new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged art gallery Classical realism

V.G. Subina - a fair in Rostov Velikij (1999) - oil on canvas 98 x 184 - Exhibition of Russian Charms at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turinn

 

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

The Kremlin (2016) - oil on canvas 150 x 70 - painter A.S. Sanin - Russian Incant Exhibition at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

The church of San Pimen in Novye Vorotniki (2005) - oil on canvas 156 x 186 - painter O.P. Dolgaja - Russian Charms Exhibition at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

A.A Gribanova - spring (2007) - oil on canvas 129 x 179 - Russian Charms Exhibition at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

 

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

The monastery of the Assumption of St. Cyril (2015) - acrylic on paper 120 x 130 - painter Karev S.D. - Exhibition of Russian Charms at the Albertina Art Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

Varja at the well (2019) - oil on canvas 50 x 70 - painter O.I. Glazunova - Russian Incant Exhibition at the Albertina art Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

Still life (1997) - oil on canvas 101 x 85 - painter O.P. Dolgaja - Russian Charms Exhibition at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

  

E.A. Zagajnov (2006) - radioso sole - Acquarello e matita su carta 36 x 53 - Mostra Incanti Russi presso Pinacoteca Albertina di Torino

 

E.A. Zagajnov (2006) - radiant sun - watercolor and pencil on paper 36 x 53 - painter O.P. Dolgaja - Russian Charms Exhibition at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

 

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

Julien de Parme 1736-1799 Paris

Le combat entre les Romains et les Sabins interrompu par les

Sabines

The fight between the Romans and the Sabins interrupted by the

Sabines 1772

Parme Fondazione Magnani Rocca

 

Ce tableau est excellement représentatif de la fusion Baroque-Classique.

This painting is excellently representative of the Baroque-Classic fusion.

 

La fondation Magnani Rocca est un charmant petit musée. Le visiteur passe vite d'une époque à une autre. Il m'a paru amusant d'accentuer la transition et de mélanger dans la galerie, pas dans l'album, des époques lointaines. Pour mieux mettre en évidence les ruptures de styles et de thèmes. Ruptures toujours liées aux changements des croyances des hommes.

The Magnani Rocca foundation is a charming little museum. The visitor quickly passes from one era to another. It seemed fun to me to accentuate the transition and to mix distant eras in the gallery, not in the album. To better highlight the breaks in styles and themes. Ruptures always linked to changes in men's beliefs.

  

CLASSICISME ET BAROQUE EN EUROPE

  

Au préalable il faut distinguer les périodes et les styles.

La période historique dite classique en peinture se situe vers 1600-1720 environ. Le classicisme a pris sa source en Italie chez les Carracci, il est une réaction au maniérisme.

La période historique dite Baroque en peinture prend aussi naissance en Italie vers 1600 et dure jusque vers 1720. Elle est principalement liée à la Contre-Réforme.

Les deux périodes sont donc tout à fait contemporaines, même si elles peuvent, selon les pays européens se succéder ou coexister de manière différente et décalée dans le temps. Mais les styles classiques ou baroques constituent des tendances pérennes qui traversent tous les arts tout au long de l'histoire européenne.

 

Toute l'histoire de l'art européen alterne les périodes où triomphe une esthétique à tendances classiques, et les périodes où s'imposent des tendances plus expressives.

Le Classicisme: C'est une esthétique de l'harmonie dans la mesure et l'équilibre. Il est caractérisé par la rigueur du dessin et des formes, la consonance et la retenue des couleurs, la modération raisonnable et raisonnée et la subtilité dans l'expression des sentiments.

L'esthétique Expressive prend diverses formes qui tendent à éloigner la peinture du naturalisme et du réalisme mesuré du Classicisme pour favoriser l'emphase et l'émotion. Le dessin peut être plus souple, l'art du flou est privilégié, la touche est plus visible (empâtements, hachures...). les formes des figures sont accentuées, les silhouettes des personnages allongées, les musculatures amplifiées. Le mouvement et l'expression des sentiments sont amplifiés et même exagérés, quelque fois jusqu'à la limite de l'outrance. Les couleurs et les oppositions lumières/ombres sont souvent plus accentuées et contrastées.

Le classicisme, dont on considère que les Carracci sont les fondateurs, en réaction au maniérisme, prend différents noms selon les périodes de l'histoire, Atticisme, Poussinisme, Néo-classicisme, Académisme.

La manière expressive prend les noms de Maniérisme, Baroque, Caravagisme, Rubénisme, Rococo, Romantisme, Expressionnisme.

Evidemment toutes les gradations entre ces deux tendances existent.Le maniérisme italien était discrètement annoncé par des peintres de la Renaissance comme Perugino et son élève Raphaël, figure du classicisme par excellence.

Pendant tout le 17è et le 18è siècle la peinture européenne balance entre diverses formes de classicisme et de baroque, plus ou moins accentuées. Les Pays Bas du nord ne font pas exception sauf par les thèmes plus profanes, plus séculiers, de leur peinture. Le Caravagisme est pendant toute cette période une tendance picturale qui magnifie les contrastes de lumière, son aspect baroque, mais qui sait aussi maintenir la tradition du dessin fini, son aspect classique. Il n'échappe donc pas à la balance classique-baroque qui caractérise la peinture européenne pendant toute cette période.

L'Art français sous Louis XIII 1610-1643) et pendant la régence d'Anne d'Autriche (1643-1651) est plutôt classique. La peinture française sous Louis XIV (1651-1715) hésite entre les deux tendances mais prend une coloration un peu plus baroque, et la peinture sous Louis XV (1715-1774) est baroque-rococo.

 

Il faut toutefois insister sur le particularisme des Pays Bas au 17è et au 18è siècle. En dehors des Pays Bas, en Italie, en Espagne, en France, dans les pays germaniques, la peinture est essentiellement commanditée par les Rois, leurs ministres, la grande aristocratie, la haute bourgeoisie financière et bien sûr par l’Église catholique. L'art de ces pays continue dans la tradition des siècles antérieurs et pratique beaucoup "le grand genre" c'est à dire que ses thèmes sont le plus souvent religieux, historiques, mythologiques. La peinture européenne du 17è et du 18è siècle est à l'opposé de la peinture néerlandaise.

Les thèmes de la peinture européenne, sauf aux Pays Bas, ne sont pas les moeurs de la société, encore moins ceux de la petite bourgeoisie ou des artisans et des paysans. En France par exemple, Les frères Le Nain (1593-1607 environ) sont une exception, et leur réalisme est très loin d'être celui des peintres flamands et néerlandais. Leur paysannerie est traitée pour être appréciée dans les cabinets de la grande bourgeoisie. Si le paysan boit du vin, c'est un verre, il ne sombre jamais dans l'ivresse la plus totale, et son épouse encore moins. Les enfants sont très dignes, ils ne se battent pas comme des pouilleux, pas plus que leurs parents. Cette peinture n'a rien de commun avec celle d'Avercamp, d' Adriaen Brouwer, de Teniers II.

Les portraits sont ceux de l'élite aristocratique et non pas comme aux Pays Bas d'une bourgeoisie ordinaire. Les paysages sont traités tout à fait habituellement comme cadres d'une scène historique, mythologique ou religieuse, pratiquement jamais pour eux mêmes. Les marines européennes sont des souvenirs de batailles navales célèbres. Elles ne se limitent pas ou rarement comme aux Pays Bas à la peinture d'un voilier sur une mer démontée. Le Lorrain (Claude Gellée) peint des paysages magnifiques généralement intitulés "Départ de Cléopâtre", "Arrivée d'Ulysse" ou "Enée chassant le cerf". Il est très rare, même si cela se produit quelque fois, que les paysages du Lorrain n'aient aucun thème emprunté à l'histoire, à la mythologie ou à la tradition comme les "pastorales".

Cette particularité des Pays Bas est la conséquence de la rupture idéologique qui est résultée de la Réforme protestante. (cf l'Art et les croyances. Réforme)

  

CLASSICISM AND BAROQUE IN EUROPE

 

First of all, it is necessary to distinguish periods and styles.

The historical period known as the classical period in painting is around 1600-1720. Classicism originated in Italy with the Carracci, it is a reaction to mannerism.

The historical period known as the Baroque period in painting also began in Italy around 1600 and lasted until around 1720, and was mainly linked to the Counter-Reformation.

The two periods are therefore completely contemporary, even if they may, depending on the European countries, succeed each other or coexist in a different and time-delayed way. But classical or baroque styles are perennial trends that permeate all arts throughout European history.

 

The entire history of European art alternates periods when an aesthetic with classical tendencies triumphs, and the periods when more expressive tendencies are required.

The Classicism: It is an aesthetic of the harmony in the measure and the balance. It is characterized by the rigor of the drawing and shapes, the consonance and the restraint of colors, the reasonable and reasoned moderation, and the subtlety in the expression of feelings.

The Aesthetic Expressive takes various forms that tend to move the painting out of naturalism and the measured realism of the Classicism, to favor the emphasis and emotion. The drawing can be more flexible, the art of the blur is privileged, the touch of the brush is more visible (impastos, hatching ...). the shapes of the figures are emphasized, the silhouettes of the characters, lengthened, the musculature, increased. The movement and the expression of feelings are exaggerated, sometimes to the limit of the excess. The colors and oppositions of lights / shadows are often more accentuated and contrasted.

The classicism, of which the Carracci are considered to be the founders, in reaction to Mannerism, takes different names according to the periods of history, Atticism, Poussinisme, Neo-Classicism, Academism.

The expressive style takes the names of Mannerism, Baroque, Caravagism, Rubénisme, Rococo, Romanticism, Expressionism ...

Obviously all the gradations between these two tendencies exist. Italian Mannerism was quietly announced by painters listed in the classical school, as Perugino and his pupil Raphael figure of classicism par excellence.

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the European painting balanced between various forms of classicism and baroque, more or less accentuated. The northern Low Countries are no exception except for the more secular and secular themes of their painting. Caravagism was throughout this period a pictorial trend that magnified the contrasts of light, its baroque aspect, but which also knew how to maintain the tradition of finished drawing, its classic aspect. He did not escape the classical-baroque balance that characterized European painting throughout this period.

French art under Louis XIII 1610-1643) and during the regency of Anne of Austria (1643-1651) is rather classical. French painting under Louis XIV (1651-1715) hesitated between the two tendencies but took a slightly more baroque colouring, and painting under Louis XV (1715-1774) was baroque and Rococo.

.

 

However, it is necessary to insist on the particularism of the Netherlands in the 17th and the 18th century. Outside the Netherlands, in Italy, in Spain, in France, in the Germanic countries, painting is essentially sponsored by Kings, their ministers, the great aristocracy, the financial upper middle class and of course by the Catholic Church. The art of these countries continues in the tradition of the previous centuries and practices a lot "the big genre" that is to say that its themes are most often religious, historical, mythological. 17th and 18th century European painting is the opposite of Dutch painting.

The themes of European painting, except in the Netherlands, are not the mores of society, still less those of the petty bourgeoisie or artisans and peasants. In France, for example, the Le Nain brothers (around 1593-1607) are an exception, but their realism is very far from that of the Flemish and Dutch painters. Their peasantry is treated to be appreciated in the cabinets of the big bourgeoisie. If the peasant drinks wine, it is a glass, he never sinks into total drunkenness, and his wife even less. The children are very worthy, they do not fight like lousy, any more than their parents. This art of painting has nothing in common with that of Avercamp, Adriaen Brouwer, Teniers II.

The portraits are those of the aristocratic elite and not as in the Netherlands of an ordinary bourgeoisie. Landscapes are usually treated as frames of a historical, mythological or religious scene, almost never for themselves. European navies are memories of famous naval battles. They are not limited or seldom as in the Netherlands to the painting of a sailboat on a dismantled sea. The Lorrain (Claude Gellée) paints beautiful landscapes generally entitled "Departure of Cleopatra", "Arrival of Ulysses" or "Aeneas hunting deer". It is very rare, even if it happens sometimes, that the landscapes of Claude Gellée have no theme borrowed from history, mythology or tradition like the "pastoral".

This peculiarity of the Netherlands is the consequence of the ideological break that resulted from the Protestant Reformation. (see Art and Beliefs, Reform)

  

Scene with two figures in costume (the fortune teller) (2007) - oil on canvas 120 x 150 - painter E.O. Morgun - Exhibition of Russian Charms at the Albertina Picture Gallery in Turin

  

Nel 1986 l’artista sovietico Il’ja Glazunov, durante il periodo riformatore della perestrojka, è riuscito a far rivivere la gloriosa Accademia di Belle Arti di Mosca che tanto seguito aveva avuto nel corso dell’Ottocento e nel periodo delle avanguardie russe degli anni venti del Novecento. Vi ebbero influenza e vi furono ospiti artisti come Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, come anche Malevich e Kandinsky.

