal museum, with 1st January 1999 released to the full legal capacity - it was thus the first of the state museums of Austria, implementing the far-reaching self-financing. It is by far the most visited museum in Austria with 1.3 million visitors (2007).

The Kunsthistorisches Museum is under the name Kunsthistorisches Museum and Museum of Ethnology and the Austrian Theatre Museum with company number 182081t since 11 June 1999 as a research institution under public law of the Federal virtue of the Federal Museums Act, Federal Law Gazette I/115/1998 and the Museum of Procedure of the Kunsthistorisches Museum and Museum of Ethnology and the Austrian Theatre Museum, 3 January 2001, BGBl II 2/ 2001, in force since 1 January 2001, registered.

In fiscal 2008, the turnover was 37.185 million EUR and total assets amounted to EUR 22.204 million. In 2008 an average of 410 workers were employed.

Management

1919-1923: Gustav Glück as the first chairman of the College of science officials

1924-1933: Hermann Julius Hermann 1924-1925 as the first chairman of the College of the scientific officers in 1925 as first director

1933: Arpad Weixlgärtner first director

1934-1938: Alfred Stix first director

1938-1945: Fritz Dworschak 1938 as acting head, from 1938 as a chief in 1941 as first director

1945-1949: August von Loehr 1945-1948 as executive director of the State Art Collections in 1949 as general director of the historical collections of the Federation

1945-1949: Alfred Stix 1945-1948 as executive director of the State Art Collections in 1949 as general director of art historical collections of the Federation

1949-1950: Hans Demel as administrative director

1950: Karl Wisoko-Meytsky as general director of art and historical collections of the Federation

1951-1952: Fritz Eichler as administrative director

1953-1954: Ernst H. Buschbeck as administrative director

1955-1966: Vincent Oberhammer 1955-1959 as administrative director, from 1959 as first director

1967: Edward Holzmair as managing director

1968-1972: Erwin Auer first director

1973-1981: Friderike Klauner first director

1982-1990: Hermann Fillitz first director

1990: George Kugler as interim first director

1990-2008: Wilfried Seipel as general director

Since 2009: Sabine Haag as general director

Collections

To the Kunsthistorisches Museum are also belonging the collections of the New Castle, the Austrian Theatre Museum in Palais Lobkowitz, the Museum of Ethnology and the Wagenburg (wagon fortress) in an outbuilding of Schönbrunn Palace. A branch office is also Ambras in Innsbruck.

Kunsthistorisches Museum (main building)

Picture Gallery

Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection

Collection of Classical Antiquities

Vienna Chamber of Art

Numismatic Collection

Library

New Castle

Ephesus Museum

Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments

Arms and Armour

Archive

Hofburg

The imperial crown in the Treasury

Imperial Treasury of Vienna

Insignia of the Austrian Hereditary Homage

Insignia of imperial Austria

Insignia of the Holy Roman Empire

Burgundian Inheritance and the Order of the Golden Fleece

Habsburg-Lorraine Household Treasure

Ecclesiastical Treasury

Schönbrunn Palace

Imperial Carriage Museum Vienna

Armory in Ambras Castle

Ambras Castle

Collections of Ambras Castle

Major exhibits

Among the most important exhibits of the Art Gallery rank inter alia:

Jan van Eyck: Cardinal Niccolò Albergati, 1438

Martin Schongauer: Holy Family, 1475-80

Albrecht Dürer : Trinity Altar, 1509-16

Portrait Johann Kleeberger, 1526

Parmigianino: Self Portrait in Convex Mirror, 1523/24

Giuseppe Arcimboldo: Summer 1563

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: Madonna of the Rosary 1606/ 07

Caravaggio: Madonna of the Rosary (1606-1607)

Titian: Nymph and Shepherd to 1570-75

Portrait of Jacopo de Strada, 1567/68

Raffaello Santi: Madonna of the Meadow, 1505 /06

Lorenzo Lotto: Portrait of a young man against white curtain, 1508

Peter Paul Rubens: The altar of St. Ildefonso, 1630-32

The Little Fur, about 1638

Jan Vermeer: The Art of Painting, 1665/66

Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Fight between Carnival and Lent, 1559

Kids, 1560

Tower of Babel, 1563

Christ Carrying the Cross, 1564

Gloomy Day (Early Spring), 1565

Return of the Herd (Autumn), 1565

Hunters in the Snow (Winter) 1565

Bauer and bird thief, 1568

Peasant Wedding, 1568/69

Peasant Dance, 1568/69

Paul's conversion (Conversion of St Paul), 1567

Cabinet of Curiosities:

Saliera from Benvenuto Cellini 1539-1543

Egyptian-Oriental Collection:

Mastaba of Ka Ni Nisut

Collection of Classical Antiquities:

Gemma Augustea

Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós

Gallery: Major exhibits

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunsthistorisches_Museum

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online