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Day 109, Country 19; Suez Canal, Egypt: CMV World Cruise
The excavation took some 10 years using forced labour (corvée) of Egyptian workers during the first years. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were working on the canal at any given period, that more than 1.5 million people from various countries were employed, and that thousands of labourers died, many of them from cholera and similar epidemics.
Are the pyramids made of concrete?
The stones of the pyramids are synthetic coming from an artificial petrification with a geopolymeric cement and built with molds.
Since the 1980s, Joseph Davidovits demonstrates that the pyramids and temples of the Ancient Egyptian Empire were built of agglomerated limestone and not of limestone blocks cut and transported from the quarries. This type of concrete, with fossilized shells, would thus have been built or compacted into molds. The Egyptian workers extracted the material in the relatively soft limestone quarries, then disintegrated it with water, mixed this limestone paste with lime and ingredients such as kaolinitic clay, silt and Egyptian natron salt (carbonate of sodium) forming tecto-alumino-silicates (geosynthesis). The limestone fando (including the fossil shells) was transported in baskets then poured, piggied or compacted into molds (made of wood, stone, clay or brick) placed on the area of the pyramids.
This re-agglomerated limestone, joined in situ through a geopolymeric reaction (called geopolymeric cement), hardens in blocks of great interest. In 1979, at the 2nd International Congress of Egyptologists in Grenoble, France, Joseph Davidovits presented two conferences. One put forward the hypothesis that the pyramid blocks were constructed as concrete instead of being cut. Such a theory was very embarrassing in relation to the classical theory with its hundreds of thousands of workers participating in this gigantic effort. The second conference pointed out that stone vases, built 5,000 years ago by Egyptian craftsmen, were made of synthetic hard stone (handmade).
Imhotep the Alchemist
THE HIGHEST PRIEST IMHOTEP INVENTED THE CHEMICAL FORMULA 5000 YEARS AGO
Creator and builder of the FIRST PYRAMID of history
the stepped pyramid of Saqqara
Imhotep designed and built the first pyramid of human history, the stepped pyramid of Saqqara, the first manifestation of the highest knowledge in ancient Egypt.
He was part of a closed organization of priests called the school of mysteries "of the eye of Horus", the exclusive guardians of knowledge in ancient Egypt.
Imhotep. whose name means "the wise who comes in peace", occupies a special place in history. He had been revered in Egypt for three millennia - that is, since he was alive during the reign of King Djoser until the Greek and Roman conquests in Egypt. His father was the royal architect Kanofer, his mother Khredonkh, a noble hereditary. Very young, Imhotep received the priesthood and began to live in the temple of Annu on the banks of the Nile - a center of science and religion, with a great library. There imhotep learned how to read and write in the symbolic language of hieroglyphics.
Imhotep left plans to design the temples that were built thousands of years after his death, as indicated by the hieroglyphics of numerous temples. He was a surveyor, doctor of medicine, inventor of the Caduceus, the current symbol of doctors. Legend has it that Imhotep divided the skies into 30 ° sectors, known today as the areas of the zodiac, to observe the movements of stars and constellations.
A priest-scientist like Imhotep, who managed to make stone vases, benefited from a special status, since his knowledge allowed him to give shape to the stones and the stone for the Egyptians was the symbol of eternity. After his death, he was deified by the Egyptians who identified him with Thoth, the deity with the face of Ibis, god of wisdom. The Gnostics called him Hermes Trismegistus, three times great, founder and origin of their esoteric wisdom.
For the complete article: "Imhotep cement"
Sorry for some errors of goggle translate
In addition to the most popular three pyramids(Khufu, Kafra, and Mankara) there are six other on the same plateau in Giza, Egypt!! In the foreground are the second three which I call the "second tier" pyramids. The third set of these pyramids which I call the "third tier" are to the far right close to the base of the biggest pyramid Khufu. Notice on these pyramids that the size of them has gotten progressively smaller as of respect to the elder pharaoh. These Pyramids were built by Egyptian workers not slaves or ETs as some people have speculated! Recent discoveries near by the pyramids confirm that as has been reported internationally in the media recently:
The article in Italian:
" Una serie di indizi e ritrovamenti proverebbero in maniera inconfutabile che le piramidi non sono state costruite da degli schiavi. Niente teorie new age o sospetti zampini alieni, le prove scovate dagli archeologi e dagli egittologi del Supreme Council of Antiques attesterebbero che dietro alle enigmatiche piramidi ci sarebbero le mani esperte di lavoratori stipendiati"
Notice: The burial site for these Egyptian pyramid workers was discovered to be not very far from the pyramids site. This attest to the fact that these workers were not slaves and wanted to be burried close to their work place the pyramids!