Fondamentalmente legata alla tradizione pittorica dei grandi modelli della pittura e della scultura classica, in primis italiana, o alle rievocazioni storiche e religiose del folclore e del sentimento popolare russo, l’Accademia a metà negli anni ’20 fu fusa con altre istituzioni più tecniche che artistiche per volere dello stesso Lenin, in nome di un certo disprezzo per la pittura antica e i modelli classici a favore del cosiddetto “realismo socialista” che voleva avvicinare l’arte alle classi proletarie in chiave di propaganda politica. Oggi, scomparso il suo rifondatore, Il’ja Glazunov, questa particolarissima Accademia è retta dal figlio Ivan Glazunov, artista di grande rilievo, in nome di un ritorno a quei temi cari alla cultura del popolo russo, alla sua letteratura, alla sua musica, al suo teatro e al suo più antico mondo poetico ovvero lo sguardo alla storia nazionale, al sentimento e alla tradizione religiosa popolare e alla mitologia del popolo russo insieme ai suoi paesaggi e visioni architettoniche.

 

In 1986 the Soviet artist Il'ja Glazunov, during the reform period of perestroika, managed to revive the glorious Moscow Academy of Fine Arts that had been so popular during the nineteenth century and the Russian avant-garde period of the 1920s. There was an influence and artists such as Lentulov, Konchalovsky, Mashkov, Rodchenko, as well as Malevich and Kandinsky were guests.

Basically linked to the pictorial tradition of the great models of classical painting and sculpture, primarily Italian, or to the historical and religious re-enactments of Russian folklore and popular sentiment, the Academy in the mid 1920s was merged with other institutions more technical than artistic at the behest of Lenin himself, in the name of a certain contempt for ancient painting and classical models in favour of the so-called "socialist realism" which wanted to bring art closer to the proletarian classes in terms of political propaganda. Today, after the death of its re-founder, Il'ja Glazunov, this very particular Academy is run by his son Ivan Glazunov, an artist of great importance, in the name of a return to those themes dear to the culture of the Russian people, its literature, its music, its theatre and its most ancient poetic world, i.e. the look at national history, popular religious sentiment and tradition and the mythology of the Russian people together with its landscapes and architectural visions.

Berardo Collection, Centro Cultural de Belem, Belem, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Materials : Oil on canvas

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Spanish expatriate Pablo Picasso was one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, as well as the co-creator of Cubism.

 

Born on October 25, 1881, in Málaga, Spain, Pablo Picasso's gargantuan full name, which honors a variety of relatives and saints, is Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso. Picasso's mother was Doña Maria Picasso y Lopez. His father was Don José Ruiz Blasco, a painter and art teacher. A serious and prematurely world-weary child, the young Picasso possessed a pair of piercing, watchful black eyes that seemed to mark him destined for greatness. "When I was a child, my mother said to me, 'If you become a soldier, you'll be a general. If you become a monk you'll end up as the pope,'" he later recalled. "Instead, I became a painter and wound up as Picasso."

 

Though he was a relatively poor student, Picasso displayed a prodigious talent for drawing at a very young age. According to legend, his first words were "piz, piz," his childish attempt at saying "lápiz," the Spanish word for pencil. Picasso's father began teaching him to draw and paint when he was a child, and by the time he was 13 years old, his skill level had surpassed his father's. Soon, Picasso lost all desire to do any schoolwork, choosing to spend the school days doodling in his notebook instead. "For being a bad student, I was banished to the 'calaboose,' a bare cell with whitewashed walls and a bench to sit on," he later remembered. "I liked it there, because I took along a sketch pad and drew incessantly ... I could have stayed there forever, drawing without stopping."

 

In 1895, when Picasso was 14 years old, he moved with his family to Barcelona, Spain. where he quickly applied to the city's prestigious School of Fine Arts. Although the school typically only accepted students several years his senior, Picasso's entrance exam was so extraordinary that he was granted an exception and admitted. Nevertheless, Picasso chafed at the School of Fine Arts' strict rules and formalities, and began skipping class so that he could roam the streets of Barcelona, sketching the city scenes he observed.

 

In 1897, a 16-year-old Picasso moved to Madrid to attend the Royal Academy of San Fernando. However, he again became frustrated with his school's singular focus on classical subjects and techniques. During this time, he wrote to a friend: "They just go on and on about the same old stuff: Velázquez for painting, Michelangelo for sculpture." Once again, Picasso began skipping class to wander the city and paint what he observed: gypsies, beggars and prostitutes, among other things.

 

In 1899, Picasso moved back to Barcelona and fell in with a crowd of artists and intellectuals who made their headquarters at a café called El Quatre Gats ("The Four Cats"). Inspired by the anarchists and radicals he met there, Picasso made his decisive break from the classical methods in which he had been trained, and began what would become a lifelong process of experimentation and innovation.

 

BLUE PERIOD: 'BLUE NUDE,' 'LA VIE' AND OTHER WORKS

 

At the turn of the 20th century, Pablo Picasso moved to Paris, France—the cultural center of European art—to open his own studio. Art critics and historians typically break Picasso's adult career into distinct periods, the first of which lasted from 1901 to 1904 and is called his "Blue Period," after the color that dominated nearly all of Picasso's paintings over these years. Lonely and deeply depressed over the death of his close friend, Carlos Casagemas, he painted scenes of poverty, isolation and anguish, almost exclusively in shades of blue and green. Picasso's most famous paintings from the Blue Period include "Blue Nude," "La Vie" and "The Old Guitarist," all three of which were completed in 1903.

 

In contemplation of Picasso and his Blue Period, Symbolist writer and critic Charles Morice once asked, "Is this frighteningly precocious child not fated to bestow the consecration of a masterpiece on the negative sense of living, the illness from which he more than anyone else seems to be suffering?"

 

ROSE PERIOD: 'GERTRUDE STEIN,' 'TWO NUDES' AND MORE

 

By 1905, Picasso had largely overcome the depression that had previously debilitated him. Not only was he madly in love with a beautiful model, Fernande Olivier, he was newly prosperous thanks to the generous patronage of art dealer Ambroise Vollard. The artistic manifestation of Picasso's improved spirits was the introduction of warmer colors—including beiges, pinks and reds—in what is known as his "Rose Period" (1904-06). His most famous paintings from these years include "Family at Saltimbanques" (1905), "Gertrude Stein" (1905-06) and "Two Nudes" (1906).

 

BREAK INTO CUBISM

 

In 1907, Pablo Picasso produced a painting unlike anything he or anyone else had ever painted before, a work that would profoundly influence the direction of art in the 20th century: "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon," a chilling depiction of five nude prostitutes, abstracted and distorted with sharp geometric features and stark blotches of blues, greens and grays. Today, "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" is considered the precursor and inspiration of Cubism, an artistic style pioneered by Picasso and his friend and fellow painter, Georges Braque.

 

In Cubist paintings, objects are broken apart and reassembled in an abstracted form, highlighting their composite geometric shapes and depicting them from multiple, simultaneous viewpoints in order to create physics-defying, collage-like effects. At once destructive and creative, Cubism shocked, appalled and fascinated the art world. "It made me feel as if someone was drinking gasoline and spitting fire," Braque said, explaining that he was shocked when he first viewed Picasso's "Les Demoiselles," but quickly became intrigued with Cubism, seeing the new style as a revolutionary movement. French writer and critic Max Jacob, a good friend of both Picasso and painter Juan Gris, called Cubism "the 'Harbinger Comet' of the new century," stating, "Cubism is ... a picture for its own sake. Literary Cubism does the same thing in literature, using reality merely as a means and not as an end."

 

Picasso's early Cubist paintings, known as his "Analytic Cubist" works, include "Three Women" (1907), "Bread and Fruit Dish on a Table" (1909) and "Girl with Mandolin" (1910). His later Cubist works are distinguished as "Synthetic Cubism" for moving even further away from artistic typicalities of the time, creating vast collages out of a great number of tiny, individual fragments. These paintings include "Still Life with Chair Caning" (1912), "Card Player" (1913-14) and "Three Musicians" (1921).

 

CLASSICAL PERIOD

 

The outbreak of World War I ushered in the next great change in Picasso's art. He grew more somber and, once again, became preoccupied with the depiction of reality. His works between 1918 and 1927 are categorized as part of his "Classical Period," a brief return to Realism in a career otherwise dominated by experimentation. His most interesting and important works from this period include "Three Women at the Spring" (1921), "Two Women Running on the Beach/The Race" (1922) and "The Pipes of Pan" (1923).

 

SURREALISM

 

From 1927 onward, Picasso became caught up in a new philosophical and cultural movement known as Surrealism, the artistic manifestation of which was a product of his own Cubism.

 

Picasso's most well-known Surrealist painting, deemed one of the greatest paintings of all time, was completed in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. After German bombers supporting Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces carried out a devastating aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937, Picasso, outraged by the bombing and the inhumanity of war, painted "Guernica." Painted in black, white and grays, the work is a Surrealist testament to the horrors of war, and features a minotaur and several human-like figures in various states of anguish and terror. "Guernica" remains one of the most moving and powerful anti-war paintings in history.

 

'SELF PORTRAIT FACING DEATH' AND OTHER LATER WORKS

 

In the aftermath of World War II, Picasso became more overtly political. He joined the Communist Party and was twice honored with the International Lenin Peace Prize, first in 1950 and again in 1961. By this point in his life, he was also an international celebrity, the world's most famous living artist. While paparazzi chronicled his every move, however, few paid attention to his art during this time.

 

In contrast to the dazzling complexity of Synthetic Cubism, Picasso's later paintings display simple, childlike imagery and crude technique. Touching on the artistic validity of these later works, Picasso once remarked upon passing a group of school kids in his old age, "When I was as old as these children, I could draw like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to draw like them." Picasso created the epitome of his later work, "Self Portrait Facing Death," using pencil and crayon, a year before his death. The autobiographical subject, drawn with crude technique, appears as something between a human and an ape, with a green face and pink hair. Yet the expression in his eyes, capturing a lifetime of wisdom, fear and uncertainty, is the unmistakable work of a master at the height of his powers.

 

DEATH AND LEGACY

 

Pablo Picasso continued to create art and maintain an ambitious schedule in his later years, superstitiously believing that work would keep him alive. He died on April 8, 1973, at the age of 91, in Mougins, France. His legacy, however, has long endured.

 

Inarguably one of the most celebrated and influential painters of the 20th century, Picasso continues to garner reverence for his technical mastery, visionary creativity and profound empathy, and, together, these qualities have distinguished him as a revolutionary artist. Picasso also remains renowned for endlessly reinventing himself, switching between styles so radically different that his life's work seems to be the product of five or six great artists rather than just one.

 

Of his penchant for style diversity, Picasso insisted that his varied work was not indicative of radical shifts throughout his career, but, rather, of his dedication to objectively evaluating for each piece the form and technique best suited to achieve his desired effect. "Whenever I wanted to say something, I said it the way I believed I should," he explained. "Different themes inevitably require different methods of expression. This does not imply either evolution or progress; it is a matter of following the idea one wants to express and the way in which one wants to express it."

 

PERSONAL LIFE

 

An incorrigible womanizer, Picasso had countless relationships with girlfriends, mistresses, muses and prostitutes during his lifetime, marrying only twice. He wed a ballerina named Olga Khokhlova in 1918, and they remained together for nine years, parting ways in 1927. In 1961, at the age of 69, he married his second wife, Jacqueline Roque.

 

Between marriages, in 1935, Picasso met Dora Maar, a fellow artist, on the set of Jean Renoir's film Le Crime de Monsieur Lange (released in 1936). The two soon embarked upon a partnership that was both romantic and professional. Their relationship lasted more than a decade, during and after which time Maar struggled with depression; they parted ways in 1946, three years after Picasso began having an affair with a woman named Françoise Gilot.

 

Picasso fathered four children: Paul, Maya, Claude and Paloma.

 

QUOTES

 

“Whenever I wanted to say something, I said it the way I believed I should. Different themes inevitably require different methods of expression. This does not imply either evolution or progress; it is a matter of following the idea one wants to express and the way in which one wants to express it.”

—Pablo Picasso

 

Source : Bio.

Centro de Arte Manuel Brito, CAMB, Palácio dos Anjos, Algés, Portugal

 

Materials : Cerâmica em Terracota

Collection : Manuel de Brito

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Spanish expatriate Pablo Picasso was one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, as well as the co-creator of Cubism.

 

Born on October 25, 1881, in Málaga, Spain, Pablo Picasso's gargantuan full name, which honours a variety of relatives and saints, is Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de Los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso. Picasso's mother was Doña Maria Picasso y Lopez. His father was Don José Ruiz Blasco, a painter and art teacher. A serious and prematurely world-weary child, the young Picasso possessed a pair of piercing, watchful black eyes that seemed to mark him destined for greatness. " When I was a child, my mother said to me, 'If you become a soldier, you'll be a general. If you become a monk you'll end up as the pope,'" he later recalled. " Instead, I became a painter and wound up as Picasso."

 

Though he was a relatively poor student, Picasso displayed a prodigious talent for drawing at a very young age. According to legend, his first words were "piz, piz," his childish attempt at saying "lápiz," the Spanish word for pencil. Picasso's father began teaching him to draw and paint when he was a child, and by the time he was 13 years old, his skill level had surpassed his father's. Soon, Picasso lost all desire to do any schoolwork, choosing to spend the school days doodling in his notebook instead. " For being a bad student, I was banished to the 'calaboose,' a bare cell with whitewashed walls and a bench to sit on," he later remembered. " I liked it there because I took along a sketch pad and drew incessantly ... I could have stayed there forever, drawing without stopping."

 

In 1895, when Picasso was 14 years old, he moved with his family to Barcelona, Spain. where he quickly applied to the city's prestigious School of Fine Arts. Although the school typically only accepted students several years his senior, Picasso's entrance exam was so extraordinary that he was granted an exception and admitted. Nevertheless, Picasso chafed at the School of Fine Arts' strict rules and formalities and began skipping class so that he could roam the streets of Barcelona, sketching the city scenes he observed.

 

In 1897, a 16-year-old Picasso moved to Madrid to attend the Royal Academy of San Fernando. However, he again became frustrated with his school's singular focus on classical subjects and techniques. During this time, he wrote to a friend: " They just go on and on about the same old stuff: Velázquez for painting, Michelangelo for sculpture." Once again, Picasso began skipping class to wander the city and paint what he observed: gipsies, beggars and prostitutes, among other things.

 

In 1899, Picasso moved back to Barcelona and fell in with a crowd of artists and intellectuals who made their headquarters at a café called El Quatre Gats (" The Four Cats"). Inspired by the anarchists and radicals he met there, Picasso made his decisive break from the classical methods in which he had been trained and began what would become a lifelong process of experimentation and innovation.

 

BLUE PERIOD: 'BLUE NUDE,' 'LA VIE' AND OTHER WORKS

 

At the turn of the 20th century, Pablo Picasso moved to Paris, France—the cultural centre of European art—to open his own studio. Art critics and historians typically break Picasso's adult career into distinct periods, the first of which lasted from 1901 to 1904 and is called his " Blue Period," after the colour that dominated nearly all of Picasso's paintings over these years. Lonely and deeply depressed over the death of his close friend, Carlos Casagemas, he painted scenes of poverty, isolation and anguish, almost exclusively in shades of blue and green. Picasso's most famous paintings from the Blue Period include " Blue Nude," " La Vie" and " The Old Guitarist," all three of which were completed in 1903.

 

In contemplation of Picasso and his Blue Period, Symbolist writer and critic Charles Morice once asked, " Is this frighteningly precocious child not fated to bestow the consecration of a masterpiece on the negative sense of living, the illness from which he more than anyone else seems to be suffering?"

 

ROSE PERIOD: 'GERTRUDE STEIN,' 'TWO NUDES' AND MORE

 

By 1905, Picasso had largely overcome the depression that had previously debilitated him. Not only was he madly in love with a beautiful model, Fernande Olivier, but he was also newly prosperous thanks to the generous patronage of art dealer Ambroise Vollard. The artistic manifestation of Picasso's improved spirits was the introduction of warmer colors—including beiges, pinks and reds—in what is known as his " Rose Period" (1904-06). His most famous paintings from these years include "Family at Saltimbanques" (1905), "Gertrude Stein" (1905-06) and "Two Nudes" (1906).

 

BREAK INTO CUBISM

 

In 1907, Pablo Picasso produced a painting, unlike anything he or anyone else had ever painted before, a work that would profoundly influence the direction of art in the 20th century: " Les Demoiselles d'Avignon," a chilling depiction of five nude prostitutes, abstracted and distorted with sharp geometric features and stark blotches of blues, greens and greys. Today, " Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" is considered the precursor and inspiration of Cubism, an artistic style pioneered by Picasso and his friend and fellow painter, Georges Braque.

 

In Cubist paintings, objects are broken apart and reassembled in an abstracted form, highlighting their composite geometric shapes and depicting them from multiple, simultaneous viewpoints in order to create physics-defying, collage-like effects. At once destructive and creative, Cubism shocked, appalled and fascinated the art world. " It made me feel as if someone was drinking gasoline and spitting fire," Braque said, explaining that he was shocked when he first viewed Picasso's " Les Demoiselles," but quickly became intrigued with Cubism, seeing the new style as a revolutionary movement. French writer and critic Max Jacob, a good friend of both Picasso and painter Juan Gris, called Cubism " the 'Harbinger Comet' of the new century," stating, " Cubism is ... a picture for its own sake. Literary Cubism does the same thing in literature, using reality merely as a means and not as an end."

 

Picasso's early Cubist paintings, known as his " Analytic Cubist" works, include " Three Women" (1907), " Bread and Fruit Dish on a Table" (1909) and " Girl with Mandolin" (1910). His later Cubist works are distinguished as " Synthetic Cubism" for moving even further away from artistic typicalities of the time, creating vast collages out of a great number of tiny, individual fragments. These paintings include "Still Life with Chair Caning" (1912), "Card Player" (1913-14) and "Three Musicians" (1921).

 

CLASSICAL PERIOD

 

The outbreak of World War I ushered in the next great change in Picasso's art. He grew more sombre and, once again, became preoccupied with the depiction of reality. His works between 1918 and 1927 are categorized as part of his " Classical Period," a brief return to Realism in a career otherwise dominated by experimentation. His most interesting and important works from this period include " Three Women at the Spring" (1921), " Two Women Running on the Beach/The Race" (1922) and " The Pipes of Pan" (1923).

 

SURREALISM

 

From 1927 onward, Picasso became caught up in a new philosophical and cultural movement known as Surrealism, the artistic manifestation of which was a product of his own Cubism.

 

Picasso's most well-known Surrealist painting, deemed one of the greatest paintings of all time, was completed in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. After German bombers supporting Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces carried out a devastating aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937, Picasso, outraged by the bombing and the inhumanity of war, painted " Guernica." Painted in black, white and greys, the work is a Surrealist testament to the horrors of war, and features a minotaur and several human-like figures in various states of anguish and terror. " Guernica" remains one of the most moving and powerful anti-war paintings in history.

 

'SELF PORTRAIT FACING DEATH' AND OTHER LATER WORKS

 

In the aftermath of World War II, Picasso became more overtly political. He joined the Communist Party and was twice honoured with the International Lenin Peace Prize, first in 1950 and again in 1961. By this point in his life, he was also an international celebrity, the world's most famous living artist. While paparazzi chronicled his every move, however, few paid attention to his art during this time.

 

In contrast to the dazzling complexity of Synthetic Cubism, Picasso's later paintings display simple, childlike imagery and crude technique. Touching on the artistic validity of these later works, Picasso once remarked upon passing a group of school kids in his old age, " When I was as old as these children, I could draw like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to draw like them." Picasso created the epitome of his later work, " Self Portrait Facing Death," using pencil and crayon, a year before his death. The autobiographical subject, drawn with crude technique, appears as something between a human and an ape, with a green face and pink hair. Yet the expression in his eyes, capturing a lifetime of wisdom, fear and uncertainty, is the unmistakable work of a master at the height of his powers.

 

DEATH AND LEGACY

 

Pablo Picasso continued to create art and maintain an ambitious schedule in his later years, superstitiously believing that work would keep him alive. He died on April 8, 1973, at the age of 91, in Mougins, France. His legacy, however, has long endured.

 

Inarguably one of the most celebrated and influential painters of the 20th century, Picasso continues to garner reverence for his technical mastery, visionary creativity and profound empathy, and, together, these qualities have distinguished him as a revolutionary artist. Picasso also remains renowned for endlessly reinventing himself, switching between styles so radically different that his life's work seems to be the product of five or six great artists rather than just one.

 

Of his penchant for style diversity, Picasso insisted that his varied work was not indicative of radical shifts throughout his career, but, rather, of his dedication to objectively evaluating for each piece the form and technique best suited to achieve his desired effect. " Whenever I wanted to say something, I said it the way I believed I should," he explained. " Different themes inevitably require different methods of expression. This does not imply either evolution or progress; it is a matter of following the idea one wants to express and the way in which one wants to express it."

 

PERSONAL LIFE

 

An incorrigible womanizer, Picasso had countless relationships with girlfriends, mistresses, muses and prostitutes during his lifetime, marrying only twice. He wed a ballerina named Olga Khokhlova in 1918, and they remained together for nine years, parting ways in 1927. In 1961, at the age of 69, he married his second wife, Jacqueline Roque.

 

Between marriages, in 1935, Picasso met Dora Maar, a fellow artist, on the set of Jean Renoir's film Le Crime de Monsieur Lange (released in 1936). The two soon embarked upon a partnership that was both romantic and professional. Their relationship lasted more than a decade, during and after which time Maar struggled with depression; they parted ways in 1946, three years after Picasso began having an affair with a woman named Françoise Gilot.

 

Picasso fathered four children: Paul, Maya, Claude and Paloma.

 

QUOTES

 

“Whenever I wanted to say something, I said it the way I believed I should. Different themes inevitably require different methods of expression. This does not imply either evolution or progress; it is a matter of following the idea one wants to express and the way in which one wants to express it.”

—Pablo Picasso

 

Source: Bio.

Jean Louis Mazieres

www.flickr.com/photos/mazanto/18864518524

 

LE RÉALISME NÉERLANDAIS.

   

Le réalisme néerlandais, plus exactement flamand et néerlandais, s'enracine dans une culture qui correspond au peuplement germanophone des Pays Bas au sens large (Pays Bas et Belgique actuels).

 

La partie sud du pays, flamande, se développe beaucoup plus précocement que la partie nord, néerlandaise. Dès le 11è siècle la Flandre est avec la plaine du Pô un des tous premiers moteurs de la Renaissance de l'Europe après les Ages Sombres consécutifs au lent dépérissement de l'Empire Romain et à la série d'invasion germaniques, scandinaves et arabo-berbères qui l'accompagnent et en aggravent encore les conséquences.

 

En peinture l'école de Bruges, que certains historiens d'art appellent encore "les primitifs flamands", n'a rien de primitif et constitue un excellent témoin du développement économique et politique de la Flandre au 15è siècle et 16è siècle.

 

L'Europe de l'ouest étant catholique, les oeuvres de ces peintres sont essentiellement orientées par les thèmes religieux. Mais le réalisme naturaliste, l'esprit concret et pragmatique de cette population apparaît déjà très clairement comme en témoignent Jérôme Bosch (1450-1516) et surtout Bruegel Pierre l'Ancien (1525-1569). Ce dernier notamment peint tout aussi souvent des tableaux profanes que des oeuvres sacrées, notamment ses kermesses, danses de mariage, travaux des saisons. Mais en outre ses tableaux religieux relèguent bien souvent le thème spécifiquement sacré en fond de scène, et en fait un prétexte à une restitution très détaillée de la vie quotidienne à son époque.

 

Cette caractéristique flamande va se développer encore, après la Réforme, aux Pays Bas du Nord dont le démarrage économique plus tardif prend tout son essor au 17è siècle.

 

La Réforme de tendance calviniste qui triomphe aux Pays Bas est religieusement presque iconoclaste. Le protestantisme néerlandais n'interdit certes pas absolument les représentations imagées religieuses -heureusement pour Rembrandt- mais il les limite considérablement. Les intérieurs des églises sont dépouillés du décor peint ou sculpté des temps catholiques. Les thèmes religieux qui demeurent sont essentiellement tirés de l'Ancien Testament, la Vierge et donc le Christ enfant, les Saints et les Saintes disparaissent. En outre l'Eglise ayant été chassée du pays un mécène essentiel disparaît.

 

Les artistes des Pays Bas du Nord doivent se reconvertir, ils vont le faire de manière exemplaire, en devenant les inventeurs d'une peinture profane, séculière, tout à fait particulière, qui restera originale en Europe encore jusqu'au 19è siècle.

 

Les artistes néerlandais n'ont peut être pas, dans l'absolu, créé les genres de la peinture de paysage, de la peinture de nature morte, ou de la peinture de moeurs, mais ils leur ont donné un tel développement, bien avant les autres régions de l'Europe, que cela équivaut à une invention.

 

Avant les artistes des Pays Bas du Nord le paysage est presque toujours le décor d'une scène historique ou mythologique. C'est aux Néerlandais que l'on doit le développement du paysage sans autre thème que la nature, et les banales et quotidiennes activités humaines contemporaines. Le thème certes déjà connu "des travaux et des jours" se généralise, se sécularise, et sort des livres d'heures.

 

Les peintres des Pays Bas vont aussi considérablement développer la peinture de moeurs en quittant les milieux aristocratiques pour s'intéresser aux paysans, artisans et bourgeois. Un domaine où leur réalisme et leur sens de l'observation font merveille. Les artistes flamands et néerlandais nous permettent, bien mieux que les peintres baroques ou classiques des écoles de l'Europe du Sud ou de l'Allemagne d'observer les modes de vie de l'époque.

 

Une vache qui pisse, un cochon qui ronfle, une femme qui boit, qui range son linge dans l'armoire, ou épouille sa fille, des paysans avinés qui se disputent, ou des bourgeois qui patinent sont des thèmes très distinctifs des Pays Bas. Des thèmes qui ne se rencontrent pas, ou très peu, ailleurs en Europe. Ce n'est pas du tout la peinture française de l'époque de Louis XIII et Louis XIV. Même les frères Le Nain sont très loin du réalisme flamand et néerlandais.