In the tombs of ancient Egyptian workers in their village of Deir el-Medina.
This photo was taken on November 24, 2011 during the battle of Mohamed Mahmoud. You can see the young kids wearing medical masks to avoid the teargas.
The battle broke out 5 days earlier when Central Security Forces broke up Tahrir's sit-in of those who were injured during the 18-days uprising. Protesters and CSF kept clashing for more than 100 hours, where more 80 were killed, thousands injured, and hundreds lost their eyes. Security forces used tons of teargas canisters, rubber bullets and even live ammunition. It was a change-of-course battle, and one of the most significant battles in the Egyptian revolution history.
On November 25, 2011 hundreds of thousands marched to Tahrir to show their solidarity, demanding the downfall of the military junta that have been ruling Egypt since February 11, 2011 after Mubarak stepped down.
In the tombs of ancient Egyptian workers in their village of Deir el-Medina.
An Egyptian worker and his camels have seen better seasons.
10 July 2018, Bangar el Sokor, Nubaria, Egypt - Workers spreading sliced tomatoes for sun drying prior to marketing, part of the FAO project: Food Loss and Waste Reduction and Value Chain Development for Food Security in Egypt. Based on recommended solutions from baseline studies, market assessments and tomato loss analysis in Egypt, the project identified sun-dried tomatoes (SDT) as a simple and effective method to reduce loss and waste in tomatoes and to create local value addition in the agribusiness sector while exploring new marketing channels for tomato growers. The SDT unit is managed by the Marketing Cooperative for Fruits and Vegetables, in collaboration with local Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) authorities and FAO.
In addition to the advantage of reducing tomato losses in Nubaria, sun drying tomatoes helps control over production of tomatoes and reduce tomato price fluctuations by transforming tomatoes into a product that can be stored for up to two years. The SDT unit has helped create job opportunities especially for youth and women; reduce the cost of transportation; and gain experience in drying thus allowing the Cooperative to expand the business into similar crops such as pepper and eggplants. Finally, it helped open new markets for the cooperatives through the private sector who export the SDTs to European markets.
Photo credit must be given: ©FAO/Heba Khamis. Editorial use only. Copyright ©FAO.
Dahab, the shoemaker
Downtown, Cairo - Egypt
القاهرة -- مصر
Group of Egyptian workers in Al-Ghanim industrial area, Kuwait February 2011.
An Egyptian worker hired by our company to remove the scales in the Water Treatment Plant. I asked him candidly if I could take his picture and he was more than willing.
Nearly midnight, all the workers but Ahmed begin to sleep. They will have another hard day in the white dust and under the sun tomorrow.
انتشرت قصة في الدلم عن خطورة مثل هذه الرشاشات الكهربائية حيث انها قتلت عامل مصري يوما ً مـا ...
Dalam spread the story of the seriousness of such an electrical machine, where it had killed an Egyptian worker one day ...
After work, everybody prepare himself for the evening - be clean and without that white dust is obviously a priority.
Furthermore, all tell me it's a special day : they have a guest... I feel deeply happy to share time with them.
UNHCR has been helping migrant workers like these at the Egyptian border with Libya as they wait to be repatriated.
UNHCR / F.NOY / March 2011
UNHCR seeks US$32 million for Libya emergency operations
GENEVA, March 7 (UNHCR) – The UN refugee agency appealed Monday to donors for US$32 million to fund its continuing emergency response operations for the Libya crisis. The bulk of the supplementary funding will be used for protection needs, to support the continuing humanitarian evacuation of thousands of people stuck in Tunisia and Egypt, and for life-saving aid supplies.
"We urgently need the funding," noted Panos Moumtzis, head of donor relations at UNHCR. The amount sought by UNHCR is part of a United Nations flash appeal for US$160 million.
Meanwhile, UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres hailed the success to date of the international effort to evacuate and repatriate thousands of foreigners from Tunisia's border with Libya, but warned that large numbers of people remained at the borders and the displacement problem could return.
He noted that 15,000 Bangladeshi nationals remained stuck at the Tunisian and Egyptian borders after fleeing the violence that erupted in Libya between pro and anti-government forces in mid-February. Under an evacuation programme coordinated by UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), tens of thousands of people, mostly Egyptian workers, have been repatriated.