 

Enfin la nature morte, qui peut avoir quelques vagues connotations religieuses avec les "vanités", prend aussi un essor qui est spécifique de cette région de l'Europe.

 

Dans le domaine du portrait l'Europe catholique avait depuis longtemps ouvert la voie et les Pays Bas sont moins originaux, sauf à privilégier le portrait bourgeois par rapport au portrait aristocratique. Mais quand le milicien bourgeois des "grandes compagnies" porte l'épée on voit bien qu'il n'est pas un aristocrate. De même que les régentes des hopitaux, béguinages, orphelinats et oeuvres charitables diverses ne peuvent pas se confondre avec les grandes dames de la noblesse - et de la religion- française, hispanique ou germanique.

 

Les artistes des Pays Bas nous restituent ainsi, encore une fois, avec réalisme, le décor humain de leur époque, à un niveau social que les peintres du sud de l'Europe ignorent car leur clientèle est toujours ailleurs: Les Rois, les Princes, l'Aristocratie ou une très grande bourgeoisie assimilée, et bien sûr l'Eglise.

   

THE NETHERLANDS REALISM.

   

The Dutch realism, more precisely Flemish and Dutch, is rooted in a culture that corresponds to the German-speaking population of the Netherlands in the broad sense (the Netherlands and Belgium today).

 

The southern part of the country, Flemish, develops much earlier than the northern part, Dutch. From the 11th century Flanders was, with the plain of the Po and Tuscany, one of the first engines of the Renaissance of Europe after the Dark Ages consecutive to the slow decline of the Roman Empire and to the series of Germanic Scandinavian and Arabic-Berbers invasions that accompany it and further aggravate the consequences.

 

In painting the school of Bruges, which some art historians still call " the Flemish primitives", is nothing primitive and is an excellent witness to the economic and political development of Flanders in the 15th and 16th centuries.

 

The Western Europe being Catholic, the works of these painters are essentially oriented by religious themes. But the naturalistic realism, the concrete and pragmatic spirit of this population, already appears very clearly as evidenced by Jerome Bosch (1450-1516) and especially Bruegel Peter the Elder (1525-1569). The latter, in particular, paints profane paintings as often as sacred works, notably his kermesses, wedding dances, works of the seasons. But in addition his religious pictures often relegate the specifically sacred theme to the background, making it a pretext for a very detailed restitution of everyday life in his time.

 

This Flemish characteristic will continue to develop after the Reformation in the Northern Netherlands, whose later economic growth took off in the 17th century.

 

The Reformation of Calvinist tendency which triumphs in the Netherlands is religiously almost iconoclastic. Dutch Protestantism does certainly not absolutely forbid religious images - fortunately for Rembrandt- but he limits them considerably. The interiors of the churches are stripped of the painted or carved decoration of Catholic times. The religious themes that remain are essentially drawn from the Old Testament, the Virgin and therefore the Christ Child, the Saints and the Holy Women disappear. In addition the Church having been expelled from the country, an essential patron disappears.

 

The artists of the Low Countries of the North must reconvert, they will do so in an exemplary way, becoming the inventors of a profane, secular painting, quite particular, which will remain original in Europe until the 19th century.

 

The Dutch artists may be not have, in absolute terms, created the genres of landscape painting, of still life painting, or painting of manners, but they have given them such a development long before other regions of Europe, that is equivalent to an invention.

 

Before the artists of the Low Countries of the North the landscape is almost always the decor of a historical or mythological scene. It is the Dutch to development of the landscape with no other theme than nature, and the banal and daily contemporary human activities. The theme already known "works and days" is generalized, secularized, and comes out of the books of hours.

 

The painters of the Netherlands will also considerably develop the painting of manners by leaving the aristocratic circles, to take an interest in peasants, craftsmen and bourgeois. An area where their realism and their sense of observation are wonderful. Flemish and Dutch artists allow us, far better than the Baroque or classical painters of the schools of Southern Europe or Germany, to observe the ways of life of the time.

 

A cow that pisses, a pig that snores, a woman who drinks, who puts her clothes in the cupboard, or chases his daughter's lice, drunken peasants who dispute, or bourgeois who skate, are very distinctive themes of the Netherlands . Topics that do not meet, or very little, elsewhere in Europe. This is not at all the French painting of the time of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Even the Le Nain brothers are far from Flemish and Dutch realism.

 

Finally, still life, which may have some vague religious connotations with the "vanities", also takes a boom that is specific to this region of Europe.

 

In the field of portraiture Catholic Europe had long opened the way, and the Netherlands is less original, except to favor the bourgeois portrait in relation to the aristocratic portraiture. But when the bourgeois militiaman of the "big companies" bears the sword, it is clear that he is not an aristocrat. Just as the regentes of hospitals, beguines, orphanages and various charitable works can not be confused with the great ladies of the nobility - and of the French, Hispanic or Germanic religion.

 

The artists of the Netherlands thus restore to us, once again, with realism, the human decor of their time, on a social level that the painters of southern Europe ignore because their clientele is always elsewhere: The Kings, Princes, The Aristocracy or a very large assimilated bourgeoisie, and of course the Church.

Belem, Berardo Collection, Centro Cultural de Belem, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Material: Oil on canvas

Collection: Berardo Collection

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Stażewski was the pioneer of the classical Avant-garde of the 20s and 30s; representative of the CONSTRUCTIVIST MOVEMENT; co-creator of the Geometric Abstract art movement of the 60s, 70s, and 80s; creator of reliefs, designer of interiors, stage scenery, and posters.

 

Stażewski studied under Professor Stanisław Lentz at Warsaw's Szkoła Sztuk Pieknych (School of Fine Arts) between 1913 and 1919. He joined the first-ever Polish avant-garde group created in 1917, which was initially referred to as the Polish Expressionists and renamed itself the FORMISTS in 1919.

 

Stażewski debuted in 1920, showing his works with the Formists at the Towarzystwo Zachęty Sztuk Pieknych (Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts) in Warsaw.

 

In 1921 he presented his paintings along with Mieczyslaw Szczuka at the avant-garde Polish Artistic Club.

 

In 1922, Stażewski participated in the Formists' F 9 exhibition at the Salon of Czesław Garliński in Warsaw.

 

In 1923 he participated in the Exhibition of New Art in Vilnius and the International Exhibition of New Art in Łódź. These two events effectively initiated the Constructivist movement in Poland.

 

Stażewski was a founding member of the Grupa Kubistow, Konstruktywistow i Suprematystow Blok (Block Group of Cubists, Constructivists, and Suprematists) (1924-1926) and other groups which built on the Block program, including Praesens (1926-29) and a.r. group (1929-1936). Stażewski also participated in editing the magazines Block i Praesens.

 

In 1923 he turned towards designing interiors and stage scenery and presented his avant-garde works at the Laurin and Klement Automobile Showroom in Warsaw.

 

Beginning in 1924 Stażewski traveled frequently to Paris, where he developed close relationships with Piet Mondrian and Michel Seuphor. Stażewski contributed significantly to the history of the world avant-garde both through his artistic activities and his theoretical writings and essays. He became a member of the Paris-based international GROUPS CERCLE ET CARRÉ (from 1929) and Abstraction-Création (from 1931).

 

Beginning in 1926 Stażewski represented Polish art abroad in exhibitions organized by the Towarzystwo Szerzenia Sztuki Polskiej wśród Obcych (Society for the Propagation of Polish Art Among Foreigners). In 1928 he designed the covers of MUBA magazine, produced in Paris by the Lithuanian poet Juozas Tysliava; also, as an extension of his Parisian activities, in 1929 he began working with Jan Brzękowski and Wanda Chodasiewicz-Grabowska in publishing the magazine L'Art Contemporain (Sztuka Współczesna).

 

Stażewski participated in numerous international exhibitions, including the 1st International Exhibition of Modern Architecture (Warsaw, 1926), the Exhibition of Theatrical Art (Paris, 1926), the Machine Age Exposition (New York, 1927), and the Konstruktivisten Exhibition (Basel, 1937).

 

In 1932 the artist exhibited his work with the group Nowa Generacja (New Generation) at Lvov's Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych (Friends of Fine Arts Society) and the Łódź branch of the Instytut Propagandy Sztuki (Institute of Art Propaganda), while in 1935 he presented his works at the exhibition of the Grupa Krakowska (Kraków Group) in Kraków.

 

Stażewski was among the artists whose works were incorporated in the International Collection of Modern Art made available to the public at the Museum of Art in Łódź in 1931. The collection includes the works of a number of other internationally renowned artists, including H. Arp, M. Seuphor, T. van Doesburg, F. Legér, M. Ernst, A. Ozenfant, and E. Prampolini.

 

In 1933 Stażewski was among the co-founders of the Koło Artystów Grafików Reklamowych (Circle of Graphic Artists in Advertising), his credits at the time including numerous typographic designs, most of which were Neoplasticist in style.

 

That same year, the first-ever solo exhibition of the artist's works was organized alongside a presentation of the works of Karol Kryński at the Instytut Propagandy Sztuki (Institute for Art Propaganda) in Warsaw. Almost all of the artworks Stażewski produced before 1939 were destroyed during World War II.

 

After the war the artist joined the Klub Młodych Artystow i Naukowcow (Young Artists' and Scientists' Club) and collaborated with the avant-garde Krzywe Koło Gallery in Warsaw.

 

In 1965 Stażewski joined with Wiesław Borowski, Anka Ptaszkowska, and Mariusz Tchorek in creating the Galeria Foksal (Foksal Gallery). Stażewski's first post-war solo exhibition was held in 1955 at Warsaw's Klub Zwiazku Literatow (Association of Writers Club). The artist presented his works at numerous exhibitions of Polish contemporary art abroad, including shows in Paris (Musée d'Art Moderne, 1977, 1982; Centre Georges Pompidou, 1983), Stockholm, Amsterdam, Brussels, and Geneva (1959), Venice (1959, 1966, 1986), New York (Museum of Modern Art, 1976), Oslo (1961), Essen (1962, 1973), Stuttgart (1962), Chicago (1964, 1966, 1967, 1972), Bochum (1964), Tel-Aviv (1965), Tokyo (1966), London (Royal Academy, 1970; 1984), Strasburg (1970), Düsseldorf (1974, 1981, 1982), Milan (1974, 1986), Zurich (1974, 1975), Hamburg (1975), Madrid, Berlin, and Cologne (1977), Rome (1979), and Los Angeles (1981).

 

A retrospective of Stażewski's works was organized in 1994 at the Museum of Art in Łódź. The artist received an honorable mention at the 33rd Biennale of Art in Venice in 1966, and in 1972 he was awarded the Gottfried von Herder Prize by the University of Vienna.

 

Stażewski's membership in the avant-garde was apparent in his first drawings, which referenced Cubism in their structure, and in his decoratively over-stylized portraits and still lifes dating from 1917-23. The works of his Constructivist phase were clearly inspired by the theory of Unism propagated by Władysław Strzemiński, reflected in his textural differentiation of planes on what were otherwise largely monochromatic canvases.

 

The influence of Strzemiński's architectural compositions is apparent in Stażewski's paintings analyzing the relationships figures to their background, and particularly in a series of works in which letters are incorporated into the geometric rhythms of the compositions' structures.

 

Strong links between Stażewski's art and the Neoplasticism of the Dutch De Stijl group are evident in the artist's consistent construction of paintings on a grid of horizontal and vertical lines, as well as in his use of the three primary colors - red, yellow, and blue - and the three 'non-colors' - black, white, and gray (Kompozycja / Composition, 1930). The artist modified these rudimentary structures somewhat by linking distinct color planes through their rounded 'corners'.

 

Stażewski's abstract paintings of the 1930s and 1950s were free of such structural rigor. In these works biomorphically or geometrically shaped planes of pure color are independent of any of the dynamic lines that traverse the plane. In the early 1930s a figurative vein appeared in the artist's work, one that he would later build on throughout the 1950s. In the decade preceding the war, however, Stażewski produced an abundance of landscapes, portraits, and still lifes. His compositions from the late 1940s and early 1950s lie on the border between figurative art and abstraction. These allude either to still lifes or, in the energy of their wave-like contours, to the wartime drawings of Strzemiński. The works are evidence of the artist's independence from the 'normative aesthetics' of Socialist Realism. Though characterized by a high degree of formal differentiation, the artist's works of the 1960s and 1970s were all very much within the frame of geometric abstraction..

 

In the second half of the 1950s Stażewski supplemented his visual language with a new element - the relief. This form would supplant pure painterly media in his art for the next twenty years. Initially his reliefs had a very loose structure and were built of colorful, rough-textured elements that referenced organic forms (Relief, c. 1955). His reliefs of the 1960s were characterized by elements covered in 'half-tone screens' that energized their surface by creating the illusion of vibration. The works of the early part of this decade also manifest the artist's fascination for white, which was a manifestation of his reflections on the neutrality of form 'in and of itself' and on its dependence on compositional context. Stażewski's exploration of the infinite potential configurations of a series of moveable, barrel-like elements was a manifestation of his confrontation of the concepts of 'order' and 'coincidence', and fundamentally consisted of creating situations that were possible but had not yet come to fruition (Relief szary i bialy 9 / Grey and White Relief no. 9, 1964).

 

During his 'white period', Stażewski also attempted to penetrate space in a series of copper reliefs dating from the years 1964-67. Their multi-dimensional nature was the result of thickened and overlaid forms and light reflections that were multiplied on the polished metal surfaces (Relief miedziany 9 / Copper Relief 9, 1965). The reliefs Stażewski painted in the 1970s were made dynamic through unexpected disturbances of their geometric structure and unpredictable negations of the principles of regular compositional rhythm (Relief 2, 1972). In the same period Stażewski reverted to the formula of 'white paintings', which stimulated the artist to reflect on the relationship between art, science, and metaphysics, and constituted a continuation of his investigations into the order-chaos dichotomy.

 

In 1975 Stażewski created a series of works that analyzed the composition of George de la Tour's paintings and embodied the artist's conviction that geometry is the link between the art of all epochs.

 

This hypothesis on the universalistic nature of geometry was expressed once again in a series of paintings initiated in 1976 titled Redukcje / Reductions. In these works, abstract space represented by the uniform white plane of the canvas paradoxically plays a very active role and is penetrated in various directions by groups of lines, disintegrating lines, lines running parallel to each other or cutting across the place diagonally. This radical limitation of his visual language and its subordination to an ascetic discipline expressed the feelings of a man confronted with infinity, but endlessly trustful of the 'moderation' encoded in the human eye and mind and of the ordering power of geometry. This tendency to subordinate art to the objective laws of science was strengthened in 1968. The colored square is the basic component in the artist's works of this period. Stażewski multiplied it, only slightly differentiating its color, and thus obtained multiple dimensions and intensified chromatic effects. The artist designed these compositions to tame the metaphysical concept of the square.

 

In 1970 Stażewski once again expanded the scope of his expressive means and enriched his concept of artistic universalism in a work for the 1970 Wroclaw Symposium titled 9 promieni swiatla na niebie / 9 Rays of Light in the Sky, created with the help of beams of light generated by reflectors. In his acrylic paintings of the 1970s, color finally became fully expressive, conquering the restrictive shape of squares, distorting the regularity of their configuration, or attacking them with aggressive 'rays' (Promienie barw / Color Rays, 1980). In the 1980s, colors combined in vibrant play between geometric elements. Intensive, uniform, often glistening planes of color also appeared on slippers and necklaces painted by Stażewski, an activity he treated jokingly. In addition to painting canvases, the artist also created murals, produced graphic and typographic schemes, and designed interiors, stage scenery, posters and ceramics. Beginning around 1974 he began recording his views about art and philosophy in aphoristic texts. In 1980 Stażewski initiated a program of exchanges of artwork between Polish and American artists to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the creation of the International Collection of Modern Art in Łódź.

 

Author: Irena Kossowska, Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Science, December 2001

 

SOURCE: culture.pl/en/artist/henryk-stazewski

Le rhinocéros, graffiti in Arles

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Arles

 

Arles is located in France

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Coordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″ECoordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″E

Country France

Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement Arles

Canton Arles

Intercommunality CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

Climate data for Arles, 1948–1999

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 10.4

(50.7) 12.3

(54.1) 15.7

(60.3) 18.5

(65.3) 22.8

(73) 27.1

(80.8) 30.3

(86.5) 29.7

(85.5) 25.5

(77.9) 20.3

(68.5) 14.4

(57.9) 11.0

(51.8) 19.8

(67.6)

Average low °C (°F) 2.1

(35.8) 2.8

(37) 5.3

(41.5) 7.5

(45.5) 11.2

(52.2) 14.5

(58.1) 17.7

(63.9) 17.3

(63.1) 14.4

(57.9) 10.4

(50.7) 5.9

(42.6) 3.1

(37.6) 9.4

(48.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.7

(2.154) 50.8

(2) 49.3

(1.941) 50.3

(1.98) 48.6

(1.913) 37.3

(1.469) 17.1

(0.673) 39.2

(1.543) 81.7

(3.217) 85.7

(3.374) 66.7

(2.626) 54.7

(2.154) 636.1

(25.043)

Source: Italian Wikipedia article on Arles

History

Arles Amphitheatre, a Roman arena.

Passageway in Roman arena

Church of St. Trophime and its cloister.

Ancient era

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1806 20,151 —

1820 20,150 −0.0%

1831 20,236 +0.4%

1836 20,048 −0.9%

1841 20,460 +2.1%

1846 23,101 +12.9%

1851 23,208 +0.5%

1856 24,816 +6.9%

1861 25,543 +2.9%

1866 26,367 +3.2%

1872 24,695 −6.3%

1876 25,095 +1.6%

1881 23,480 −6.4%

1891 24,288 +3.4%

1896 24,567 +1.1%

1901 28,116 +14.4%

1906 31,010 +10.3%

1911 31,014 +0.0%

1921 29,146 −6.0%

1926 32,485 +11.5%

1946 35,017 +7.8%

1954 37,443 +6.9%

1962 41,932 +12.0%

1968 45,774 +9.2%

1975 50,059 +9.4%

1982 50,500 +0.9%

1990 52,058 +3.1%

1999 50,426 −3.1%

2008 52,729 +4.6%

2010 57,328 +8.7%

Main sights

Gallo-Roman theatre.

The Alyscamps.

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

Le costume d'Arles est avec le costume provençal comtadin l'une des deux grandes variantes du costume provençal. Appelé aussi arlèse, son port a été relancé par Frédéric Mistral à la fin du XIXe siècle comme l'un des signes de l'identité culturelle de la Provence. Encore utilisé le dimanche jusqu'au début du XXe siècle, son usage courant a progressivement disparu au cours de la première moitié du XXe siècle. Actuellement, il n'est porté qu'épisodiquement, par des groupes folkloriques ou lors de manifestations volontaristes de l'identité locale1.

  

Historique

Costumes arlésiens au XVIIIe siècle (Atelier de couture à Arles, Antoine Raspal, 1760, musée Réattu, Arles).

 

Parmi toutes les variétés locales à la mode au cours du XVIIIe siècle, seul le costume d'Arles, porté indifféremment par les femmes de toutes conditions, a traversé la Révolution, tout en continuant à évoluer d'une façon naturelle. Jusque dans les années 1950, il était encore porté, quotidiennement à Arles par un certain nombre de femmes, et plus particulièrement le dimanche. Le costume d'Arles a été la tenue féminine traditionnelle dans tout l'ancien archevêché, a tenté de s'imposer jusqu'à Avignon sous l'impulsion de Frédéric Mistral, a débordé sur la rive droite du Rhône de la Camargue gardoise jusqu'à l'Uzège2, s'est étendu à l'Est par delà la Crau, jusqu'à la Durance et le golfe de Fos. Toute son évolution est retracée au Museon Arlaten3.

  

Originalité

 

Ce costume d'Arles se distingue d'abord par une coiffe spéciale qui nécessite le port de cheveux longs. En fonction des jours de la semaine et des tâches à accomplir, cette coiffure était retenue sur le sommet de la tête par un ruban, une cravate ou un nœud de dentelles. Mais elle exigeait toujours un temps de préparation important et des soins particuliers pour respecter l'exigence de ses canons. Cette coiffure est peu adaptée aujourd'hui à une vie professionnelle moderne. Face à la mode des cheveux courts, un substitut sous forme de postiche a été proposé, mais son manque de naturel l'a voué à l'échec4.

 

Composition

 

Parmi les pièces qui compose actuellement l'habillement et signe son élégance, il y a la chapelle ou cache-coeur, plastron de dentelle en forme de trapèze, apparu en 1860, et qui couvre la poitrine5, le grand châle ou fichu, de forme carrée, qui moule le buste, la robe longue en satin de différentes couleurs, souvent pincée à la taille, les dorures (bijoux, agrafes, boucles ou crochets) qui sont transmises de génération en génération. Ces parures vont du tour de cou en argent, aux différentes croix d'or filigranées, dites croix provençales, des bracelets en or massif enrichis de diamants6, aux boucles d'oreilles (pendants ou brandanto) réservées aux seules femmes mariées, en passant par les bagues rehaussées de pierres précieuses, les boucles de soulier en argent, les agrafes de manteau dorées ou argentées, les crochets d'argent pour la ceinture qui permettaient de suspendre les clefs, à la fois signe de richesse et de possession sur la maison familiale7.

  

Arles

 

Arles is located in France

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Coordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″ECoordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″E

Country France

Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement Arles

Canton Arles

Intercommunality CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

 

Ancient era

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

Le costume d'Arles est avec le costume provençal comtadin l'une des deux grandes variantes du costume provençal. Appelé aussi arlèse, son port a été relancé par Frédéric Mistral à la fin du XIXe siècle comme l'un des signes de l'identité culturelle de la Provence. Encore utilisé le dimanche jusqu'au début du XXe siècle, son usage courant a progressivement disparu au cours de la première moitié du XXe siècle. Actuellement, il n'est porté qu'épisodiquement, par des groupes folkloriques ou lors de manifestations volontaristes de l'identité locale1.

  

Historique

Costumes arlésiens au XVIIIe siècle (Atelier de couture à Arles, Antoine Raspal, 1760, musée Réattu, Arles).

 

Parmi toutes les variétés locales à la mode au cours du XVIIIe siècle, seul le costume d'Arles, porté indifféremment par les femmes de toutes conditions, a traversé la Révolution, tout en continuant à évoluer d'une façon naturelle. Jusque dans les années 1950, il était encore porté, quotidiennement à Arles par un certain nombre de femmes, et plus particulièrement le dimanche. Le costume d'Arles a été la tenue féminine traditionnelle dans tout l'ancien archevêché, a tenté de s'imposer jusqu'à Avignon sous l'impulsion de Frédéric Mistral, a débordé sur la rive droite du Rhône de la Camargue gardoise jusqu'à l'Uzège2, s'est étendu à l'Est par delà la Crau, jusqu'à la Durance et le golfe de Fos. Toute son évolution est retracée au Museon Arlaten3.

  

Originalité

 

Ce costume d'Arles se distingue d'abord par une coiffe spéciale qui nécessite le port de cheveux longs. En fonction des jours de la semaine et des tâches à accomplir, cette coiffure était retenue sur le sommet de la tête par un ruban, une cravate ou un nœud de dentelles. Mais elle exigeait toujours un temps de préparation important et des soins particuliers pour respecter l'exigence de ses canons. Cette coiffure est peu adaptée aujourd'hui à une vie professionnelle moderne. Face à la mode des cheveux courts, un substitut sous forme de postiche a été proposé, mais son manque de naturel l'a voué à l'échec4.

 

Composition

 

Parmi les pièces qui compose actuellement l'habillement et signe son élégance, il y a la chapelle ou cache-coeur, plastron de dentelle en forme de trapèze, apparu en 1860, et qui couvre la poitrine5, le grand châle ou fichu, de forme carrée, qui moule le buste, la robe longue en satin de différentes couleurs, souvent pincée à la taille, les dorures (bijoux, agrafes, boucles ou crochets) qui sont transmises de génération en génération. Ces parures vont du tour de cou en argent, aux différentes croix d'or filigranées, dites croix provençales, des bracelets en or massif enrichis de diamants6, aux boucles d'oreilles (pendants ou brandanto) réservées aux seules femmes mariées, en passant par les bagues rehaussées de pierres précieuses, les boucles de soulier en argent, les agrafes de manteau dorées ou argentées, les crochets d'argent pour la ceinture qui permettaient de suspendre les clefs, à la fois signe de richesse et de possession sur la maison familiale7.

  

Arles

 

Arles is located in France

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Coordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″ECoordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″E

Country France

Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement Arles

Canton Arles

Intercommunality CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

 

Ancient era

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

Firs Zhuravlev (Saratov, December 22, 1836 - Saint Petersburg, September 17, 1901) was A Russian genre painter. In 1863, he became part of the Revolt of the Fourteen, a group of students who supported Realism and were protesting the Academy's insistence on promoting the Classical style. He joined the others in withdrawing from the school and accepting a designation as Artist Second-Degree. From 1862 to 1874, he was under police surveillance for alleged ties to revolutionary groups, possibly due to the social criticism inherent in many of his portrayals of peasant life.