"We are afraid that the situation can get worse in the near future and we might be seeing again large flows of people into both countries," Guterres warned at a joint press conference in Geneva with UN Emergency Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos and IOM Director General William Lacy Swing. "Decongestion [of the borders] has occurred, but we must remain vigilant," Swing said.
Guterres also hailed the "extraordinary generosity" of the people and governments of Tunisia and Egypt in allowing some 200,000 people to seek shelter in their territory after fleeing Libya over the past three weeks.
"In times when we have so many closed borders, so many refoulements [forced return] and pushbacks these two countries gave an extraordinary example," he said, while stressing that "all the people we helped did not want to migrate into the developed world. They just wanted to go back home."
The flow of people coming into Tunisia from Libya continued on Monday but at a much lower rate than seen during much of last week, They were mainly migrant workers, including a large number of Bangladeshis as well as some Libyans. To date, more than 110,000 people have fled to Tunisia from Libya.
Ghanaians, Nigerians and others from sub-Saharan Africa were particularly anxious to get home. UNHCR hopes that flights can be arranged for them and others in the next couple of days under the emergency evacuation programme coordinated with the IOM.
The High Commissioner reiterated UNHCR's "very big concern" about the plight of the sub-Saharan African community in Libya. "We believe that many of them are just afraid to move," said Guterres. "I would appeal for a very strong solidarity with this population that is in a very distressed situation."
Abdul Khedir, a 21-year-old Somali interviewed at the Tunisian border on Monday, said he had fled from Tripoli after his wife and infant son were killed by crossfire. He said eyewitnesses had told him about five sub-Saharan Africans being killed in the Libyan capital. "They were attacking all of us – they thought we were working for [Libyan leader Muammar] Gaddafi," he said.
Meanwhile, in Egypt the number of arrivals from Libya since mid-February has passed the 100,000 mark, including almost 70,000 Egyptians and more than 6,000 Libyans. Many third country nationals, led by Bangladeshis and Sudanese, are migrant workers waiting to be flown home by their embassies or the IOM.
Inside eastern Libya, a seven-truck convoy organized by the Egyptian Red Cross on Sunday delivered 25 tonnes of UNHCR-funded medical and food supplies to the coastal city of Tobruk after crossing the border at Sallum.
The supplies had been requested by the Libyan Red Crescent, which said they were urgently needed. A second convoy later the same day carried 28 tonnes of UNHCR non-food items, including blankets, sleeping mats and hygiene items, to Sallum, where they were distributed to thousands of people stuck at the border.
"The nights are incredibly cold and many people are forced to sleep out in the open," said UNHCR's Samer Haddadin at the border. "Blankets, plastic mats and food are the least we can give them while they wait for onward travel." UNHCR and the IOM, with other partners, have been providing those waiting at the border with food and drinking water, which is distributed by the Egyptian Red Crescent.
Meanwhile, one man at the border faced a real dilemma as his own country, Côte d'Ivoire, has also been plunged into conflict. "Where should I go? The country where I was born is on fire," said the man, who has spent several years working in Libya and claimed he was owed five month's wages. "Will I now become a refugee?" UNHCR is liaising with the Egyptian government to provide a safe haven to refugees among those at the border.
Egypt, Luxor. January/12/2009.
An unrequested pose from a Luxor temple guardian.
Seeing me from the stone road that leads to the camp, the workers remember me and shout "Zitouni, Zitouni" as they used to call me one year ago. The nickname is based on the arab word 'zitoun' which means 'olive'.
A young Egyptian worker carries unfinished gold-painted wooden coffee tables past hundreds of Egyptian security forces standing guard outside the south Cairo court on October 18, 2008 during the opening session of the trial of Egyptian tycoon Hisham Talaat Mustafa who is charged with paying for the murder of Lebanese singer Suzanne Tamim. Mustafa and an ex-policeman who was his alleged accomplice pleaded not guilty to involvement in the brutal slaying of the Lebanese pop singer who jilted him. Mustafa, a stalwart of Egypt's ruling National Democratic Party, is charged with paying retired policeman Mohsen al-Sukkari two million dollars to kill Suzanne Tamim, 30, whose throat was cut in a luxury Dubai apartment in July. AFP PHOTO/ KHALED DESOUKI (Photo credit should read KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)