 

[State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow - Oil on canvas, 99 x 134 cm]

Camera: Canon EOS 1V, EF 2/135mm

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Arles

 

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Country France

Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement Arles

Canton Arles

Intercommunality CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1806 20,151 —

1820 20,150 −0.0%

1831 20,236 +0.4%

1836 20,048 −0.9%

1841 20,460 +2.1%

1846 23,101 +12.9%

1851 23,208 +0.5%

1856 24,816 +6.9%

1861 25,543 +2.9%

1866 26,367 +3.2%

1872 24,695 −6.3%

1876 25,095 +1.6%

1881 23,480 −6.4%

1891 24,288 +3.4%

1896 24,567 +1.1%

1901 28,116 +14.4%

1906 31,010 +10.3%

1911 31,014 +0.0%

1921 29,146 −6.0%

1926 32,485 +11.5%

1946 35,017 +7.8%

1954 37,443 +6.9%

1962 41,932 +12.0%

1968 45,774 +9.2%

1975 50,059 +9.4%

1982 50,500 +0.9%

1990 52,058 +3.1%

1999 50,426 −3.1%

2008 52,729 +4.6%

2010 57,328 +8.7%

Main sights

Gallo-Roman theatre.

The Alyscamps.

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

Camera: Canon EOS 1V, EF 2/135mm

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Arles

 

Arles is located in France

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Coordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″ECoordinates: 43°40′36″N 4°37′40″E

Country France

Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement Arles

Canton Arles

Intercommunality CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1806 20,151 —

1820 20,150 −0.0%

1831 20,236 +0.4%

1836 20,048 −0.9%

1841 20,460 +2.1%

1846 23,101 +12.9%

1851 23,208 +0.5%

1856 24,816 +6.9%

1861 25,543 +2.9%

1866 26,367 +3.2%

1872 24,695 −6.3%

1876 25,095 +1.6%

1881 23,480 −6.4%

1891 24,288 +3.4%

1896 24,567 +1.1%

1901 28,116 +14.4%

1906 31,010 +10.3%

1911 31,014 +0.0%

1921 29,146 −6.0%

1926 32,485 +11.5%

1946 35,017 +7.8%

1954 37,443 +6.9%

1962 41,932 +12.0%

1968 45,774 +9.2%

1975 50,059 +9.4%

1982 50,500 +0.9%

1990 52,058 +3.1%

1999 50,426 −3.1%

2008 52,729 +4.6%

2010 57,328 +8.7%

Main sights

Gallo-Roman theatre.

The Alyscamps.

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

Jean Jacques Henner. 1829-1905. Paris.

Femme assise au bord d'une fontaine. Woman sitting at the edge of a fountain. vers 1864

Paris. Musée Jean Jacques Henner.

Le tableau s'inspire de "l'Amour sacré et l'Amour profane" du Titien

(Rome Galerie Borghèse)

The painting is inspired by Titian's "Sacred Love and Secular Love"

(Rome Borghese Gallery)

 

JEAN JACQUES HENNER

 

Jean Jacques Henner est un peintre d'origine alsacienne qui a été actif à Paris. Son style est très personnel, il ne peut être classé dans les grandes écoles de son époque comme l'Académisme, le Naturalisme , le Réalisme ou l'Impressionnisme. Il est très représentatif de son époque justement par le fait qu'il peut difficilement être rattaché à une école. Toute la peinture européenne entre 1815 et 1940 se caractérise par sa grande diversité de styles et de thèmes. La diversité des idéologies qui s'affrontent est un des facteurs de l'instabilité politique et la cause des guerres qui se succèdent, mais en art la période est riche par son pluralisme.

La manière de peindre de Henner est cependant très moderniste. On ne peut pas le confondre avec William Bouguereau. Son style privilégie l'esquisse et le coloris par rapport à la rigueur du dessin. Jean Jacques Henner n'est en aucun cas proche, par le style, des peintres académiques appelés à une certaine époque "peintres pompiers". Ce sont ses thèmes et ses coloris qui peuvent l'apparenter aux peintres académiques. Un peu comme Eugène Delacroix , Jean Baptiste Corot, Jean Jacques Henner peut peindre de manière "moderne" de "grands sujets" empruntés à la Mythologie ou à l'Histoire.

Outre l'esquisse qu'il utilise de manière très systématique, "la peinture plate", notamment pour les paysages, est une de ses techniques habituelles : Atténuation des volumes et écrasement de la perspective.

Ces techniques modernistes n'ont nullement fait obstacle à sa désignation pour un Prix de Rome, et plus tard à son élection à l'Académie des Beaux Arts en 1889 au fauteuil de Alexandre Cabanel. Un peintre bien plus académique que lui. Jean Jacques Henner, travaille en atelier et non pas en extérieur, et il n'est pas tenté par les techniques impressionnistes. Notamment pas par l'accent que les impressionnistes mettent sur la luminosité et leur choix d'une peinture claire. Les tonalités dominantes de JJ Henner restent dans la tradition classique : plutôt sombres. Mais il fréquente les peintres impressionnistes et ne leur est nullement hostile.

  

Jean Jacques Henner is a painter of Alsatian origin who was active in Paris. His style is very personal, he can not be classified in the great schools of his time as Academism, Naturalism, Realism or Impressionism. It is very representative of its time precisely because it can hardly be attached to a school. All European painting between 1815 and 1940 is characterized by its great diversity of styles and themes. The diversity of opposing ideologies is one of the factors of political instability and the cause of successive wars, but in art the period is rich in its pluralism. Henner's manner of painting, however, is very modern. It can not be confused with Bouguereau. His style favors sketching and coloring compared to the rigor of the drawing.

Jean Jacques Henner is by no means close, by the style, of the academic painters called at one time "firefighters painters". It is his themes that can sometimes be related to the painters of the academic school. It is his themes and colors that can relate him to academic painters. A bit like Eugene Delacroix, Jean Baptiste Corot, Jean Jacques Henner can paint in a "modern way" "great subjects" borrowed from Mythology or History. In addition to the sketch, that he uses very systematically, the "flat painting", particularly for landscapes, is one of his usual techniques: Attenuation of volumes and crushing of perspective.

These modernist techniques made no obstacle to his designation for a Prix de Rome, and later to his election the Académie des Beaux Arts in 1889 in Alexandre Cabanel's armchair. A painter much more academic than himself. Jean Jacques Henner, works in a workshop and not outdoors, and he is not tempted by Impressionist techniques. Especially not by the emphasis that the impressionists put on the luminosity and their choice of a clear painting. The dominant tones of JJ Henner remain in the classical tradition: rather dark. But he frequents the impressionist painters and is not at all hostile to them.

  

+++++ FROM WIKIPEDIA +++++

 

Arles (/ɑːrl(z)/, also US: /ˈɑːrəl/,[2][3][4][5] French: [aʁl]; Provençal: Arle [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Classical Latin: Arelate) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

  

Contents

1Geography

2History

2.1Ancient era

2.2Roman aqueduct and mill

2.3Middle Ages

2.4Modern era

2.5Jewish history

3Climate

4Population

5Main sights

6Archaeology

7Sport

8Culture

8.1European Capital of Culture

9Economy

10Transport

11Notable people

12Twin towns — sister cities

13See also

14References

15External links

Geography

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

 

History

Ancient era

 

Arles Amphitheatre, a Roman arena

 

Passageway in the Amphitheatre

 

Church of St. Trophime and its cloister

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[6][7][8][9]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[10]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

 

Roman aqueduct and mill

 

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[11] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[12] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[13] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

 

Middle Ages

 

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

 

Modern era

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

 

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

Arles had an important and prominent Jewish community between the Roman era and the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evidence of Jews in Arles is not before the fifth century, when a distinguished community already existed in the town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. In the eighth century, jurisdiction over the Jews of Arles was passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[14]

 

Climate

Arles has a warm summer mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa)[15] with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948–1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[16]

  

Main sights

 

Gallo-Roman theatre.

 

The Alyscamps.

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[18] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[19]

 

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[20] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[21][22] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[23][24][25] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[26] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[27] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[28] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

 

Sport

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

 

Culture

Arles is a cultural hotspot. A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

In the past years, several cultural organizations set up a presence in Arles, such as the LUMA Foundation, the Fondation Vincent van Gogh Arles, the Manuel Rivera-Ortiz Foundation or the Lee Ufan Foundation.[29] On top of that, there are countless galleries scattered throughout the city.

 

Bullfights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The parts of the films Ronin, At Eternity's Gate and "Taxi 3" were filmed in Arles.

 

European Capital of Culture

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

 

Economy

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

 

Transport

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

 

Arles does not have its own commercial airport, but is served by a number of airports in the region, most notably the major international airport of Marseille Provence approximately an hour's drive away.

 

The A54 autoroute toll motorway, which locally connects Salon-de-Provence with Nîmes and in a wider sense forms part of European route E80, passes by Arles.

 

The Rhône, which for navigation purposes is classified as a Class V waterway as far upstream as Lyon, is an historically important transport route connecting the inland Rhône-Alpes region with the Mediterranean Sea. The port of Arles and its adjacent rail and road connections provides a major transshipment node, which in 2013 handled approximately 450,000 tonnes of goods.[30]

 

Notable people

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

Jenny Berthelius (born 1923), Swedish crime novelist and children's writer, lives in Arles[31]

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gaël Givet, footballer

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Laure Favre-Kahn (born 1976), classical pianist

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Mehdi Savalli, matador

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Major-General Hugh Anthony Prince CBE, Indian Army and British Army officer

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Fanny Valette, actress

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera and Cubelles, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

George Town, Penang, Malaysia

By Victor Pross

 

“ART IS ABOUT DECONSTRUCTION!” Tammy cried out, bursting like a cork. “This is an art school, not a syndicated newspaper! This is not a work of art!” Tammy’s whole body was animated with anger.

 

The student’s turned, as if in reaction to gunfire and beheld a frizzled red head, her checks turning the color of her cherry mane. Her name was Tammy White, a first year art student. “Look at this,” she yelped, pointing to a stack of paintings and drawings of strangely morphed caricatures of celebrities and skewered social stereotypes that greatly exaggerated classes of people from all walks of life. She then spun around unleashing her anger onto a lone figure who stood at his easel in mid brush stroke, creating the wildly diverse caricatures.

 

“This is a serious art school and he is turning it to a second grade school!” Tammy sputtered to nobody in particular.

 

The lone figure was me.

 

I was secluded in a corner of the class room painting. My concentrated focus was momentarily distracted by the outburst. A little head head-turn, the rise of an eye-brow, and then a nod of indifferent acknowledgement was all I cared to offer. I returned to my painting as if nothing had happened.

 

Tammy’s appearance was as colourful as the paints she used: her hair was died, part red and green, her eye-shadow a gloss blue. Her eyes were made luminous by the dark purple eyeliner and her bone-white skin was stretched over her skeleton like shrink wrap. Her penchant for tie-die t-shirts and olive green army jackets pleaded for attention.

 

Tammy was not one to give up. “Look at that painting! What does he think he is doing?” I heard the first words of her rambling discourse but my mind dissolved into fog. By the time the diatribe ended, I addressed Tammy openly: “Anything you have to say to me doesn’t make the slightest bit of difference.” I said this without rancour. It was a statement of simple fact, spoken prosaically.

 

From day one, Tammy took an instant dislike to me, referring to me as “the hick.” In a school saturated with mass-marketed nonconformity, I stood out because it was impossible to classify me. My hair style was that of James Dean, complete with his soulful look, and I was given to wearing leather jackets reminiscent of Brando in “The Wild One”. I was dated, at least in appearance. Or perhaps I was completely from a different planet.

 

Tammy, too, stood out, but in an entirely different way than me. Her anger, her erratic behaviour raised a red flag in most people, even among those who were angry artist types. During her pubescent school years, Tammy White was trouble. At her high school proem, while other girls primed themselves before mirrors, Tammy sealed herself off in her room and listened to angst-ridden music indulging in self-mutilation. With a razor blade in hand she would carve parallel lines on her arms. A year later, she decided to attend art school to cure her malaise.

 

In this cadre of self-appointed elitist students, I faced challenges other than mastering drawing and painting skills. While in high school, I saw art school as a light at the end of a dark adolescent tunnel. I had hoped to advance my skills, perhaps find new friendships and enjoy, finally, a sense of direction and meaning. But art school was just as alienating. The students were not versed in the language of “classical realism”—which I had read about---and to which I was attracted. They responded to my work, at first, with quiet amusement. Their gentle sarcasm turned to hostility. Nicknames were becoming contagious and I became known as “the hungry artist” ---a nickname that was pinned with scorn. It was my fault. When I first arrived at the school, I was asked what kind of an artist I was. I did not entirely understanding the question and answered “a Hungry Artist.” This was met with laughter and derision.

 

Four months at the school, I began to wonder why I enrolled. This wasn’t a thought that came to full conscious awareness and it remained suppressed in the back of my mind. I was still hopeful that I would learn. I was attracted by the name of the school: The Advent-gurde Progressive Arts School. I didn’t know at the time of enrolment what “advent-gurde” meant, but the catchword “progressive” caught my attention.

 

The school was a melting pot of scamps and roughs, inhabiting a gaggle of pasty geeks and faux lunatic poseurs, a variable compost of cultural caricatures: pretentious beatniks, gay fashion designers, livid lesbians, vegan hippies, neo-beats and deadbeats, art punks, art fags, art Goths and sullen-art introverts who considered learning how to draw or paint an enormous imposition. Every kid’s face was pierced with dozens of rings with smatterings of tattoos on their face or body. Among this motley crew of mongrels, as I mentioned, I stood out…by not standing out. I did not mingle with these kids, these apprentices of abstract culture.

 

As far as I was concerned, each gum chewing, attention-challenged automaton had been spiritually lobotomized. They all fitted a blinkered mainstream and I was a proud outsider.

 

I was out of the loop, completely unfamiliar to the political manoeuvrings of the art school and out of step with the life of New York. I did not understand why the students held our vaguely swishy professor, Ivan Wine, in such high regard. In fact, the students loved him. They attached themselves like flies to a no-pest strip to his every word.

 

When Ivan Wine entered the class that day, he found Tammy in a state he had become accustomed to: perpetually pissed-off. Her sudden bursts of temper was accepted as a given. She was a handful, it was true, but as far as he was concerned, ill-temper and disagreeableness were traits that simply come with the package that is the artist. Ivan Wine had seen it all. Turning toward Wine, Tammy held her hands out in a gesture of frustrated helplessness: “Victor is desecrating the spirit of this school and everything for which we stand—again!”

 

Wine motioned for calm, placing his index finger against purse lips. He asked Tammy to regain her composure and to please take a seat. “Yes, sir,” she said dutifully, while shooting me a glance that said: step away from the painting to prepare for the daily lecture. The class took their seats and assembled around Wine.

 

Ivan Wine was a man given to wearing garish purple clothing as it were a classic black tux fitted for the Opera. He wore dark sunglasses in moderately lit rooms and his shaved head gave the appearance of a dirty tennis ball. When he removed his sunglasses, one was struck with piercing blue eyes set within a narrow face with gaunt cheekbones. His head was large for the emaciated, almost girlish overweight body. He wasn’t very tall, standing at 5’7. His skin was puffy, yellowish with thin lips. He was fifty-five years old, but he was blessed with a smooth ageless face. A tattoo that crawled up from his collarbone to his chin appeared to add to the image of youth.

 

Wine was the founder of the school. Through this school, he sought to erect a “pedantic myth”—using his words--by employing postmodernist philosophy as his framework, hoping that this would give his school a unique signature. He didn’t contribute to postmodernism art too much or its theoretical framework, but he hoped to cash in on it. He presented himself as postmodernism’s greatest defender, purporting great insight into its meaning and purpose.

 

As Wine began his speech, Tammy turned to the student nearest her and whispered: “He’s a genius.” I winced, turning to look at my surroundings. Wine’s voice faded out in my mind, becoming the sound of someone speaking into a pillow, and it was the room that took my notice. It looked like a dungeon--at worst--and a wine cellar, at best. The kiln brown-red brick that made up the walls was circa 1920s. It was a poorly lit room filled with canvasses, brushes, paints, cans, frames, filthy clothes and art supplies. A row of easels circled the room. My attention having went full circle, from one end of the room to the other, landing back on the students, who sat before the enigmatic flamboyantly purpled attired teacher. Wine’s words came back into my focus as if someone had turned up the volume on a stereo. Either from curiosity or boredom, I decided to listen in:

 

“The artist is seen as a curious creature, but he is nevertheless deeply admired for his rare talents,” he said, pacing back and forth, before his attentive students. An index finger rested against the palm of his hand. “He is admired for his so-called God-given talent and for his devotion to create masterful works for his fellow human beings that they themselves cannot create. Ideally, the artist should be seen as an altruistic creature, willing to live in poverty and obscurity, his only quest to enrich the spiritual life of the community. But the capitalistic endeavour to seek wealth and fame from one’s art degrades his art. Oh, yes, wealth and fame is sometimes thrust upon him, but such a state should never be the artist’s quest. People find inspiration in works of art--mired in the physical world as they are--and that art is cheapened if mired in enterprise. The true artist’s quest is to create art for art’s sake - his art is above the crass consumer society. Yes, let it be said again and again---the true artist is a solitary misfit who is above petty materialistic luxuries. This, I submit, is the genuine artist. This is the starving artist” Wine’s voice dropped to a baritone and his eyes narrowed and then he said with measured effect: “Ladies and gentlemen, become artists.”

 

Wine’s luxuriant speaking voice boomed out across the room, a theatrical voice capable of being heard in a large auditorium so that even half-deaf audiences could hear every syllable as if sitting center stage. There was an English lilt to his voice which had become “Americanized”—this being his term.

 

In a display of false modesty, Wine said: “Well, perhaps I have said enough.”

 

“Don’t stop now, Mr. Wine!” Tammy exhorted her beaming teacher and the class followed suit. This admiration encouraged Wine and he pressed on in full. He walked back and forth the floor, as if following a single straight line painted across the patch of ground he walked. His booming voice railed on:

 

“In this class, we will be focusing on creating art. We will not be focusing on marketing art. This is not a marketing class. This is not a business school. We are artists! We will be focusing on progressive art—not representational art. This is not an advertising agency, and in case you know nothing of history…the Renaissance is over. The days of painting the same old canards—half-naked woman in states of undress is over.” Wine’s eyes levelled the room like lava and the eyes of the student’s eyes were moisture. “I’m telling you now –and let it penetrate your young skulls – art and business make for strange bed fellows! Do you want to be artists or business men? I say, with great certainty and hope, you want to be artists!”

 

The class muttered its affirmation like a jungle tribe by the fire, the room becoming a flutter of doleful head shakes and clearly pronounced avowals of agreement. Nobody was more vocal than Tammy White. “Right on, man,” she called out, looking about to see if the others shared her degree of enthusiasm. The teacher smiled at Tammy, continuing his leisurely pace, summing up his thoughts, as if he were an attorney leading to the conclusion of his case. When Wine completed his speech, Tammy applauded with such vigour that it sounded as if the smacks were being drawn by a leather belt against a side of beef. “Right on, man! Right on!” The student’s enchantment was now complete.

 

As far as I was concerned, Wine projected both the saint and sinner. Both images, in this case, were unsavoury. As a saint, the image that came to mind was one of a faith healer supposedly healing the afflicted in assembly line fashion. As a sinner, one was reminded of a hair tonic barker selling a worthless liquid to balding narcissists. The truth was that Wine believed in his own dribble. There was no trace of insincerity could not be detected. I did not buy the bunkum that Wine spewed and this put me in considerable hot water with the other students.

 

****

 

Wine asked me to remain at the end of the class. I shrugged and nodded compliance. The class emptied, the teacher motioned for me to take a seat. Grabbing the nearest chair with a flourish, I sat in it backwards, tapping my fingers on the wooden back.

Wine pasted on an ingratiating smile and sat across from me. “You don’t seem to fancy the school affections, do you?”

“The a-a-affect…the what?”

“How old are you, Victor…if you don’t mind my asking?”

“I’m Twenty-one.”

“Ah, yes, of course. Well, it looks as though I have a good thirty years on you.”

My manner conveyed an impatient intolerance to small talk. This did not go unnoticed and the smile suddenly disappeared from Wine’s face much faster than when it first came.

He got straight to the point: “Are you pulling some kind of stunt?” Before I could utter a response, the teacher shot out a series of objections concluding with: …”if you are trying to draw attention to yourself…”

 

I held up my hand in protest. “That is not my attention.”

Wine’s smile returned, and this time it did not look warm, but was reminiscent of a wolf that senses the need to prepare for an attack.

“Well, then, what is your attention?”

“I’m trying to learn how to paint.” There was a moment of silence, as Wine touched the tip of his chin.

 

Then a velvet tone came: “Well, of course, Victor.” “That’s the point of this school. We all want to learn how to paint.”

“I’m trying to find my own voice.” I added.

“Of course.”

 

I felt as if Wine smirked derisively, or rather that is how I saw it reflected on his face. He answered, attempting to conceal what I had perceived: “You want to find your own individuality? Yes, of course. I understand that. Well, naiveté is a trait of youth.”

I said nothing. I looked Wine squarely in the eye, waiting for him to say something next. He did: “Why caricature?”

I shrugged. “Why not caricature. You gave us an assignment to paint to a person of our choice. I wanted to make it my own. I didn’t want it to be an exact replica of a photograph.”

 

“That is precisely my point,” Wine said, with sudden animation in voice, feeling he was making progress with the meeting. “I wanted to you and everybody else to paint from a photograph. I wanted to demonstrate to you, and the class, the banality of representational painting in our photographic age.”

 

“Okay, I understand the lesson. That’s why I chose to do a caricature. My painting is not a banal replica of a photograph. Hey, man, my intention was to express a microcosm, a small fraction of popular culture—or the sub culture—and to shoot it through my own individual prism. I have certain artistic goals that I want to reach…it’s something that I want to achieve. I have the imagination. I want to learn the craft and techniques of painting.” I pointed to the broad expanse of clear white canvases. “I want to express my own feelings and thoughts onto those. I don’t think I can do that effectively…if I don’t know the basics.” My eyes rested on the canvasses. It was as if they calling out to me to give them form and identity. My voice then fell to a near whisper: “I want to paint for my own satisfaction—and I want to make a living from my work. That’s why I’m here.” I tore my eyes off of the canvasses and they fell back on Wine. “Almost everything I’ve seen here, so far, goes against my instincts.” My statement was direct and without defiance. It was said as if I were simply stating my right to breath.

 

“Why of course,” Wine said, the velvet in his voice returned, only now more exaggerated than a caricature sketch. “There are some things you need to take into account. For over twenty-five hundreds humanity has learned new ways to create artistic expression, some of it very unorthodox. An artist who wishes to explore new terrain would do well from learning all he can from those who have gone before. If we are to express our, um, originally, we must not repeat the traditions of the past.”

 

I made a motion to speak, but Wine held his hand to hold me off.

 

“You are safe in the world of illustrations. You can work fairgrounds dishing out caricatures or you can work for an advertising agency creating disposable art, such as storyboards. And disposable is what it is; nobody reveres a storyboard artist. Their work does not hang in galleries and museums. You want to be recognized as an artist, Victor. Yes, and even though in some circles illustration can be considered as ‘art’ it will always remain inferior to gallery-sanctioned art. That bothers you, I’m sure. My speculation is that you want your peers, and eventually, I’m very positive, the art world to recognize that caricature as—potentially—an art form.”

“That’s not true,” I answered evenly. “I want to be recognized as an artist…because I am an artist. That’s first and primary. I’m an artist…who can paint and draw caricatures.” I said nothing else, a seconds passed between us.

 

I observed that Wine’s face was an expressionless mask, and that his eyes were icy with disapproval.

  

The bottom line to this little slice-of-life recall: the school was much more concerned with “expressing” than learning actual drawing and painting skills. That may very well be okay with other artist types, but it was not in the interest of this artist. I wanted to learn how to draw—than to break “the rules” if I so chose—and I wanted to learn how to paint—to paint outside of my drawn lines—if I so chose. I was the misfit among a cadre of faux misfits.

 

I left the school and I eventually went on to teach myself how to draw. What I learned…is what you now see in my art.

 

:}

Camera: Canon EOS 1V, EF 2/135mm

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Arles

 

Arles is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Country: France

Region: Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Department: Bouches-du-Rhône

Arrondissement: Arles

Canton: Arles

Intercommunality: CA Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette

Government

 

• Mayor (2014–2020) Hervé Schiavetti (PCF)

Area1 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi)

Population (2012)2 52,439

• Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

INSEE/Postal code 13004 /13200

Elevation 0–57 m (0–187 ft)

(avg. 10 m or 33 ft)

 

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

 

Arles (French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

 

A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

 

Geography

 

The river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

Climate

 

Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[1]

 

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

 

The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast.

 

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

 

Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

 

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[2][3][4][5]

 

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

 

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[6]

 

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Roman aqueduct and mill

Aqueduct of Arles at Barbegal

 

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[7] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[8] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[9] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life.

 

It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius in his De Architectura of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines.

Middle Ages

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night by Vincent van Gogh (September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

 

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

 

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

 

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

 

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

Modern era

 

Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.

 

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

Jewish history

Main article: History of the Jews in Arles

 

Arles had an important and evident Jewish community between the Roman era and until the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evident of Jews in Arles is not before fifth century, when a distinguished community had already existed in town. Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, the jurisdiction of the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum.[10]

Population

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1806 20,151 —

1820 20,150 −0.0%

1831 20,236 +0.4%

1836 20,048 −0.9%

1841 20,460 +2.1%

1846 23,101 +12.9%

1851 23,208 +0.5%

1856 24,816 +6.9%

1861 25,543 +2.9%

1866 26,367 +3.2%

1872 24,695 −6.3%

1876 25,095 +1.6%

1881 23,480 −6.4%

1891 24,288 +3.4%

1896 24,567 +1.1%

1901 28,116 +14.4%

1906 31,010 +10.3%

1911 31,014 +0.0%

1921 29,146 −6.0%

1926 32,485 +11.5%

1946 35,017 +7.8%

1954 37,443 +6.9%

1962 41,932 +12.0%

1968 45,774 +9.2%

1975 50,059 +9.4%

1982 50,500 +0.9%

1990 52,058 +3.1%

1999 50,426 −3.1%

2008 52,729 +4.6%

2010 57,328 +8.7%

Main sights

Gallo-Roman theatre.

The Alyscamps.

 

Arles has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

 

The Gallo-Roman theatre

The arena or amphitheatre

The Alyscamps (Roman necropolis)

The Thermae of Constantine

The cryptoporticus

Arles Obelisk

Barbegal aqueduct and mill

 

The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.

 

The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu and the Museon Arlaten.

 

The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[11] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[12]

Archaeology

Main article: Arles portrait bust

 

In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[13] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[14][15] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.

 

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[16][17][18] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,[19] which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[20] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[21] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.

Sport

 

AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000.

Culture

 

A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there.

 

The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

 

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

 

The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles.

European Capital of Culture

 

Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013.

Economy

 

Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

Transport

 

The Gare d'Arles railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux and several regional destinations.

Notable people

 

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889.

The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830–1914) was born near Arles

Jeanne Calment (1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles

Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)

Christian Lacroix, fashion designer

Lucien Clergue, photographer

Djibril Cissé, footballer

Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste

Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308

Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris on September 2, 1792

Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador

Maja Hoffmann, art patron

Mehdi Savalli, matador

The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386

Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles

Gael Givet, footballer

Lloyd Palun, footballer

Fanny Valette, actress

Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas

Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages.

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages.

 

Twin towns — sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

 

Arles is twinned with:

 

Pskov, Russia

Jerez de la Frontera, Spain

Fulda, Germany

York, Pennsylvania, United States

Cubelles, Spain

Vercelli, Italy

Sagné, Mauritania

Kalymnos, Greece

Wisbech, United Kingdom

Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Verviers, Belgium

 

See also

 

Archbishopric of Arles

Montmajour Abbey

Trinquetaille

Langlois Bridge

Saint-Martin-de-Crau

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department

 

References

 

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

INSEE

 

The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr.

www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Rom...

Rick Steves' Provence & the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books

Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books

Provence, p. 81, at Google Books

Wace, Dictionary)

Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.

"Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

"La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.

jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles

Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France 2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7.

"Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29.

Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008)

E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C.". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14. , CNN-Online et al.

Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find (France 3)

Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line

Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line

Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line

Cp. this image at the AERIA library

A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9).

Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome.

Andrea del Sarto. (Andrea Vannucci) 1486-1530. Florence. Portrait of a Man. vers 1518. Londres. National Gallery.

Débuts du maniérisme italien. Early Italian Mannerism.

 

LE MANIERISME

 

Dans l'histoire de l'art l'appellation de maniérisme s'applique en premier lieu à la peinture italienne de 1520 à 1580. Il est représenté par des peintres comme Andrea del Sarto, Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino, Andrea del Abbate, Corregio, Beccafumi, Bacchiacca, Giulio Romano, Vasari, Le Tintorêt, Véronèse.

Cette esthétique se répand ensuite en Europe avec Le Greco en Espagne, Bloemaert, Goltzius, Wtewael Cornelis van Haarlem aux Pays Bas, Toussaint Dubreuil, les deux Caron en France, Spranger en Allemagne.

Toute l'histoire de l'art européen alterne les périodes où triomphe une esthétique à tendances classiques, et les périodes où s'imposent des tendances plus expressives.

Le Classicisme. C'est une esthétique de l'harmonie dans la mesure et l'équilibre. Il est caractérisé par la rigueur du dessin et des formes, la consonance et la retenue des couleurs, la modération raisonnable et raisonnée et la subtilité dans l'expression des sentiments.

L'esthétique Expressive prend diverses formes qui tendent à éloigner la peinture du naturalisme et du réalisme mesuré du Classicisme pour favoriser l'emphase et l'émotion. Le dessin peut être plus souple, l'art du flou est privilégié, la touche est plus visible (empâtements, hachures...). les formes des figures sont accentuées, les silhouettes des personnages allongées, les musculatures amplifiées. Les couleurs sont souvent plus accentuées et contrastées. Le mouvement et l'expression des sentiments sont exagérés, quelque fois jusqu'à la limite de l'outrance.

Le classicisme prend différents noms selon les périodes de l'histoire, Atticisme, Poussinisme, Néo-classicisme, Académisme.

La manière expressive prend les noms de Maniérisme, Baroque, Rubénisme, Rococo, Romantisme, Expressionnisme...

Evidemment toutes les gradations entre ces deux tendances existent.Le maniérisme italien était discrètement annoncé par des peintres répertoriés dans l'école classique comme Perugino et son élève Raphaël, figure du classicisme par excellence.

L'Art français sous Louis XIII est plutôt classique. Toute la peinture française sous Louis XIV hésite entre les deux tendances, et la peinture sous Louis XV est rococo.

 

THE MANNERISM

In the history of art, the appellation of mannerism applies, primarily, to Italian painting from 1520 to 1580. He is represented by artists like Andrea del Sarto, Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino, Andrea del Abbate, Correggio, Beccafumi, Bacchiacca, Giulio Romano, Vasari, Tintoretto, Veronese.

This aesthetic then spreads in Europe with El Greco in Spain, Bloemaert, Goltzius, Wtewael, Cornelis van Haarlem in the Netherlands, Toussaint Dubreuil, the two Caron in France, Spranger in Germany.

The whole history of European art, alternates the periods in which triumph the aesthetic to classic trends, and the periods in which the more expressive tendencies to impose. The Classicism. It is an aesthetic of the harmony in the measure and the balance. It is characterized by the rigor of the drawing and shapes, the consonance and the restraint of colors, the reasonable and reasoned moderation, and the subtlety in the expression of feelings.

The Aesthetic Expressive takes various forms that tend to move the painting out of naturalism and the measured realism of the Classicism, to favor the emphasis and emotion. The drawing can be more flexible, the art of the blur is privileged, the touch of the brush is more visible (impastos, hatching ...). the shapes of the figures are emphasized, the silhouettes of the characters, lengthened, the musculature, increased. The colors are often more pronounced and contrasting. The movement and the expression of feelings are exaggerated, sometimes to the limit of the excess.

Classicism takes different names in different periods of history, Atticism, Poussinisme, Neo-Classicism, Academism.

The expressive style takes the names of Mannerism, Baroque, Rubénisme, Rococo, Romanticism, Expressionism ...

Obviously all the gradations between these two tendencies exist. Italian Mannerism was quietly announced by painters listed in the classical school, as Perugino and his pupil Raphael figure of classicism par excellence.

The French Art of Louis XIII is pretty classic. All French painting under Louis XIV hesitates between the two tendencies, and the painting under Louis XV is Rococo.

   

184 X 189 cm.

 

Piero di Cosimo (2 January 1462 – 12 April 1522), also known as Piero di Lorenzo, was a Florentine painter of the Italian Renaissance.

 

He is most famous for the mythological and allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; he is said to have abandoned these to return to religious subjects under the influence of Savonarola, the preacher who exercised a huge sway in Florence in the 1490s, and had a similar effect on Botticelli. The High Renaissance style of the new century had little influence on him, and he retained the straightforward realism of his figures, which combines with an often whimsical treatment of his subjects to create the distinctive mood of his works. Vasari has many stories of his eccentricity, and the mythological subjects have an individual and quirky fascination.

 

He trained under Cosimo Roselli, whose daughter he married, and assisted him in his Sistine Chapel frescos. He was also influenced by Early Netherlandish painting, and busy landscapes feature in many works, often forests seen close at hand. Several of his most striking secular works are in the long "landscape" format used for paintings inset into cassone wedding chests or spalliera headboards or panelling. He was apparently famous for designing the temporary decorations for Carnival and other festivities.

 

The son of a goldsmith, Lorenzo di Piero, Piero was born in Florence and apprenticed under the artist Cosimo Rosseli, from whom he derived his popular name and whom he assisted in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481.

In the first phase of his career, Piero was influenced by the Netherlandish naturalism of Hugo van der Goes, whose Portinari Triptych (now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence) helped to lead the whole of Florentine painting into new channels.

 

From him, most probably, Cosimo acquired the love of landscape and the intimate knowledge of the growth of flowers and of animal life. The manner of Hugo van der Goes is especially apparent in the Adoration of the Shepherds, at the Berlin Museum.

 

He journeyed to Rome in 1482 with his master, Rosselli. He proved himself a true child of the Renaissance by depicting subjects of Classical mythology in such pictures as the Venus, Mars, and Cupid, The Death of Procris, the Perseus and Andromeda series, at the Uffizi, and many others. Inspired to the Vitruvius' account of the evolution of man, Piero's mythical compositions show the bizarre presence of hybrid forms of men and animals, or the man learning to use fire and tools. The multitudes of nudes in these works shows the influence of Luca Signorelli on Piero's art.

 

During his lifetime, Piero acquired a reputation for eccentricity—a reputation enhanced and exaggerated by later commentators such as Giorgio Vasari, who included a biography of Piero di Cosimo in his Lives of the Artists. Reportedly, he was frightened of thunderstorms, and so pyrophobic that he rarely cooked his food; he lived largely on hard-boiled eggs, which he prepared 50 at a time while boiling glue for his artworks. He also resisted any cleaning of his studio, or trimming of the fruit trees of his orchard; he lived, wrote Vasari, "more like a beast than a man".

 

If, as Vasari asserts, he spent the last years of his life in gloomy retirement, the change was probably due to preacher Girolamo Savonarola, under whose influence he turned his attention once more to religious art. The death of his master Roselli may also have affected Piero's morose elder years. The Immaculate Conception with Saints, at the Uffizi, and the Holy Family, at Dresden, illustrate the religious fervour to which he was stimulated by Savonarola.

 

With the exception of the landscape background in Rosselli's fresco of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Sistine Chapel, there is no record of any fresco work from his brush. On the other hand, Piero enjoyed a great reputation as a portrait painter: the most famous of his work is in fact the portrait of a Florentine noblewoman, Simonetta Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici. According to Vasari, Piero excelled in designing pageants and triumphal processions for the pleasure-loving youths of Florence, and gives a vivid description of one such procession at the end of the carnival of 1507, which illustrated the triumph of death. Piero di Cosimo exercised considerable influence upon his fellow pupils Albertinelli and Bartolomeo della Porta, and was the master of Andrea del Sarto.

 

Vasari gave Piero's date of death as 1521, and this date is still repeated by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica. However, contemporary documents reveal that he died of plague on 12 April 1522.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

-.-

 

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder.

 

The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m2) Sculpture Garden. The Gallery often presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America.

 

For the breadth, scope, and magnitude of its collections, the National Gallery is widely considered to be one of the greatest museums in the United States of America, often ranking alongside the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in Boston, Massachusetts. Of the top three art museums in the United States by annual visitors, it is the only one that has no admission fee. It ranks 2nd in American museums behind the Met for number of annual visitors and 10th in the world.

 

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

  

For educational non-commercial use only (as to all photo's in my Flickr photostream).

 

Here you find a link to the website of the National Gallery of Art:

www.nga.gov/

 

WASHINGTON, D.C. - NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART - PIERO DI COSIMO (1462-1521) – THE VISITATION WITH ST. NICHOLAS AND ST. ANTHONY ABBOT (c. 1490), detail. SAMUEL H. KRESS COLLECTION ©Hans Ollermann.

  

++++++++++ FROM WKIPEDIA +++++++++

 

Kolkata /koʊlˈkɑːtə/ ([kolkata] (About this soundlisten), also known as Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy".[1][2][3].According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.[11][12][13]

 

In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690,[15] the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.

 

As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle intellectual exchanges (adda). West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports.

 

Etymology

 

The word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata (Bengali: কলিকাতা) [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city eventually was to be established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.[16]

 

There are several explanations about the etymology of this name:

 

The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô [ˈkalikʰːet̪rɔ] (Bengali: কালীক্ষেত্র), meaning "Field of [the goddess] Kali". Similarly, it can be a variation of 'Kalikshetra' (Sanskrit: कालीक्षेत्र, lit. "area of Goddess Kali").

Another theory is that the name derives from Kalighat.[17]

Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila (Bengali: কিলকিলা), or "flat area".[18]

The name may have its origin in the words khal [ˈkʰal] (Bengali: খাল) meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa [ˈkata] (Bengali: কাটা), which may mean "dug".[19]

According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun [ˈkɔlitɕun] (Bengali: কলি চুন) and coir or kata [ˈkat̪a] (Bengali: কাতা); hence, it was called Kolikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] (Bengali: কলিকাতা).[18]

 

Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata [ˈkolkat̪a] (Bengali: কলকাতা) or Kôlikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] (Bengali: কলিকাতা) in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation.[20] (It should be noted that "Calcutt" is an etymologically unrelated place name found at several locations in England.)

History

 

The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia.[21][22] Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;[23] In response to a public petition,[24] the Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder.[25] The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village; Sutanuti was a riverside weavers' village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the jagirdari (a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen) taxation rights to the villages were held by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or zamindars. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698.[26]:1

  

In 1712, the British completed the construction of Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River to protect their trading factory.[27] Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.[28] A force of Company soldiers (sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year.[28] Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar