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Excerpt from historicplaces.ca:

 

Description of Historic Place

The Geary House, located at 133 St. Georges Crescent, is situated on the east side of St. Georges Crescent, west of the intersection of Waterloo Street North and St Georges Crescent, in the Town of Goderich. The property consists of a two-storey, white faux-stone residence that was constructed in circa 1863.

 

The property was designated by the town of Goderich in 1981 for its historical or architectural value under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act (By-law 50 of 1981).

 

Heritage Value

The Geary House is significant for its association with William Geary, who was a local contractor and stage coach operator. He originally purchased the property from Edward Griffin. Geary cleared a good deal of the land around Goderich, including the area of the old Gaol. He was married to Elizabeth, one of the seven daughters of William Bennett Rich, an early employee of the Canada Company.

Constructed in circa 1863, the Geary House is a fine example of a Gothic Revival style with an asymmetrical floor plan, a style that was popular from 1850 through 1880 in Goderich. In the case of the Geary home, the floor plan is in a T formation. Timber construction is sheathed with ashlar imitation stone block with intricate bargeboards at gable ends and a decorative cornice around the top of the bay window, adorned by a decorative railing.

 

Character-Defining Elements

Character defining elements that contribute to the heritage value of the Geary House include its:

- one-and-a-half storey timber construction, sheathed in ashlar stone block

- intricate bargeboard trim

- pointed arch openings and sharply pitched gables

- 2 over 2 windows

- side porch, including wood roof which forms a balcony

- bay window on western elevation

- main entrance including transom and side panel lights

- T pattern of three large square rooms

- square entrance, involving a finely detailed staircase

Stained glass in the south aisle of St. Peter's church, March, Cambridgeshire. This depicts the visit of the newly pregnant Mary to her cousin Elizabeth, one of a sequence depicting the story of Jesus' birth.

Glass by F R Leach of Cambridge, 1908 (signed)

And on the second weekend of the year, I take my two camera bodies out for a bit of churchcrawling.

 

Wingham is a substantial town/village between Dover and Canterbury, and was once the terminus of a branch of the East Kent Light Railway, though the nearby mine failed to produce any coal.

 

It is an attractive place, but is blighted by the main road that cuts the town in half, and it is a busy road too. On the road there are three pubs, and many fine and ancient houses.

 

St Mary sits beside the road, and it skirts the churchyard to the south and east, and despite being on a grand scale, mature trees in the churchyard do well to hide it from view.

 

I did come here many years ago back in the early days of the Kent Church project, and took no more than a handful of shots, I thought I could do better that that this time.

 

It is a church full of grand tombs, memorials and other features that I am looking forward to share with you, most curious of which is a curved passageway that leads from the northeast corner of the Oxenden chapel to the chancel.

 

I was met inside by one of the wardens, cleaning up with a large soft broom, after a while he came over to see what I was doing, so i explained about the project, and also said what a fine church it was (such comments always go down well I find) and that the memorials on display look fabulous, but I could see two more hidden away behind the organ in what is now the vestry, but was once the north chapel, or the Palmer family chapel. He got out his keys and unlocked the vestry door, allowing me to photograph the one memorial still visible.

 

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An enormous church, picturesquely set at an angle of the village street. It owes its size to the fact that it supported a college of priests in the Middle Ages. During the sixteenth century it was substantially rebuilt, but the north aisle was not replaced, reducing the church to the odd shape we see today. The unusual pillars which divide the nave from the south aisle are of timber, not stone as a result of lack of money. At the end of the south aisle is the Oxenden chapel, which contains that family's excellent bull's head monument. The contemporary metalwork screens and black and white pavements add great dignity to this part of the building. By going through a curved passage from the chapel you can emerge in the chancel, which is dominated by a stone reredos of fifteenth-century date. This French construction was a gift to the church in the 1930s and while it is not good quality carving, is an unusual find in a Kent church.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Wingham

 

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hortly after 1280AD Archbishop Peckham of Canterbury established a college of priests at Wingham, with a provost and six canons. From 1286 the priests lived in the attractive timber-framed house opposite St Mary's church. The college accounts for the size of the church, which seems enormous considering the present size of Wingham itself.

 

There was a cruciform church here before the college was established, but that building was remodelled around 1290, leaving us several excellent Geometric Gothic windows. A south porch and tower were added around 1400. The porch is curious in that there are two stories externally, but internally only one. There are many reminders of the church's past, however; the arch between the south transept and south nave aisle is late Norman, as is a blocked arch on the west wall of the north transept.

 

By the early 16th century the nave was in poor condition. A local brewer named George Ffogarde of Canterbury was granted a license to raise money for its repair. Having a considerable sum of money for church repair, the unscrupulous brewer absconded with the funds, embezzling £224, a huge sum for the time. The missing funds may explain why the nave was rebuilt using cheaper timber posts to support the arcades, rather than more costly stone.

 

The octagonal timber posts are of chestnut wood, topped by a crown-post timber roof. Sometime before the mid-19th century the timbers were encased in plaster to resemble Doric columns, but thankfully the plaster has been stripped off and we can appreciate the timber! The nave was rebuilt in the late 16th century, diminishing its footprint and leaving behind some rather odd features, like an external piscina on what was originally the easternmost pier of the nave arcade. Another odd touch is provided by the north transept, remodelled with wood frames in the Georgian period. I'm not sure I can call to mind another essentially medieval church with wooden-framed windows!

 

In the chancel is a lovely 14th century triple-seat sedilia and piscina. The chancel and nave are separated by a 15th century screen, now truncated, with blank panels which must have once boasted painted figures of saints. But the real treasure in the chancel is a series of ten 14th century misericords. Six of the misericord carvings are simply decorative, with floral or foliage designs. Two show animals; one appears to be a horse, another a donkey. The final two carvings are the most interesting; one shows a woman in a wimple, the other a Green Man peering out from a screen of foliage.

 

Behind the altar is a lovely 15th century reredos, brought here from Troyes in France. The reredos is in two sections, the upper section depicting the Passion of Christ, the lower showing the Last Supper and the Adoration of the Kings. There are small fragments of rather attractive 14th century grisailles glass in the chancel windows, and near the font are a number of surviving medieval floor tiles.

 

The interior is full of monuments to the Oxenden and Palmer families. The finest of these are to be found in the north transept chapel. On the east wall of the chapel is a memorial to Sir Nicholas Palmer (d. 1624). The memorial was designed by Nicholas Stone and shows effigies of Palmer and his wife under Corinthian columns and an open pediment. On the north wall is the monument to a later Thomas Palmer (d. 1656) with a bust of the deceased, now somewhat the worse for wear. A tablet to Streynsham Master (d. 1718) is on the south chapel wall, and has a fairly typical pair of skulls at the base of the tablet, wreathed in olive branches.

 

The most extravagant and eye-catching memorial in the church, however, is to be found in the north transept chapel, which is guarded by ornate wrought-iron screens. In the centre of the chapel is an ebullient obelisk, dated 1682, commemorating the Oxenden family. This free-standing obelisk, possibly designed by Arnold Quellin, is of white stone, with exquisite fruit and flowers cascading down each side, with large black ox heads at each angle of the base. The base is embellished with four putti (cherubic 'infants'). The effect is quite extraordinary; most people will either love it or hate it (I loved it). Also in the south transept is a wall tablet to Charles Tripp (d. 1624).

Other monuments worth mentioning include a 14th century tomb recess in the south aisle wall and a number of 15th century indents in the chancel floor which once contained memorial brasses to canons.

 

The church is set within a large walled enclosure, dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Unusually, the churchyard wall has been listed Grade-II by the Department of the Environment for its historical interest.

 

www.britainexpress.com/counties/kent/churches/wingham.htm

 

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WINGHAM

IS the next adjoining parish south-westward from Ash, situated for the most part in the upper half hundred of the same name, and having in it the boroughs of Wingham-street, Deane, Twitham, and Wenderton, which latter is in the lower half hundred of Wingham.

 

WINGHAM is situated in a healthy pleasant country, the greatest part of it is open uninclosed arable lands, the soil of which, though chalky, is far from being unfertile. The village, or town of Wingham, is nearly in the middle of the parish, having the church and college at the south-west part of it; behind the latter is a field, still called the Vineyard. The village contains about fifty houses, one of which is the court-lodge, and is built on the road leading from Canterbury to Sandwich, at the west end of it runs the stream, called the Wingham river, which having turned a corn-mill here, goes on and joins the Lesser Stour, about two miles below; on each side the stream is a moist tract of meadow land. Near the south boundary of the parish is the mansion of Dene, situated in the bottom, a dry, though dull and gloomy habitation; and at the opposite side, next to Staple, the ruinated mansion of Brook, in a far more open and pleasant situation. To the northward the parish extends a considerable way, almost as far as the churches of Preston and Elmstone. The market, granted anno 36 king Henry III. as mentioned hereafter, if it ever was held, has been disused for a number of years past; though the market-house seems yet remaining. There are two fairs held yearly here, on May 12, and November 12, for cattle and pedlary.

 

In 1710 there was found on the court-lodge farm, by the plough striking against it, a chest or coffin, of large thick stones, joined together, and covered with a single one at the top. At the bottom were some black ashes, but nothing else in it. The ground round about was searched, but nothing else was sound.

 

Henry de Wengham, a person of great note and extraordinary parts, and much in favour with Henry III. was born here, who in 1255 made him lord chancellor. In 1259, he was elected bishop of Winchester, which he resused, but towards the latter end of the same year he was chosen bishop of London, being still chancellor, and was consecrated the beginning of the year following. He died in 1262, and was buried in his own cathedral. He bore for his arms, Gules, a heart between two wings, displayed, or.

 

WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ. eldest son of Sir William Cowper, bart. of Ratling-court, in Nonington, having been made lord-keeper of the great seal in 1705, was afterwards by letters patent, dated Dec. 14, 1706, created lord Cowper, baron Cowper of Wingham; and in 1709, was declared lord chancellor. After which, anno 4 George I. he was created earl Cowper and viscount Fordwich, in whose descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. Peter-Lewis-Francis Cowper, the fifth and present earl Cowper, viscount Fordwich and baron of Wingham. (fn. 1)

 

The MANOR OF WINGHAM was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, given to it in the early period of the Saxon heptarchy, but being torn from it during the troubles of those times, it was restored to the church in the year 941, by king Edmund, his brother Eadred, and Edwin that king's son. (fn. 2) Accordingly it is thus entered, under the general title of the archbishop's possessions, taken in the survey of Domesday:

 

In the lath of Estrei, in Wingeham hundred, the archbishop himself holds Wingeham in demesne. It was taxed at forty sulings in the time of king Edward the Consessor, and now for thirty-five. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there are eight carucates, and four times twenty and five villeins, with twenty borderers having fifty-seven carucates. There are eight servants, and two mills of thirty-four sulings. Wood for the pannage of five hogs, and two small woods for fencing. In its whole value, in the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth seventy-seven pounds, when he received it the like, and now one hundred pounds. Of this manor William de Arcis holds one suling in Fletes, and there be has in demesne one carucate, and four villeins, and one knight with one carucate, and one fisbery, with a saltpit of thirty pence. The whole value is forty shillings. Of this ma nor five of the archbishop's men hold five sulings and an half and three yokes, and there they have in demesne eight carucates, and twenty-two borderers, and eight servants. In the whole they are worth twenty-one pounds.

 

In the 36th year of king Henry III. archbishop Boniface obtained the grant of a market at this place. The archbishops had a good house on this manor, in which they frequently resided. Archbishop Baldwin, in king Henry II.'s reign, staid at his house here for some time during his contention with the monks of Christ-church, concerning his college at Hackington. Archbishop Winchelsea entertained king Edward I. here in his 23d year, as did archbishop Walter Reynolds king Edward II. in his 18th year. And king Edward III. in his 5th year, having landed at Dover, with many lords and nobles in his train, came to Wingham, where he was lodged and entertained by archbishop Meopham. And this manor continued part of the see of Canterbury till archbishop Cranmer, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. exchanged it with the king for other premises. After which it continued in the crown till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted the scite, called Wingham court, with the demesne lands of the manor, to trustees, for the use of the city of London. From whom, by the direction of the mayor and commonalty, it was conveyed, at the latter end of that reign, to Sir William Cowper, knight and baronet, in whose descendants it has continued down to the right hon. Peter-Francis Cowper, earl Cowper, who is the present owner of it. (fn. 3)

 

BUT THE MANOR ITSELF, with the royalties, profits of courts, &c. remained still in the crown. Since which, the bailiwic of it, containing the rents and pro fits of the courts, with the fines, amerciaments, reliess, &c. and the privilege of holding the courts of it, by the bailiff of it, have been granted to the family of Oxenden, and Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, is now in possession of the bailiwic of it. A court leet and court baron is held for this manor.

 

TRAPHAM is a mansion in this parish, which was formerly in the possession of a family of the same name, who resided at it, but after they were extinct it passed into that of Trippe, who bore for their arms, Gules, a chevron, or, between three borses heads erased, sable, bridled, collared and crined of the second; (fn. 4) and John Tripp, esq. resided here in queen Elizabeth's reign, as did his grandson Charles, who seems to have alienated it to Sir Christopher Harflete, of St. Stephen's, whose son Tho. Harflete, esq. left an only daughter and heir Afra, who carried it in marriage to John St. Leger, esq. of Doneraile, in Ireland, descended from Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy of Ireland in Henry VIII.'s reign, and they joined in the alienation of it to Brook Bridges, esq of the adjoining parish of Goodneston, whose descendant Sir Brook Wm. Bridges, bart. of that place, is the present owner of it.

 

The MANOR OF DENE, situated in the valley, at the southern boundary of this parish, was antiently the inheritance of a family who took their surname from it, and held it by knight's service of the archbishop, in king Edward I's reign, but they seem to have been extinct here in that of king Edward III. After which it passed into the family of Hussey, who bore for their arms, Per chevron, argent and vert, three birds counterchanged; and then to Wood, before it came by sale into the family of Oxenden, who appear to have been possessed of it at the latter end of Henry VI.'s reign, about which time they had become by marriage, owners of Brook and other estates in this parish. The family of Oxenden have been resident in this county from the reign of king Edward III. Solomon Oxenden, being the first mentioned in the several pedigrees of it, whose near relation Richard Oxenden was prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, in that reign; in this name and family of Oxenden, whose arms were Argent, a chevron, gules, between three oxen, sable, armed, or; which coat was confirmed to the family by Gyan, king at arms, anno 24 Henry VI. this manor and seat continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, of Dene, who was on May 8, 1678, created a baronet, whose youngest grandson Sir George Oxenden, bart. succeeding at length to the title on the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, resided at Dene, where he died in 1775, having served in parliament for Sandwich, and been employed in high offices in administration, and leaving behind him the character of a compleat gentleman. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Edward Dunck, esq. of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, by whom he had two sons, of whom George, the second, was made by will heir to the estate of Sir Basil Dixwell, bart. of Brome, on his death, s. p. and changed his name to Dixwell as enjoined by it, but died soon afterwards likewise, s. p. and that estate came at length to his eldest brother Henry, who succeeded his father in the title of Baronet. He married Margaret, daughter and coheir of Sir George Chudleigh, bart. of Devonshire, since deceased, by whom he has issue Henry Oxenden, esq. of Madekyn, in Barham, who married Mary, one of the daughters of Col. Graham, of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, by whom he has issue. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. now resides at Brome, and is the present possessor of this manor and seat, as well as the rest of his father's estates in this parish. (fn. 5) Lady Hales, widow of Sir Thomas Pym Hales, bart. of Bekesborne, now resides in it.

 

TWITHAM, now usually called Twittam, is a hamlet in this parish, adjoining to Goodneston, the principal estate in which once belonged to a family of that name, one of whom Alanus de Twitham is recorded as having been with king Richard I. at the siege of Acon, in Palestine, who bore for his arms, Semee of crosscroslets, and three cinquesoils, argent, and held this estate in Twitham, of the archbishop, and they appear to have continued possessed of it in the 3d year of king Richard II. Some time after which it came into the possession of Fineux, and William Fineux sold it anno 33 Henry VIII. to Ingram Wollet, whose heirs passed it away to one of the family of Oxenden, of Wingham, in whose descendants it has continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, the present possessor of it.

 

On the foundation of the college of Wingham, archbishop Peckham, in 1286, endowed the first diaconal prebend in it, which he distinguished by the name of the prebend of Twitham, with the tithes of the lands of Alanus de Twitham, which he freely held of the archbishop there in Goodwynestone, at Twytham. (fn. 6)

 

BROOK is an estate in this parish, situated northward from Twitham, which was formerly the estate of the Wendertons, of Wenderton, in this parish, in which it remained till by a female heir Jane, it went in marriage to Richard Oxenden, gent. of Wingham, who died in 1440, and was buried in Wingham church, in whose name and family it continued down to Henry Oxenden, of Brook, who left two daughters and coheirs, of whom Mary married Richard Oxenden, of Grays Inn, barrister-at-law, fourth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart, who afterwards, on his wife's becoming sole heiress of Brook, possessed it, and resided here. He left Elizabeth his sole daughter and heir, who carried it in marriage to Streynsham Master, esq. a captain in the royal navy, the eldest surviving son of James Master, esq. of East Langdon, who died some few days after his marriage; upon which she became again possessed of it in her own right, and dying in 1759, s. p. gave it by will to Henry Oxenden, esq. now Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and he is the present owner of it.

 

WENDERTON is a manor and antient seat, situated northward from Wingham church, eminent, says Philipott, for its excellent air, situation, and prospect, which for many successive generations had owners of that surname, one of whom, John de Wenderton, is mentioned in Fox's Martyrology, as one among other tenants of the manor of Wingham, on whom archbishop Courtnay, in 1390, imposed a penance for neglecting to perform some services due from that manor. In his descendants this seat continued till John Wenderton, of Wenderton, in the 1st year of Henry VIII. passed it away to archbishop Warham, who at his decease in 1533, gave it to his youngest brother John Warham, whose great-grandson John, by his will in 1609, ordered this manor to be sold, which it accordingly soon afterwards was to Manwood, from which name it was alienated, about the middle of the next reign of king Charles I. to Vincent Denne, gent. who resided here, and died in 1642, s. p. whose four nieces afterwards became by will possessed of it, and on the partition of their estates, the manor and mansion, with part of the lands since called Great Wenderton, was allotted to Mary, the youngest of them, who afterwards married Vincent Denne, sergeant-at-law, and the remaining part of it, which adjoins to them, since called Little Wenderton, to Dorothy, the third sister, afterwards married to Roger Lukin, gent. of London, who soon afterwards sold his share to Richard Oxenden, esq. of Brook, from one of which family it was sold to Underdown, by a female heir of which name, Frances, it went in marriage to John Carter, esq. of Deal, the present owner of it.

 

BUT GREAT WENDERTON continued in the possession of Sergeant Denne, till his death in 1693, when Dorothy, his eldest daughter and coheir, carried it in marriage to Mr. Thomas Ginder, who bore Argent, on a pale, sable, a cross fuchee, or, impaling azure, three lions heads, or; as they are on his monument. He resided at it till his death in 1716, as did his widow till her decease in 1736, when it came to her nephew Mr. Thomas Hatley, who left two daughters his coheirs, the eldest surviving of whom, Anne, carried it in marriage, first to Richard Nicholas, esq. and then successively to Mr. Smith and Mr. James Corneck, of London, and Mrs. Corneck, the widow of the latter, is the present possessor of it.

 

At the boundary of this parish, adjoining to Preston and Ash, lies THE MANOR OF WALMESTONE, usually called Wamston, which was antiently part of the possessions of the family of Septvans, one of whom, Robert de Septvans, held it in king Edward II.'s reign, of the archbishop; whose descendant Sir William de Septvans died possessed of it in the 25th year of that reign. (fn. 7) How long it continued in this name I have not found; but at the beginning of king Edward IV.'s reign it was become the property of William Bonington, of Canterbury, who died in 1463, and directed it by his will to be sold. After which it became, about the latter end of king Henry VIII.'s reign, the property of Walter Hendley, esq. the king's attorney-general, who left three daughters his coheirs, and they joined in the sale of it to Alday, who alienated it to Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, one of whose daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to Mervin Touchet, earl of Castlehaven, who being convicted of high crimes and misdemeanors, was executed anno 7 Charles I. Soon after which this manor seems to have been divided, and one part of it, since called Little Walmestone, in which was included the manor and part of the demesne lands, passed from his heirs to the Rev. John Smith, rector of Wickham Breaus, who having founded a scholarship at Oxford, out of the lands of it, presently afterwards sold it to Solly, of Pedding, in which name it continued till Stephen Solly, gent. of Pedding, and his two sons, John and Stephen, in 1653, joined in the conveyance of it to Thomas Winter, yeoman, of Wingham, in which name it remained for some time. At length, after some intermediate owners, it was sold to Sympson, and John Sympson, esq. of Canterbury, died possessed of it in 1748, leaving his wife surviving, who held it at her decease, upon which it came to her husband's heir-atlaw, and it is now accordingly in the possession of Mr. Richard Simpson.

 

BUT GREAT WALMESTONE, consisting of the mansion-house, with a greater part of the demesne lands of the manor, was passed away by the heirs of the earl of Castlehaven to Brigham, and Mr. Charles Brigham, of London, in the year 1653, sold it to William Rutland, of London, who left two daughters his coheirs, of whom Mary married John Ketch, by whom she had a sole daughter Anne, who afterwards at length became possessed of it, and carried it in marriage to Samuel Starling, gent. of Worcestershire, who in 1718, conveyed it, his only son Samuel joining in it, to Thomas Willys, esq. of London, afterwards created a baronet. After which it passed in the same manner, and in the like interests and shares, as the manor of Dargate, in Hernehill, down to Matthew, Robert and Thomas Mitchell, the trustees for the several uses to which this, among other estates belonging to the Willis's, had been limited; and they joined in the sale of it, in 1789, to Mr. William East, whose son, Mr. John East, of Wingham, is the present owner of it.

 

ARCHBISHOP KILWARBY intended to found a college in this church of Wingham, but resigning his archbishopric before he could put his design in practice, archbishop Peckham, his successor, in the year 1286, perfected his predecessor's design, and founded A COLLEGE in this church, for a provost, whose portion, among other premises, was the profits of this church and the vicarage of it, and six secular canons; the prebends of which he distinguished by the names of the several places from whence their respective portions arose, viz. Chilton, Pedding, Twitham, Bonnington, Ratling, and Wimlingswold. The provost's lodge, which appears by the foundation charter to have before been the parsonage, was situated adjoining to the church-yard; and the houses of the canons, at this time called Canon-row, opposite to it. These latter houses are, with their gardens and appurtenances, esteemed to be within the liberty of the town and port of Hastings, and jurisdiction of the cinque ports. This college was suppressed in the 1st year of king Edward VI. among others of the like sort, when the whole revenue of it was valued at 208l. 14s. 3½d. per annum, and 193l. 2s. 1d. clear; but Leland says, it was able to dispend at the suppression only eighty-four pounds per annum. Edward Cranmer, the last master, had at the dissolution a pension of twenty pounds per annum, which he enjoyed in 1553. (fn. 8)

 

After the dissolution of the college, the capital mansion, late belonging to the provost, remained in the crown till king Edward VI. in his 7th year, granted the scite of it, with the church appropriate of Wingham, and all tithes whatsoever arising within the parish, and one acre of glebe-land in it, to Sir Henry Palmer, subject to a payment of twenty pounds annually to the curate or vicar of it.

 

The Palmers of Wingham were descended from a very antient one at Angmerin, in Suffex, who bore for their arms, Or, two bars, gules, each charged with three tresoils of the field, in chief, a greyhound, currant, sable. In the seventh descent from Ralph Palmer, esq. of that place, in king Edward II.'s reign, was descended Sir Edward Palmer, of Angmerin, who left three sons, born on three successive Sundays, of whom John, the eldest, was of Sussex, which branch became extinct in queen Elizabeth's reign; Sir Henry, the second son, was of Wingham; and Sir Thomas, the youngest, was beheaded in queen Mary's reign. Sir Henry Palmer, the second son, having purchased the grant of the college of Wingham, as before-mentioned, made it the seat of his residence, as did his son Sir Thomas Palmer, who was sheriff anno 37 Elizabeth, and created a baronet in 1621. He so constantly resided at Wingham, that he is said to have kept sixty Christmases, without intermission, in this mansion, with great hospitality. He had three sons, each of whom were knighted. From the youngest of whom, Sir James, descended the Palmers, of Dauney, in Buckinghamshire, who upon the eldest branch becoming extinct, have succeeded to the title of baronet; and by his second wife he had Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemain. Sir Thomas Palmer, the eldest of the three brothers, died in his father's life-time, and left Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, heir to his grandfather; in whose descendants, baronets, of this place, this mansion, with the parsonage of Wingham appropriate, continued down to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, who died possessed of it in 1723, having had three wives; by the first he had four daughters; by the second he had a son Herbert, born before marriage, and afterwards a daughter Frances; the third was Mrs. Markham, by whom he had no issue; and she afterwards married Thomas Hey, esq. whom she likewise survived. Sir Thomas Palmer, by his will, gave this seat, with the parsonage appropriate and tithes of Wingham, inter alia, after his widow's decease, to his natural son Herbert Palmer, esq. above-mentioned, who married Bethia, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, bart. of Knolton. He died in 1760, s. p. and by will devised his interest in the reversion of this seat, with the parsonage, to his wife Bethia, for her life, and afterwards to his sister Mrs. Frances Palmer, in tail. But he never had possession of it, for lady Palmer furvived him, on whose death in 1763, Mrs. Bethia Palmer, his widow, became entitled to it, and afterwards married John Cosnan, esq. who died in 1773. She survived him, and resided here till her death in 1789. In the intermediate time, Mrs. Frances Palmer having barred the entail made by her natural brother Herbett above-mentioned, died, having devised the see of this estate, by her will in 1770, to the Rev. Thomas Hey, rector of Wickhambreaux, and his heirs, being the eldest son of the last lady Palmer by her last husband. Mr. Hey accordingly, on the death of Mrs. Cosnan, who died s. p. succeeded to this seat and estate. He married first Ethelreda, eldest daughter and coheir of dean Lynch, since deceased, by whom he has no surviving issue; and secondly, Mrs. Pugett, widow of Mr. Puget, of London. He now resides in this seat of Wingham college, having been created D. D. and promoted to a prebend of the church of Rochester.

 

Charities.

JOHN CHURCH, yeoman, of this parish, in 1604, gave 1cl. to the poor, to distribute yearly at Easter, 10s. to the poor for the interest of it.

 

HECTOR DU MONT, a Frenchman, born in 1632, gave the silver cup and patten for the holy communion.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, president for the East-India Company at Surat, in 1660, gave the velvet cushion and pulpitcloth.

 

JOHN RUSHBEACHER, gent. of this parish, in 1663, gave five acres of land in Woodnesborough, the rents to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish, now of the yearly value of 4l.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, above-mentioned, in 1682, gave 500l. for the repairing and beautifying this church, and the Dene chancel.

 

SIR JAMES OXENDEN, knight and baronet, of Dene, founded and endowed a school in this parish with 16l. per annum for ever, for teaching twenty poor children reading and writing, now in the patronage of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

RICHARD OXENDEN, esq. of Brook, in 1701, gave an annuity of 4l. for ever, to the minister, for the reading of divine service and preaching a sermon, in this church, on every Wednesday in Lent, and on Good Friday; and he at the same time gave 20s. yearly for ever, to be distributed, with the consent of the heirs of the Brook estate, to eight poor people, who should be at divine service on Easter-day, to be paid out of the lands of Brook, now vested in Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

THOMAS PALMER, esq. of St. Dunstan's in the East, London, gave 300l for the repairing, adorning and beautifying the great chancel of this church.

 

MRS. ELIZABETH MASTER, esq. relict of Strensham Master, of Brook, in 1728, gave the large silver flaggon; and MRS. SYBILLA OXENDEN, spinster, of Brook, at the same time gave a large silver patten for the communion.

 

Besides the above benefactions, there have been several lesser ones given at different times in money, both to the poor and for the church. All which are recorded in a very handsome table in the church, on which are likewise painted the arms of the several benefactors

 

There are about forty poor constantly relieved, and casually twenty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

The church, which is exempt from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a handsome building, consisting of two isles and three chancels, having a slim spire steeple at the west end, in which is a peal of eight bells and a clock. The church consists of two isles and three chancels. The former appear to have been built since the reformation; the latter are much more antient. It is handsome and well built; the pillars between the isles, now cased with wood, are slender and well proportioned. The outside is remarkably beautiful in the flint-work, and the windows throughout it, were regular and handsomely disposed, superior to other churches, till later repairs destroyed their uniformity. The windows were formerly richly ornamented with painted glass, the remains of which are but small. In the south window, in old English letters, is Edward Warham, gentill . . . . of making this window . . . . and underneath the arms of Warham. In the north isle is a brass tablet for Christopher Harris, curate here, and rector of Stourmouth, obt. Nov. 24, 1719. Over the entrance from this isle into the high chancel, is carved on the partition, the Prince of Wales's badge and motto. In the south wall is a circular arch, plain, seemingly over a tomb. A monument for T. Ginder, gent. obt. 1716. In the south east window the arms of Warham. A memorial for Vincent Denne, gent. of Wenderton, obt. 1642. In the high chancel are seven stalls on each side. On the pavement are several stones, robbed of their brasses, over the provosts and religious of the college. A stone, coffin-shaped, and two crosses pomelle, with an inscription round in old French capitals, for master John de Sarestone, rector, ob. XII Kal. May MCCLXXI. Several monuments and memorials for the family of Palmer. The south chancel is called the Dene chancel, belonging to that seat, under which is a vault, in which the family of Oxenden, owners of it, are deposited. In the middle, on the pavement, is a very costly monument, having at the corners four large black oxens beads, in allusion to their name and arms. It was erected in 1682. On the four tablets on the base is an account of the family of Oxenden, beginning with Henry, who built Denehouse, and ending with Dr. Oxenden, dean of the arches, who died in 1704. There are monuments in it likewise for the Trippes. The north chancel is called the Brook chancel, as belonging to that seat, in which are monuments for the Oxendens and Masters's of this seat. This chancel is shut out from the church, and is made use of as a school-room, by which means the monuments are much desaced, and the gravestones, from the filth in it, have become wholly obliterated. On one of these stones was a brass plate, now gone, for Henry Oxenden, esq. who built Dene, obt. 1597.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of the marquis of Juliers, and widow of John, son of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, after being solemnly veiled a nun, quitted her prosession, and was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace de Danbrichescourt, in a chapel of the mansion-house of Robert de Brome, a canon of this collegiate church, in 1360; for which she and her husband were enjoined different kinds of penance during their lives, which is well worth the reading, for the uncommon superstitious mockery of them. (fn. 9)

 

At the time of the reformation, the church was partly collegiate, and partly parochial. The high chancel, separated from the rest of the church by a partition, served for the members of the college to perform their quire service in. The two isles of the church were for the parishioners, who from thence could hear the quire service; and in the north isle was a roodlost, where one of the vicars went up and read the gospel to the people. At which time, I find mention of a parish chancel likewise.

 

The church of Wingham formerly comprehended not only this parish, but those likewise of Ash, Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wimlingswold; but archbishop Peckham, in 1282, divided them into four distinct parochial churches, and afterwards appropriated them to his new-founded college of Wingham, with a saving to them of certain portions which the vicars of them were accustomed to receive. The profits of this church and the vicarage of it, together with the parsonage-house, being thus appropriated and allotted to the provost, as part of his portion and maintenance, the archbishop, in order that the church should be duly served, by his foundation charter, ordered, that the provost and canons should each of them keep a vicar who should constantly serve in it. In which state it continued till the suppression of the college, in the 1st year of king Edward VI. when it came, among the rest of the revenues of the college, into the hands of the crown, where this parsonage appropriate, to which was annexed, the nomination of the perpetual curate serving in this church, remained till it was granted by king Edward VI. in his 7th year, to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. Since which it has continued in like manner, together with the scite of the college, as has been already mentioned, to the Rev. Dr. Hey, who is the present possessor of this parsonage, together with the patronage of the perpetual curacy of the church of Wingham.

 

In 1640 the communicants here were three hundred and sixty-one.

 

¶The curacy is endowed with a stipend of twenty pounds per annum, paid by the owner of the parsonage, and reserved to the curate in the original grant of the college by king Edward VI. and with four pounds per annum, being the Oxenden gift before mentioned; besides which, the stipend of the resident curate, and his successors, was increased in 1797, by a liberal benefaction made by the Rev. Dr. Hey, of one hundred pounds per annum, clear of all deductions, to be paid out of the parsonage, and of a house, garden, and piece of pasture land adjoining, for the curate's use, both which were settled by him on trustees for that purpose.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp224-241

You don't really think anyone is going to open a church in this weather? Said Jools. And at about the same time, a warden's wife was saying, you're not going to go and open the church are you? No one will visit a church on a day like this.

 

So, the madness of man wins out, as I did visit and found that the warden had just opened the church.

 

Sadly, Great Mongehmam wasn't open later, but looked interesting enough to demand a return visit ASAP.

 

As I now know, any settlement ending with "bourne" should have a stream source or running through it. And that is the case here, a winterbourne, though not as frequently running as the Nailbourne rises here and flows to Sandwich.

 

Northbourne lies to the west of Deal, in a patchwork of fields and woods that is most pleasant. It used to be near to Tilmanstone Colliery and the Davy Lamp hanging in the chanel remembers this.

 

I walk into the porch and there is the warden helpfully hanging the "church open" sign on the door. Come to visit the church he asked. Yes, is there one nearby, I quipped.

 

He showed me some interesting details, shred a bit of histor, then began his long walk back to Finglesham.

 

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One of the few cruciform churches to have been built in Kent in the twelfth century, on the site of, and incorporating fragments of, a Saxon building. Curtains help shut off parts of the church during the winter months. There is a good mass dial by the main door. The Lady Chapel contains the monument to Sir Edwin Sandys and his wife (d. 1629). It is one of the best of its date in Kent and shows the pair in recumbent position hand in hand. Surprisingly the wordy inscription was not added until 1830! The chancel was refitted in the mid-nineteenth century but the east window shows good quality medieval stonework of thirteenth-century date.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Northbourne

 

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NORTHBORNE,

USUALLY called Norborne, as it is written in the survey of Domesday, lies the next parish westward from Little Mongeham, being so called from the north borne, or stream, which runs from hence into the river at Sandwich. There are four boroughs in it, Norborne, Finglesham, Asheley, and Tickness, or Tickenhurst, for each of which a borsholder is chosen at the manor court of Norborne.

 

THIS PARISH lies for the most part exceedingly dry and healthy, in a fine uphill, open and pleasant country, though it extends northward towards Howbridge and Foulmead, into a low country of wet ground and marsh lands. It is a large parish, for although it is very long and narrow, extending only a mile and an half from east to west, yet it is full five miles from north to south, till it joins Waldershare and Whitfield. The part of this parish containing the borough, hamlet, and manor of Tickenhurst, is separated from the rest of it by the parishes of Eastry, Ham, and Betshanger, intervening; and there is a small part of the parish of Goodneston within this of Norborne, and entirely surrounded by it. The soil of this parish being so very extensive, must necessarily vary much. It is, however, much inclined to chalk, and is throughout it very hilly; though much of it is very light earth, yet there is a great deal of rich fertile land in the lower part of it northward. There is much uninclosed land and open downs interspersed throughout it. The street of Norborne, having the church and vicarage-house within it, and containing twentysix houses, is situated at the north-east boundary of the parish. Near it is Norborne-court, the almonry or parsonage, and a house and estate, called the Vine farm, now in the possession of the hon. lady Frances Benson.

 

Besides this, there are several other streets, hamlets, and eminent farms, within the bounds of this parish, of which, those most worthy of notice, the reader will find described hereafter.

 

THE MANOR OF NORBORNE, which is of very large extent, was given in the year 618, by Eadbald, king of Kent, by the description of a certain part of his kingdom, containing thirty plough lands, called Northborne, to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, in which monastery his father lay, and where he had ordered himself to be buried. In this state it con tinued at the time of taking the survey of Domesday, in the 15th year of the Conqueror's reign, in which it is entered under the general title of the land of the church of St. Augustine, as follows:

 

In the lath of Estrea. In Cornelest hundred.

 

The abbot himself holds Norborne. It was taxed at thirty sulings. The arable land is fifty-four carucates. In demesne there are three, and seventy-nine villeins, with forty-two borderers, having thirty-seven carucates. There are forty acres of meadow, and wood for the pannage of ten hogs.

 

In the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth four times twenty pounds; when he received it twenty pounds; now seventy-six pounds.

 

Of the lands of the villeins of this manor, Oidelard holds one suling, and there he has two carucates, with eleven borderers..... It is worth four pounds. .... Of the same land of the villeins, Gislebert holds two sulings, all but half a yoke, and there he has one carucate, and four villeins, with one carucate. It is worth six pounds.

 

Wadard holds of this manor three sulings, all but sixty acres of the land of the villeins, and there he has one carucate, and eight villeins, with one carucate and two servants. It is worth nine pounds; but he pays no service to the abbot, except thirty shillings, which he pays in the year.

 

Odelin holds of the same land of the villeins one suling, and there he has one carucate, with three borderers..... It is worth three pounds.

 

Marcherius holds of the same land of the villeins what is worth eight shillings.

 

Osbern the son of Letard holds half a suling, and eleven acres of meadow, of the land of the villeins, which is worth twenty-five shillings. He pays to the abbot fifteen shillings.

 

Rannulf de Colubers holds one yoke .......worth fifty pence.

 

Rannulf de Ualbadon holds one yoke, and pays from thence fifty pence.

 

The above-mentioned Oidelard holds also of this manor one suling, and it is called Bevesfel, and there he has two carucates, with ten borderers. It is worth six pounds.

 

In the reign of king Edward II. the 7th of it, anno 1313, the abbot claimed upon a quo warranto, in the iter of H. de Stanton and his sociates, justices itinerant, and was allowed sundry liberties therein mentioned in this manor, among others, and the view of frank-pledge, and likewise wrec of the sea in this manor in particular, in like manner as has been mentioned before in the description of the several manors belonging to the monastery, in the former parts of this History. (fn. 1) And the liberty of the view of frankpledge was in particular further confirmed by that king, in his 10th year.

 

King Edward III. in his 5th year, anno 1330, exempted the men and tenants of this manor from their attendance at the turne of the sheriff, before made by the borsholder, with four men of each borough within it; and directed his writ to Roger de Reynham, then sheriff, commanding that in future they should be allowed to perform the same with one man only.

 

In the 8th year of king Richard II. the measurement of the abbot and convent's lands at Nordburne, with 208 acres of wood, was 2179 acres and an half and one rood.

 

Salamon de Ripple, a monk of this monastery, being, about the 10th year of king Edward III. appointed by the abbot keeper of this manor, among others, made great improvements in many of them, and in particular he new built the barns here, and a very fair chapel, from the foundations. But after wards, in the year 1371, their great storehouses here, full of corn, were, by the negligence of a workman, entirely burnt down; the damage of which was estimated at one thousand pounds.

 

After which, I find nothing further in particular relating to this manor, which continued part of the possessions of the monastery, till its final dissolution, in the 30th year of king Hen. VIII. when it was surrendered into the king's hands, with whom this manor continued but a small time; for the king, in his 31st year, granted it, with the parsonage or rectory, to archbishop Cranmer, in exchange, and it remained parcel of the possessions of the see of Canterbury, till archbishop Parker, in the 3d year of queen Elizabeth, reconveyed it to the crown, in exchange. After which, the manor itself, with its courts, franchises, and liberties, continued in the crown, till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted it in fee to William White and others, to hold, as of his manor of East Greenwich, by sealty only, in free and common socage, and not in capite, or by knight's service; (fn. 2) and they that year sold it to Stephen Alcocke, gent. of London, who next year passed it away by sale, with some exceptions, to Edward Boys, gent. of Betshanger, to hold of the king in like manner, as above-mentioned. His descendant, Edward Grotius Boys, dying s. p. in 1706, gave it by will to his kinsman, Thomas Brett, LL. D. of Spring grove, and he, in 1713, alienated it to Salmon Morrice, esq. afterwards an admiral of the British navy, and of Betshanger, whose grandson William Morrice, esq. died possessed of it in 1787, unmarried; upon which it came to his only brother, James Morrice, clerk, who is the present owner of this manor.

 

The fee-farm rent reserved when this manor was granted away by the crown, came into the hands of the earl of Ilchester, who in 1788 sold it to the Rev. Mr. Morrice, the present owner of this manor; so there is now no fee-farm rent paid for it.

 

A court leet and court baron is yearly held for it; at the former of which, two constables, one for the upper half hundred, and the other for the lower half hundred of Cornilo, are chosen. The present manorhouse is a small cottage in Norborne-street, built upon the waste for that purpose.

 

NORTHBORNE-COURT, usually called Norborne abbey, from its having belonged to the abbey of St. Augustine, was the antient court-lodge of the manor, before they were separated by different grants from the crown. It is said to have been in the time of the Saxons the palace of king Eadbald, who gave it as above-mentioned, with the manor, to the above monastery. Accordingly, Leland, in his Itinerary, says, (fn. 3) "A ii myles or more fro Sandwich from Northburn cummeth a fresch water yn to Sandwich haven. At Northburn was the palayce or maner of Edbalde Ethelberts sunne. There but a few years syns (viz. in king Henry VIII.'s reign) yn breking a side of the walle yn the hawle were found ii childrens bones that had been mured up as yn burielle yn time of Paganits of the Saxons. Among one of the childrens bones was found a styffe pynne of Latin." This court-lodge, with the demesne lands of the manor, remained but a very short time in the hands of the crown, after the reconveyance of it by the archbishop, in the 3d year of queen Elizabeth, as has been mentioned above; for it was almost immediately afterwards granted by the queen, for life, to Edward Sanders, gent. her foster brother. He afterwards resided at Norborne court, having married Anne, daughter and coheir of Francis, son of Milo Pendrath of Norborne, by Elizabeth, one of the heirs of Thomas Lewin, and nurse to queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth. His ancestors had resided for some generations at Chilton, in Ash, but were originally descended from Minister, in Thanet. They bore for their arms, Or, on a chevron, gules, three mullets, argent, between three elephants heads, erased, of the second. (fn. 4) On his death, about the middle of that reign, the possession of it reverted to the crown, where it remained, till king James I. soon after his accession, granted it in see to Sir Edwin Sandys, on whom he conferred the honour of knighthood, and had given this estate, for his firm attachment to him at that time. He rebuilt this mansion, and kept his shrievalty at it, in the 14th year of king James I. and dying in the year 1629, was buried in the vault which he had made in this church for himself and his posterity, and in which most of his direct descendants were afterwards deposited. He was second son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York, by his second wife. The archbishop's eldest son was Samuel, who was of Worcestershire, from whom descended the lords Sandys, late of Ombersley, in that county. Two of his younger sons were, Miles Sandys, of Worcestershire, and George, the noted traveller. They bore for their arms, Or, a fess dancette, between three cross croslets, fitchee, gules.o

 

Sir Edwin Sandys, though he had four wives, left male issue only by his last wife. From Edwin, their second son, descended the Sandys's, of Norbornecourt; and from Richard, the third son, those of Canterbury, still remaining there. On Sir Edwin Sandys's death, in 1629, his eldest son, Henry Sandys, esq. succeeded to this estate; and on his death, s. p. his next brother, Col. Edwin Sandys, the noted rebel colonel under Oliver Cromwell, well known for his sacrilegious depredations and insolent cruelties to the royalists, who died at Norborne-court of the wound he had received in 1642, at the battle of Worcester, His grandson Sir Richard Sandys, of Norborne-court, was created a baronet in 1684, and died in 1726. By his first wife he left only four daughters his coheirs, viz. Priscilla, the eldest, married to Henry Sandys, esq. (grandson of Henry Sandys, esq. of Downe, the son of Col. Richard Sandys, the younger brother of Col. Edwin Sandys, the great grandfather of Priscilla, above-mentioned). Mary, the second daughter and coheir, married William Roberts, esq. of Harbledowne; Elizabeth, the third daughter, died unmarried soon after her father's death; and Anne, the fourth and youngest daughter, married Charles Pyott, esq. of Canterbury, and they respectively, in right of their wives, became possessed of this, among the rest of his estates, in undivided shares, by the entail made in Sir Richard Sandys's will.

 

The third part of Henry Sandys, in right of his wife Priscilla, descended to his son Richard Sandys, esq. of Canterbury, whose surviving sons, and daughter Susan married to Henry Godfrey Faussett, esq. of Heppington, at length succeeded to it.

 

The third part of William Roberts, in right of his wife Mary, descended at length to his grand-daughter Mary, only daughter of Edward Wollet, esq. who carried it in marriage to Sir Robert Mead Wilmot, bart. and on his decease came to his eldest son Sir Robert Wilmot, bart.

 

The remaining third part of Charles Pyott, esq. in right of his wife Anne, descended to his only daughter Anne, married to Robert Thomas Pyott, esq. of Hull, but afterwards of Canterbury.

 

In 1795, all the parties interested in this estate joined in conveying their respective shares to the several purchasers undermentioned: to James Tillard, esq. of Street-End Place, near Canterbury, Northborne-court lodge, farm, and lands; to Robert-Thomas Pyott, esq. Stoneheap-farm; to Wm. Wyborn, the scite of the late mansion house, gardens, and LongLane farm; to Mr. John Parker, Cold-Harbour farm; and to several other persons, the remaining small detached parts of this estate. The whole purchase-monies amounting nearly to 30,000l. The whole estate contained near 1100 acres, all tithe-free, except about forty acres.

 

The mansion of Norborne-court, the residence of the Sandys's, appears to have been a large and stately building. It was pulled down in 1750, and the materials sold; and the walls are all that now remain of it, forming a very considerable ruin. Near the house was a handsome chapel, formerly used by the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, when they visited this mansion, and afterwards by the Sandys family. It is at this time nearly entire, excepting the roof, which has been long since taken off.

 

LITTLE BETSHANGER is an estate in the western part of this parish, which was antiently accounted a manor, and had once owners of the same name; one of whom, Ralph de Betshanger, was possessed of it in king Edward II.'s reign, as was his descendant Thomas de Bethanger, in the 20th year of the next reign of king Edward III. Soon after which, Roger de Cliderow, says Philipott, was proprietor of it, as appears by the seals of old evidences, which commenced from that reign, the shields on which are upon a chevron, between three eagles, five annulets. Notwithstanding which, it appears by the gravestone over his successor, Richard Clitherow, esq. in Ash church, that the arms of these Clitherows were, Three cups covered, within a bordure, ingrailed, or; at least that he bore different arms from those of his predecessor. At length, Roger Clitherow died without male issue, leaving three daughters his coheirs; of whom Joane, the second, married John Stoughton, of Dartford, second son of Sir John Stoughton, lord-mayor of London. After which, this estate was alienated from this family of Stoughton to Gibbs, from which name it passed into that of Omer; in which it staid, till Laurence Omer, gent. of Ash, leaving an only daughter and heir Jane, she carried it in marriage to T. Stoughton, gent of Ash, afterwards of St. Martin's, Canterbury, son of Edward Stoughton, of Ash, the grandson of John Stoughton, of Dartford, the former possessor of this estate. He died in 1591, leaving three daughters his coheirs; of whom, Elizabeth was married to Thomas Wild, esq. of St. Martin's, Canterbury; Ellen to Edward Nethersole, gent. and Mary to Henry Paramore, gent. of St. Nicholas, and they by a joint conveyance passed it away to Mr. John Gookin, who about the first year of king James, alienated it to Sir Henry Lodelow, and he again, in the next year of king Charles I. sold it to Edward Boys, esq. of Great Betshanger, whole descendant Edward Grotius Boys, dying s. p. in 1706, gave it by will to his kinsman Thomas Brett, LL. D. who not long afterwards alienated it to Sir Henry Furnese, bart. of Waldershare, and his son, Sir Robert Furnese, bart. of the same place, died possessed of it in 1733. His three daughters and coheirs afterwards succeeded to his estates, on the partition of which this estate was wholly allotted, among others, to Anne, the eldest sister, wife of John, viscount St. John, which was confirmed by an act passed next year. After which it descended down to their grandson George, viscount Bolingbroke, who sold it in 1791 to Mr. Thomas Clark, the present owner of it. The house is large, and has been the residence of gentlemen; a family of the name of Boys has inhabited it for many years, Mr. John Boys now resides in it, a gentleman, whose scientific knowledge in husbandry is well known, especially by the publication of the Agricultural Society of the state of it, and its improvements in this county, for which they are, I believe, wholly indebted to him.

 

THE TITHES of this estate of Little Betshanger, as well great as small, belonged, with those of Finglisham in this parish, to the abbot and convent of St. Augusting, and were assigned in the year 1128 to the cloathing of the monks there; and after the dissolution of the monastery were granted together to the archbishop of Canterbury, part of whose revenues they remain at this time. (fn. 5)

 

Mr. Boteler, of Eastry, found near Little Betshanger, the plant astragalus glyeyphyllos, wild liquorice, or liquorice vetch, which is very scarce, and has never been observed by him any where else.

 

THE MANOR OF TICKENHURST, now called Tickness; in Domesday, Ticheteste, and in other antient records, Tygenhurst, is situated in the borough and hamlet of its own name. It lies most part of it in this parish, but at some distance westward from the rest of it, several parishes intervening, and partly in that of Knolton. In the time of the Conqueror, Odo, the great bishop of Baieux and earl of Kent, was owner of it, and continued so at the taking of the survey of Domesday, in which this manor is thus entered in it, under the general title of the bishop's lands:

 

Turstin holds of the bishop Ticheteste. It was taxed at one suling and an half. The arable land is ..... In demesne there is one carucate, with four borderers, and a small wood. In the time of king Edward the Consessor it was worth four pounds, and afterwards forty shillings, now one hundred shillings. Edric de Alham held it of king Edward.

 

Four years after the taking of the above survey, the bishop was disgraced, and all his possessions were confiscated to the crown. After which, this manor came into the possession of a family, which took their surname from it, some of whom were witnesses to deeds of a very antient date; but they became ex tinct before the reign of king Henry VI. and it was afterwards the property of the Stoddards, ancestors of those of this name, of Mottingham, in this county, in which this manor remained for some generations, till about the latter end of queen Elizabeth's reign it was alienated to Peyton, of Knolton; since which it has continued in the possession of the owners of that manor and seat, down to Sir Narborough D'Aeth, bart. now of Knolton, the present owner of it.

 

In the year 1074, the bishop of Baieux gave to St. Augustine's monastery, those tithes which his tenants had; i. e. the chamberlain Adelold, in the villes of Cnolton, Tickenhurst, and Ringelton, and likewise of Bedleshangre, and of Osbern Paisforer, in the small ville of Bocland, all which the king confirmed by his charter. But the tithes of Cnolton and Ringelton, William de Albiney, in process of time, being lord of the fee of those lands, took away from the monastery through his power; and the tithe of Boclonde, Roger de Malmains took away from it.

 

Within this borough and hamlet of Tickenhurst are two farms, called Great and Little Tickenhurst, belonging to Sir Narborough D'Aeth, bart, both which pay tithes to the almonry or parsonage of Norborne, formerly belonging to St. Augustine's monastery.

 

NEAR THE north west boundary of the parish is the HAMLET OF WEST-STREET, containing five houses. In it is an estate, called WEST-STREET, alias PARK GATE, the first mention that I find of which is in the will of Roger Litchfield, anno 1513, who mentions his farm of West-street. This, with another farm called Parkgate, (the buildings of which are now pulled down) stood in Ham parish. Sir Cloudesley Shovel was in later times possessed of this estate, and after his unfortunate decease, his two daughters and coheirs. On the division of their estate, Anne the youngest daughter, entitled her husband John Black wood to the possession of it. He died in 1777, and was succeeded in it by his two sons and coheirs in gavelkind, Shovel Blackwood, esq. and Col. John Blackwood, of Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, who made a division of their inheritance; in which partition this estate of West-street, alias Parkgate, was, among others, allotted to the latter, who next year procured an act for the sale of it. After his death this estate came to his widow, who sold it in 1790 to Mr. William Nethersole, the present owner of it.

 

ABOUT HALF A MILE from West-street is THE HAMLET OF FINGLESHAM, containing thirty houses. It is written in the survey of Domesday, Flenguessam, in which it is thus entered, under the title of lands held of the archbishop by knight's service:

 

In Estrei hundred. William Folet holds of the archbishop, Flenguessam. It was taxed at half a suling. There he has six villeins, with one carucate and an half.

 

After this, I find no further mention of this place for some time; but in the reign of king Edward I. in the year 1288, the king granted licence to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, to appropriate to their use a messuage, and certain rents and lands in different parishes, and among others, in the tenancy of Norborne, at Fenlesham.

 

In later times I find that William Poyshe, of Norborne, by will in 1524, gave his place at Fynglisham, to John his son, and that Thomas Parker, late one of the jurats of Sandwich, by will in 1596, gave to Nicholas Parker, his brother's son, his house and lands in Fynglisham, called Fynglisham farm, situated in this street. His descendant, Valentine Parker, gent. resided here in 1669, and by will gave this estate to his godson, Mr. Valentine Hild, or Hoile, from whom it has descended to his great-grandson Mr. Thomas Hoile, the present owner of it.

 

ROBERT, abbot of St. Augustine's monastery, in king Henry III.'s reign, anno 1240, confirmed an exchange, made by his convent, of all THE TITHES of Finglesham and Little Betshangre, as well great as small, to the eleemosinary of his monastery, which tithes had before belonged to the chamberlain of it. (fn. 6) These tithes of Finglisham now belong to the archbishop, and are, with those of Little Betshanger in this parish, demised by him on a beneficial lease.

 

Through Finglesham, and over Howe bridge, the high road leads to Deal. From hence, the water, called the Gestling, or north stream, takes its course towards the river Stour, below Sandwich.

 

AT A SMALL DISTANCE southward from Finglesham, is the little HAMLET OF MARLEY, which consists of only four houses, one of which is that of GROVE, alias MARLEY FARM, the former of which is its proper name, though it is now usually called by the latter. It formerly belonged to the family of Brett. Percival Brett, of Wye, possessed it in 1630, whose descendant, Richard Brett, gent. left an only daughter Catherine, who married John Cook, formerly of Mersham, but afterwards of Canterbury, clerk. They left two daughters, Catherine, wife of Thomas Shindler, alderman of Canterbury, and Mary, and they joined in the conveyance of this estate, in 1727, to John Paramor, gent. of Statenborough; after which, it descended in like manner as Statenborough, to his niece, Mrs. Jane Hawker, afterwards the wife of John Dilnot, esq. who on her death became possessed of the see of it, which he sold in 1792, together with a farm in Finglisham, to William Boteler, esq. of Eastry, who resided here, and two years afterwards alienated them both to Mr. James Jeken, of Oxney, the present owner of them.

 

ABOUT A MILE south-westward, at the western boundary of this parish, is THE MANOR OF WESTCOURT, alias BURNT-HOUSE, stiled in the antient book of the Fædary of Kent, the manor of Westcourt, alias East Betshanger, and said in it to have been held of the late monastery of St. Augustine by knight's service, being then the property of Roger Litchfield, who died possessed of it in 1513, and in his will calls it a manor, since which it has always had the same owners as Great Betshanger, and is now possessed accordingly by the Rev. James Morrice.

 

Upon the north-north east point of the open downs adjoining to Little Betshanger are the remains of a camp, formed for the forces which lay here, under the command of Capt. Peke, to oppose the landing of the Spaniards, at the time of the armada, in 1588. About a mile further southward from hence, over an open uninclosed country, is Stoneheap, a good farm, which has long had the same owners as Norbornecourt, and is now by a late purchase, wholly vested in Robert-Thomas Pyott, esq. as has been already mentioned before. This estate is tithe-free, being most probably part of the demesnes of Norborne manor. It takes tithes of corn and grain, of eighteen acres of land in Little Mongeham, belonging to Mr. John Boys, and twenty-two acres in Norborne, late belonging to Sir Edward Dering, bart. separate from it, but by what means I know not.

 

AT A LIKE DISTANCE, still further southward, is WEST STUDDAL, formerly written Stodwald, an estate which some time since belonged to a branch of the numerous family of Harvey, originally of Tilmanstone, under which a further account of them may be seen. In the descendants of this family it continued down to Richard Harvey, who was afterwards of Dane-court; not long after which, this estate came into the possession of James Six, of whom it was purchased by Sir Henry Furnese, bart. of Waldershare, about the year 1707. After which it passed, in the allotment of the Furnese estates, to Sir Edward Dering, bart. who not long since conveyed it to Solley, of Sandwich, and he sold it to Mr. Thomas Packe, of Deal, whose daughter carried it in marriage to James Methurst Pointer, esq. who lately sold it to Mr. Laurence Dilnot, the present owner of it.

 

FROM HENCE over Maimage, but more properly Malmains down, is THE HAMLET OF ASHLEY, containing fifteen houses. In it is Ashley farm, belonging to Mrs. Elizabeth Herring. The rectory or parsonage of Ashley, called in antient records, Essela, was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, with whom it continued till the dissolution of that abbey, anno 30 Henry VIII. After which it was granted to the archbishop, of whom it is now held on a beneficial lease; the interest in which belongs to Isaac Bargrave, esq. of Eastry, in right of his late wife Sarah, sister and coheir of Robert Lynch, M. D. of Canterbury, and to Mrs. Elizabeth Herring above-mentioned, the other sister and coheir. This lease consists of the glebe of land, with the tithes of the hamlet of Ashley, West Studdal, Minacre, Napchester, and of others in Little Mungeham.

 

SOUTHWARD from the above, is THE HAMLET OF MINACRE, sometimes spelt Minaker, one moiety, or half of which, was formerly the property of Silkwood, and was purchased of one of them by Sir Robert Furnese, bart. of Waldershare. Since which it has passed in like manner as the rest of the Furnese estates in this county, which came to the late earl of Guildford, by his marriage with the countess of Rockingham, one of Sir Robert Furnese's daughters and coheirs, and his grandson the present right hon. George Augustus, earl of Guildford, is now owner of it.

 

The other moiety, or half of this hamlet, belongs to Mr. Leonard Woodward, of Ashley.

 

Still further southward, at the utmost limits of this parish, is another hamlet of five houses, called NAPCHESTER, which adjoins to the parishes of Walder share and Whitfield, the principal farm of which belongs to the earl of Guildford. There are no fairs kept in this parish.

 

Charities.

SIR RICHARD SANDYS, bart. of this parish, by will in 1726, gave to the churchwardens and overseers 5l. to be laid out in buying coals at the cheapest time of the year, and to be by them sold out to the poor at the same price that they cost, and the monies arising from such sale to be a fund, to be yearly employed for the same purpose.

 

The poor constantly relieved are about twenty-five, casually thirty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Sandwich.

 

The church, which is exempted from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Augustine. It is a large goodly building, consisting of a nave, chancel, and transept, having a large square tower in the middle, which has probably been much higher. There are five bells in it. The church is built of flint, with quoins, door, and window cases of ashler squared stone; some arches of the windows are pointed, some circular, and some with zig-zag ornaments. The western arch of the tower is pointed with triple dancette ornaments; the others circular. The chancel is repaired by the archbishop's lessee of the almonry. In the south transept, which is repaired by the Sandys's family, is a large vault, in which are deposited their remains. Over it is a most costly and sumptuous monument, having at the back a plain blank tablet; on the tomb the recumbent essigies of a knight in armour and his lady in a loose mantle. Above the pediment, and in other places, several shields of arms, with the coat of Sandys, with quarterings and impalements. This tomb is for Sir Edwin Sandys, second son of Edwin, archbishop of York. He had a grant of Norborne court from king James I. and died in 1639. (His marriages and issue have been already mentioned before). This monument was erected by him in his life time; but he who erected this sumptuous monument, and added the provisional blank tablet and escutcheons on it, with a thought of securing to himself and his posterity a king of immortality, left not one behind him, of all his numerous children, who had the least veneration for him, or respect for his memory; both the tablet and escutcheons remaining a blank at this time. In the nave is a memorial for Richard Harvie of Eastry, obt. 1675. In the church-yard are three altar-tombs, one for George Shocklidge, A. M. vicar forty-nine years, ob. 1772; arms, Three fishes, their heads conjoined in fess, their tails extended into the corners of the escutcheon; and the other two for the family of Gibbon.

 

The church of Norborne, with its chapels of Cotmanton and Sholdon, was antiently appendant to the manor, and was in early times appropriated to the abbey of St. Augustine; and in 1128, anno 29 king Henry I. was assigned by Hugh, the abbot of it, to the use of the eleemosinary or almonry belonging to it, which almonry was an hospital, built just without the gate of the monastery, for the reception of strangers and the poor resorting to it from all parts, and the relief of the weak and infirm.

 

After this, there were continual disputes between the abbots of this monastery and the several archbishops, concerning their respective privileges and jurisdictions relating to the churches belonging to it, among others, to this of Norborne, which at last ended in the allowance of the abbot's exemption from all such jurisdiction; archbishop Arundel in 1397 pronouncing a definitive sentence in the abbot's favour; all which may be found inserted at large in Thorne's Chronicle. (fn. 7)

 

In the year 1295, the abbot made an institution of several new deanries, for the purpose of apportioning the churches belonging to his monastery to each of them, as exempt from the jurisdiction of the archbishop; in which institution this church was included in the new deanry of Sturry. This caused great contentions between the abbots and the several archbishops, which at last ended in the total abolition of this new institution.

 

In which state this appropriation, with the advowson of the vicarage, remained, till the final dissolution of the abbey in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. when it came into the king's hands, whence the parsonage appropriate, otherwise called the Almonry farm, was granted the next year in exchange to the archbishop, and it remains parcel of the possessions of the see of Canterbury at this time.

 

But the advowson of the vicarage of this church, being excepted out of the above grant, remained in the crown, till king Edward VI. in his 1st year granted it, being an advowson in gross, to the archbishop, in whose successors it has continued to this time, his grace the archbishop being the present patron of it.

 

¶Though the church of Norborne was so early appropriated to the use of the almonry, as has been mentioned before, and a vicarage instituted in it, yet there was no endowment of it till the 1st year of the reign of king Edward I. when the abbot and convent, under their chapter seal, granted an endowment of it, which was approved of by the archbishop's commissary. He decreed and ordained, that the vicar should have the usual mansion of the vicarage, with the garden, and two acres of land contiguous to it, together with eleven acres of land lying at Donneslonde, and the way usual to the same; all which the vicars had heretofore enjoyed. And that they should have yearly two cows feeding, and the right of feeding them, from the feast, of St. Gregory until that of St. Martin in winter, with the cows of the religious wheresoever within the bounds of the parish. Also that they should have, in the name of their vicarage, within the limits or titheries of this church, or chapels of it, all the tithes whatsoever of sheaves, corn, and other vegetables, in orchards or gardens, being dug with the foot; and also all tithes arising from all mills so situated then, or which hereafter might be built, excepting of the mill of the religious, nigh to the King's highway, leading from Northborne towards Canterbury. Also that they should receive, in the name of the vicarage, all tithes of hay arising within the parish, or within the bounds of the chapels aforesaid, excepting the tithe of hay, arising from the meadows of the religious in this parish, at the time of the endowment. Also that they should receive, in the name of the vicarage, all oblations whatsoever in the church of Northborne, and the chapels or oratories, wheresoever situated, dependent on it, excepting the oblations made by strangers, not parishioners of the church, or chapels, in the chapel of the religious, situated within their manor of Norborne, which they had retained to themselves. Moreover, that the vicars should receive all tithes of lambs, wool, chicken, calves, ducks, pigs, geese, swans, peas, pigeons, milk, milk-meats, trades, merchandizes, eggs, flax, hemp, broom, rushes, fisheries, pasture, apples, onions, garlic, pears, and all manner of small tithes, within the bounds, or tithings of the church and chapels aforesaid, in any shape arising or to arise in future; and also whatsoever legacies should be left in future to the church and chapels, and especially the tithes of reed, rushes, and silva cædua, whenever cut down, within the bounds or tithings of the chapels of Cotmanton and Scholdon, to this church belonging, or at any time arising. But that the vicars should undergo the burthen of serving in divine offices themselves, or other fit priests, in this church and chapels depending on it; but that the burthen of providing bread and wine, lights, and other things, which should be necessary there for the celebration of divine services, they should undergo in the said church and chapels, at their own expence, excepting in the chapel of Cotmanton; in which the burthens of this kind, and likewise of the rebuilding and repairing of the chapel, used to be borne, by the lords of the manor of Cotmanton. In the payment likewise of the tenth, or other quota of ecclesiastical benefices, when it happened that the same should be imposed on the churches in England, or in the archbishop's province or diocese, the vicars and their successors there, according to the portion of taxation of the said vicarage, should be bound to pay the same for the said vicarage. But the burthens of repairing and rebuilding the chancel of the church of Northborne, and the chapel of Scholdon depending on it, within and without; and of finding and repairing the books, vestments, and ornaments of the church and chapel of Scholdon, which by the rectors of churches ought, or were wont to be found and repaired of custom or of right, and other burthens ordinary and extraordinary incumbent on the said church and chapel, the religious should undergo for ever and acknowledge; all and singular of which, he, the aforesaid John, archbishop of Canterbury, approving, confirmed by that his ordinary authority, reserving to him and his successors, &c. (fn. 8)

 

In 1396 there was an agreement entered into between the rector of East Langdon and the vicar of Norborne, concerning the annual payment of four shillings to the latter. In which the parishioners of East Langdon are mentioned as being bound to contribute to the repair of the church of Norborne.

 

The vicarage of Norborne, with the chapel of Sholdon annexed, is valued in the king's books at 12l. 11s. 8d. and the yearly tents at 1l. 5s. 2d.

 

In 1578 here were one hundred and ninety-two communicants, and it was valued at sixty pounds. In 1640 here were communicants two hundred and ninety-seven, and it was valued at Seventy-four pounds.

 

Here is a good vicarage-house, which with the homestall, measures two acres; and there are nine acres of glebe land beside.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp583-604

Always a risk, to visit a church in west Kent, on the hope it might be open.

 

I made a list of "most wanted" for Heritage Weened, and it stands at 33 churches, so I had to try another weekend to get the list down.

 

Hawkhurst was a busy town when we passed through, taken ten minutes to get past the traffic lights at the crossroads in the centre of town. We passed at least two other churches, one was surrounded by fencing and windows boarded up, the other, its tower covered in scaffolding.

 

So, it was a relief to arrive at St Laurence and find it in its peaceful setting, sat on a wide, lazy bend in what is now a b road.

 

Two ladies were talking at the churchyard gate, and when I approached one asked: "Are you a Whovian"?

 

Should I be?

 

Lots come here, an episode was shot here.

 

Oh.

 

No, I have come for the church, is it open?

 

Oh, let me take you inside!

 

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An impressive church set at `The Moor` to the south of its village. Approached from the north the façade is dominated by the two-storey porch, the parvise staircase of which is seen inside. The large nave, with four bay arcades to north and south, is very light due to the fact that most of the old glass was lost in the war. This does not, however, mean that there is no glass - in fact there is a veritable tableau of styles and subjects. Most impressive are those to early saints along the north wall, and one in the chapel depicting King Edward III who introduced the woollen industry to this part of Kent thus ensuring its later wealth. There is a fine 1957 Royal Arms of Queen Elizabeth II. Dominating the west end of the church is a huge Font Cover designed by Stephen Dykes Bower in 1960, whilst the font itself has some fine carving including a Green Man. High in the west wall is a hagioscope which allowed the Sanctus bell to be rung during medieval Mass. By the chancel arch is a modern sculpture of Our Lady and Child by Mary Cox. This is a memorial to Sir John Herschel the well-known astronomer (1792-1871). Lady Herschel is buried in the churchyard.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Hawkhurst+1

 

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HAWKHURST

LIES the next parish southward from Cranbrooke. A small part on the southern side of it, called Haselden, consisting of two houses, and a small quantity of land to each, is in the hundred of Shoyswell, and county of Sussex, and the residue of it is in the county of Kent. So much of it as in the borough of Hawkhurst, alias South Borough, or in the North Borough, is in the hundred of Great Barnefield. So much of it as in the East Borough, is in the hundred of Sel brittenden; and the residue in the borough of Crothall, being a very small part of it, is in the hundred of Cranbrooke.

 

The borough of Hawkhurst above-mentioned, has a court leet of itself, where the borsholder of that borough is chosen; and the inhabitants of it owe no service to the court leet holden for the hundred of Great Barnefield: but at that court an inhabitant of this borough may be chosen constable of that hundred; the liberty of Wye claims over this borough. It is in the division of West Kent.

 

THE MANOR OF SLIPMILL, alias MOREHOUSE, which includes the denne of Hawkhurst, was antiently esteemed as one of the appendages belonging to the royal manor of Wye, the liberty of which extends over the greatest part of this parish, and passed as such with that manor, in the gift made of it by William the Conqueror, to the abbey of Battel, at the first foundation of it in the year 1067. (fn. 1)

 

In the reign of king John, Odo, abbot, and the convent of Battel, granted by charter, to which there is no date, to the owners of the lands in this parish, within the liberty of their manor of Wye, by the name of his men of Hawkhurst, the ville of Hawkhurst, at a certain rent in money, hens, and eggs. And afterwards the abbot and convent, anno 14 Edward I. granted to them, by the name of their tenants of Hawkhurst, all the tenements there which they held of his fee, in certain dennes therein mentioned, to hold at a yearly rent, reserving suit to their court of Wye, from three weeks to three weeks, by two men only.

 

King Edward II. in his 5th year, granted to the abbot and convent, a market to be held here weekly on a Wednesday, and a yearly fair for three days, on the vigil, the day, and the day after the feast of St. Laurence.

 

In which state this manor continued till the suppression of this abbey in the 30th year of Henry VIII. when it came, with the manor of Wye, into the hands of the crown, whence the royalty, with the quit-rents at Hawkhurst appendant to that manor, which still continued there, was granted, by the name of the manor of Morehouse, with its appurtenances, anno 33 Henry VIII. to Sir John Baker, of Sissinghurst, to hold in capite by knight's service. His descendant Sir Henry Baker, knight and baronet, anno 17 king James I. Conveyed his interest in it to Henry Carey, lord Hunsdon, lord of the manor of Wye, which had been granted to his grandfather of the same name, by queen Elizabeth, in her third year. He was afterwards created viscount Rochford, and earl of Dover; soon after which he sold both the manor of Wye, and this of the denne of Hawkhurst, alias Morehouse; with their appurtenances, to Sir Thomas Finch, knight and baronet, of Eastwell, who, on the death of his mother in 1633, succeeded to the titles of viscount Maidstone and earl of Winchelsea. In his descendants these manors continued down to Daniel, earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, who died in 1769, without issue male, and by his will devised them, among the rest of his estates in this county, to his nephew George Finch Hatton, esq. now of Eastwell, the present possessor of them.

 

At the court baron held for this manor, now stiled Slipmill, otherwise Morehouse, the alterations of tenancies, and the apportioning of the rents formerly paid to the abbey, and now to the proprietors of Wye manor, are presented; two beadles are elected, to gather the rents; and a reeve is likewise chosen. All which privileges are in consequence of the grant of the 14th of Edward I. above-mentioned.

 

THE WHOLE PARISH of Hawkhurst is situated exceedingly pleasant and healthy. It is in length from north to south about four miles, and in breadth three, from east to west. It is well watered by several streams, the southernmost and largest of which, called here Kent dyke, and the stream itself the river Kent, or Kennet, runs into the river Rother just below Sandhurst, separating this parish from that of Salehurst, and the counties of Kent and Sussex.

 

This parish, till about the time of king Charles I. was divided from Salehurst, in Sussex, by a bridge, called Kent-bridge, under which this river then ran about six rods at the narrow entering into the way beyond the present bridge; which old bridge being taken away, and the river being turned to run under the present one, the broad place between this last and the narrow place, is now accounted to be in Salehurst, in Sussex, but is really in Hawkhurst, in Kent.

 

The market, granted as above-mentioned, anno 5 Edward II. has been long since disused; it was formerly kept upon the green at the moor, opposite the seat of Elfords, where a market-cross once stood, and near it was a small house, called St. Margaret's cross, long since demolished, in which the corn unsold was put; and this place is yet called the marketplace. But the fair is still held yearly, near the church, on the day of St. Laurence, August 10, and the day following, for cattle and pedlary ware. There was formerly another fair kept in this parish on St. Valentine's day, Feb. 14, in the field at the next gate beyond Moor-house, at a place where once stood a pound; but it has been a long while discontinued.

 

In the hedge of Beaconfield, near Beacon-land, leading between Fourtrowes and Foxhole, stood a beacon and watch-house, long since taken down.

 

There is hardly any wood in this parish, excepting in the western part, adjoining to Goudhurst, which is entirely covered with part of the Fryth woods; the soil is in general clay, abounding with marle, and in the northern part there is much sand; though few parishes have a greater diversity of soil. It is still very populous, the present in habitants being computed to be about 1500, and formerly, whilst the cloathing manufacture flourished in this and the neighbouring parishes, was much more so. There is not one clothier left here now; but there is a worsted-marker, who constantly employs one hundred people in spinning.

 

There are two principal villages, one called Highgate, built on high ground on each side the great road leading from Lamberhurst and Stonecrouch through this parish southeastward to Newenden and the country of Sussex, which road is joined here by another principal one from Maidstone through Staplehurst and Cranbrooke hither. On the north side of this village are situated the school and alms-houses, founded by the will of Sir Thomas Dunk, as will be mentioned hereafter. The other village, which is the more antient one, stands about half a mile southward of the other, on another hill of equal height, having a deep valley between, most of which is a kind of heath or common, interspersed, the greatest part of it, with cotages and gardens to them, which makes a pleasing picturesque view from every part of both. In this latter village stand the church, and the minister's house, and at a very small distance eastward of the church, is the antient family seat, surrounded with pleasuregrounds, called ELFORDS, which once belonged to a family named Castleman, one of whom, Walter Castleman, anno 34 Henry VI. sold it to William Conghurst, one of whose descendants passed it away to Roberts, and John Roberts died possessed of it in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, and lies buried in this church. His son Edmund Roberts alienated it, in the 12th year of that reign, to Richard Boys, gent. who resided here, and died possessed of it in 1605. He lies buried in this church, as do most of his descendants, in whom, resident here, this seat continued down to Samuel Boys, esq. of Elfords, who died in 1772, leaving two sons, Samuel, now of Hawkhurst, esq. who married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Gatland; esq. of Sussex, by whom he had one daughter Elizabeth, and William, who married Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Richard Harcourt, esq. of Wigsell. Samuel Boys, esq. the eldest son, succeeded his father in this seat, and kept his shrievalty here in 1782, and is the present possessor of it. He bears for his arms, Or, a griffin, segreant, sable, but it appears by their gravestones, that they bore it within a bordure, being the same coat as that borne by the family of this name in East Kent; though I cannot make out any connexion between them.

 

AT A SMALL DISTANCE further southward is LILSDEN, which at least as early as the reign of queen Elizabeth, was the property of the Chittendens, eminent clothiers here, in which name it continued down to John Chittenden, gent. in which name it still continues.

 

On the great road from Lamberhurst above-mentioned, and at the western extremity of this parish, is Siccoks, commonly called Seacocks-heath. On this heath, but in the parish of Etchingham, in Sussex, is a seat lately belonging to the Rev. Mr. Robert Gunsley Ayerst, and on the same road, a Small distance eastward, is a good house, which was formerly the property of Mr. James Pott, who in 1681 alienated it to Redford, in whose descendants it has continued down to Thomas Redford, esq. who now resides in it; and at much the same distance still further eastward, is a seat belonging to the Bakers. George Baker died possessed of it in 1740, and his son John Baker, esq. receiver-general for the county of Kent, rebuilt it, and gave it the name of Hawkhurst-lodge. He died unmarried, and by his last will devised it to his brother Mr. Geo. Baker, surgeon, of Canterbury, descended of ancestors who bore for their arms, Argent, three keys, a castle triple towered, sable. Several of whom lie buried in the church-yard here. He was succeeded in his estate here by John Baker, esq. of St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, who married one of the daughters of the Rev. Mr. Tattersal, of Stretham, in Surry, and he is the present owner of it.

 

At a Small distance still further eastward is the village of Highgate, in which is Hawkhurst-place, formerly a seat of good account, though now only a farm-house. It has been for many years the property of the Peckhams, of Eridge, in Suffex, and now belongs to Henry Peckham, esq. and on the north side of the road is a mansion called FOWLERS, which is particularly deserving notice, as having been the property and residence of Richard Kilburne, esq. author of the survey of this county, published in 1659. He was a man of some eminence in his prosession as a lawyer, having been five times principal of Staples-inn, and of as worthy a character, both as a magistrate and an historian. He died in 1678, and lies buried in the north chancel of this church. The Kilburnes originally were of Kilburne, in Yorkshire, whence they came into Cambridgeshire and Effex. Richard Kilburne above-mentioned, was the youngest son of Isaac Kilburne, of London, third son of John Kilburne, of Saffron Walden, in Effex. They bore for their arms, Argent, a chevron, azure, between three hald cootes, proper. (fn. 2) Richard Kilburne, esq. left an only daughter and heir Anne, who entitled her husband Thomas Brewer, esq. of West Farleigh, whose second wife she was, to the possession of it. He had by her two sons John and Philip, and a daughter married to Davis. John, the eldest, succeeded him at West Farleigh; and Philip, the youngest, had this seat at Hawkhurst; but he died by a fall from his horse, unmarried, in 1721, upon which it came to his eldest brother John, of West Farleigh, who died in 1724, leaving an only daughter Jane, who surviving both her husbands, died s.p. in 1762, and by her will devised this seat, among the rest of her estates, to her kinsman John Davis, D. D. son of Davis abovementioned, who died possessed of it in 1766, and was succeeded in it by his only son Sir John Brewer Davis, knt. the present proprietor of it. (fn. 3)

 

NEAR the east end of Highgate, a little to the north of the high road, lies a seat called Tongs, which was formerly the seat of the Dunks, who were great clotheirs here. Simon Donke died possessed of it in 1512, anno 4 Henry VIII. as did his descendant Thomas Duncke in 1617, and from him this seat continued down to Sir Thomas Dunk, who resided here, and dying possessed of it in 1718, was buried in the middle isle of this church, (fn. 4) and by his will gave it to William Richards, gent. who died possessed of it in 1733, leaving by Anne his wife, daughter of Mr. John Davis, gent. of this parish, one only daughter and heir Anne, who carried it in marriage to George Montague Dunk, earl of Halifax, who, reserving the see of the mansion itself only, passed the possession of it away by lease for one thousand years, at the yearly rent of sixpence, with the see simple of the offices, as well as of the lands belonging to it, to Mr. Jeremiah Curteis, of Rye, and he soon afterwards conveyed his interest in it to William Jenkin, esq. who resided here, and died in 1784; since which it has been sold by his executor to David Langton, esq. the present owner of it.

 

About three quarters of a mile northward from Tongs, lies WOODSDEN, formerly the property of the Springetts, one of whom, Robert Springett, died possessed of it in 1619, and they continued here down to John Springett, who died in 1733; (fn. 5) and his son alienated it to the Norris's, of Hemsted, in Benenden, from whom it passed in like manner as that seat to Thomas Hallet Hodges, esq. the present owner of it.

 

CONGHURST is a manor in the southern part of this parish, next to Sandhurst, into which parish likewise it extends, which once was the property and residence of a family of the same name, whose still more antient seat, now called Old Conghurst, the moat and scite of which are still visible, was at no great distance from it, nearer to the county of Sussex, which being burnt by the Danes, they erected a mansion here, where they afterwards resided. But in the reign of king Henry VIII. Mildred, daughter and coheir of George Conghurst, esq. of Conghurst, carried this seat in marriage to Thomas Scot, who was descended from John Scot, of Halden, in the reign of Henry VI. His grandson, Henry Scot, of Halden, left two sons, Henry, the eldest, was of Halden, and ancestor of the Scots, of that place, of the parish of Hayes, and of Langley, in Beckenham; and Thomas, the second son, married the coheir of Conghurst, and had two sons. From the eldest, George, descended the Scots, of Conghurst; and from Thomas, the youngest, those of Sutton-at-Hone, and of London. They bore for their arms, Argent, a cross-croslet fitchee, sable, quartered with the arms of Conghurst, Azure, three congers heads, erased fessway, or. (fn. 6) Thomas Scot abovementioned, began to build this seat, but he died in 1533, and was buried in the Lady's chancel, in this church, leaving the finishing of it to Mildred his wife, after whose death their son George Scot Succeeded to it, and in his descendants it continued for some generations afterwards, till at length it was alienated to Weller, in which name it remained for some years, and till Capt. Weller, of Rolvenden, conveyed it by sale to Russell, of London, whose heirs sold it to Mr. John Piper, and he is the present owner of this antient seat, now occupied only as a farm-house.

 

There has not been any court held for this manor for many years.

 

A BRANCH of the family of Courthope lived at Nettershall, in the northern part of this parish. Henry Courthope, gent. died possessed of it in 1743, and lies buried in this church. By a female heir of this name this estate went in marriage to Charles Moore, esq. who gave it with one of his daughters to John Frost, esq. and he lately sold it to John Boddington, esq. since deceased, whose heirs are now entitled to it. The WOODGATES, lived at Henfill, of whom there are several tombstones remaining of them in the church-yard here. They bore for their arms, On a chevron, cotized, three trefoils slipt, between three squirrels, sejant. It was purchased of the Woodgates, by Richard Harcourt, esq. of Wigsell, and by Elizabeth, one of his daughters and coheirs, came to Wm. Boys, esq. the present possessor of it; and the Popes resided at Hockeridge. These Popes were a younger branch of those of Halden, and bore the same arms, Or, two chevrons, gules, on a canton, a mullet. It is now only a small farmhouse, though it gives name to one of the dennes of the manor of Glassenbury. It was lately the property of the Rev. Thomas Hooper, of Beckley, in Suffex, and now of Mr. William and Richard Foster. There was a branch of the family of Pix resident here a long while, who bore for their arms, Azure, a fess between three cross-croslets, fitchee, or; many of whom lie buried in this church; an elder branch to those of Crayford. They had formerly large possessions in this parish, and resided at a house called Pixes-hall, in Highgate. From this family this seat was purchased by John Russel, gent. whose only daughter and heir Mary carried it in marriage to John Knowler, esq. recorder of Canterbury, whose two daughters and coheirs, were married, Anne to Henry Penton, esq. and Mary to William, lord Digby, who in their wives right, became entitled to it. (fn. 7)

 

THE FAMILY OF BARRETT, from whom those of Belhouse, in Essex, descended, was possessed of lands in this parish, upon the denne of Cecele, by grant from Simon de Cecele and John Retford, anno 23 Edward III.

 

Charities.

HENRY PARSON and WILLIAM NELSON, by deed anno 22 Edward IV. conveyed to the use of this parish for ever, a messuage and an acre of land, adjoining to the church-yard, called the church house, the rent whereof is employed towards the reparation of the church.—Kilburne, in his Survey, p. 134, says, upon part of this land was erected an alms house, and another house, usually called the sexton's house, the same having been, from about the beginning of king James I.'s reign, used for the habitation of the sexton.

 

THOMAS IDDENDEN devised by will in 1556, several messuages and lands at or near Highstreet, in this parish, to be for ever employed for pious uses, and are now of about the annual value of 23l. 10s. being vested in the churchwardens and four other trustees, the produce of which is given away at Christmas yearly, in gift-money.

 

THOMAS GIBBON, by deed anno 15 Elizabeth, granted to trustees for ever, an annuity of 43s. 4d. per annum, out of his messuage and three pieces of land upon the denne of Amboldeshurft, containing seven acres; which annuity was purchased of him by the parishioners, to be employed towards the maintenance of the church.

 

SIR THOMAS DUNK, by will in 1718, gave the sum of 2000l. to be laid out in building and endowing a free school and six alms-houses at Highgate, for six decayed housekeepers, three men and three women; the schoolmaster to receive 16l. and the alms-people 6l. each per annum. The school and aims-houses were accordingly erected and endowed, by William Richards, esq. his executor; (the surplus of these sums, after the compleating of the buildings, being laid out in the purchase of a farm, now let at 70l. per annum); who, to make the building and endowment more complete, added to the 2000l. about 600l. of his own money, and further by his will ordered, that a further sum, not exceeding 250l. should be laid out in the purchase of lands, the income of which should be employed to augment the salary and pensions pavable to the master and alms-people. In pursuance of which bequest, George Dunk, earl of Halifax, who married Anne, only daughter and heir of William Richards, (as being the representative of the executor of Sir Thos. Dunk, as perpetual visitor) in 1753, in consideration of the said 250l. and 70l. raised from the sale of timber from Tilden, the estate settled before on this charity, conveyed to the trustees of it, and their successors for ever, being the minister of Hawkhurst, and ten others, a messuage and land lying near Fourtrows, in this parish and in Sandhurst, of the yearly rent of 17l by which means the salary of the scoolmaster was augmented to 20l. per annum, and the alms-people to that of 7l. per annum each.

 

WILLIAM BIRCHETT, of this parish, appears by his will, proved 1508, to have been a good benefactor, both to the poor and church of Hawkhurst.

 

The poor constantly relieved are about two hundred and fifty, casually fifty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDiction of the diocese of Canterbury, and dcanry of Charing.

 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Laurence, stands on the southern side of the village of Hawkhurst. It consists of three isles and three chancels, having a tower steeple, with a beacon turret, in which are six bells. It was founded by the abbot of Battel, in the reign of king Edward III. whose arms, as well as his son's, were in the windows of it; and the windows throughout it were filled with much curious painted glass, almost all which was demolished in the civil wars of the last century, and there are now hardly any figures left in the windows; there are two or three, much defaced, in two of them in the north isle, and two shields, one, quarterly, first and fourth, A sword, argent; second and third, A crown, or. The other, Fretty, azure, fleurs de lis, or. An account of the former state of them may be seen at large in Kilburne's state of this parish in his survey. The font seems very antient, and has four shields of arms; first, A cross; second, A saltier; third, A chevron; and the fourth is hid against the pillar.

 

In the church are many gravestones of the family of Boys, one of John Roberts, inlaid with brass, before the pulpit; of Thomas Iddenden, 1556; of Humphry Scot, and many others; and in the church yard several tomb-stones for the Bakers, Davis's, Woodgates, &c.

 

It was formerly esteemed a rectory, and the advowson of it was part of the possessions of the abbey before mentioned, the rector paying to the sacrist of it five shillings yearly, as an acknowledgment; in which state this church continued till the suppression of that abbey in the 30th year of Henry VIII. when it came into the king's hands, who, within a few months afterwards in the same year, granted the patronage and presentation of it to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, to hold in capite by knight's service, (fn. 8) and he sold it soon afterwards to Sir William Peke, who, in the 37th year of that reign reconveyed it to the king, who fettled this rectory or parsonage as an appropriation, by his dotation-charter in his 38th year, on his newerected dean and chapter of Christ-church, in Oxford, to take place after the death of Henry Simonds, then rector of it; ordering, nevertheless, by it, that they should present an able clerk to the ordinary, who should be named perpetual vicar of this church, and should bear all ordinary and extraordinary charges, except the reparation of the chancels, and that he should have a dwelling, and a yearly pension of 12l. 10s. 10d. and should pay the king yearly for his tenths 25s. 1d. and be charged with first fruits; but it does not appear that any act was done by the dean and chapter in consequence of this towards the endowment of a vicar at that time, and it has ever since been presented to by them as a donative, and served as a perpetual curacy. In which flate it continues at this time.

 

In the year 1534, during the time this church was a rectory, it was rated in the king's books at 36l. 13s. 4d. but since it has ceased to be so, no first fruits have been paid, and it has paid only 11s. 8d. as a stipendiary. The valuation of it in the king's books, made after the above-mentioned grant of the appropriation and advowson to Christ-church, Oxford, is, according to the provision made then by the king in it, for the support of a vicar, under the notion of which it is there rated at 12l. 10s. 10d. and the yearly tenths at 1l. 5s.

 

After which the dean and chapter, anno 2 and 3 Philip and Mary, granted to Sir William Peter eight pounds per annum, to be paid out of the parsonage towards the support of the vicar or incumbent; and in the reign of James I. the stipendiary incumbent had of the dean and chapter a salary of twenty pounds per annum, the profits of the Easter book, then of some value, some rooms in the parsonage-house, called the vicarage-rooms, a small croft, called the vicaragecroft, and the herbage of the church-yard; all which together were of so inconsiderable a value, that upon this living being sequestered about 1642, no one could be sound who would serve it, but the place was destitute of a pastor for more than fourteen months; after which the parishioners were obliged to provide a minister themselves, which not being able to bear, the charge of an augmentation was procured from the state, which in a few years afterwards was likewise taken away, and the former allowance only left to the minister; which, by reason of the Easter book becoming of no value, was in 1659, at the most, but twenty four pounds per annum.

 

This slender income of the incumbent, induced Sir Thomas Dunk, an inhabitant of this parish, to make an addition to it; which he did by his will in 1718, by which he gave 200l. to be employed with the like sum of queen Anne's bounty in the purchase of lands, in see simple, to the augmentation of the living of the minister of this parish, and his successors for ever; with which sums, land lying near Seacocks-heath, of about twenty pounds per annum value, was purchased, situated in Pepper mill-lane, and at Delminden-green. And it was again augmented in 1767, by 200l. of queen Anne's bounty; to which was added 200l. more paid by Sir Philip Boteler, bart. from Mrs. Taylor's legacy, and fifty pounds given by the dean and chapter of Christ-church, Oxford; which sums, amounting to 450l. were lately laid out in the purchase of a small farm, called Roughlands, lying near the church. So that the profits of it, at the time of this donation, amounting, according to a recent certified valuation, to 27l. 2s. 6d. (which arose from the pension of twenty pounds payable by the lessee out of the parsonage and surplice-fees, the minister having no right to any tithes whatever) are now almost double to what it was heretosore, but they are yet by no means adequate to so laborious a cure of souls.

 

In 1578 here were communicants six hundred and eighty; in 1640 fourteen hundred.

 

¶The parsonage is held by lease from the dean and chapter of Christ-church, in Oxford, by Mr. Braborne. There was a suit between Sir John Wildegos, lessee of the parsonage, and John Gibbon, parishioner here, in the ecclesiastical court, touching the manner of tithing; and Gibbon, in Michaelmas term, anno 5 Jacobi regis, obtained a prohibition thereon out of the king's bench, which was tried at Lent assizes at Rochester that year, and a verdict was found for Gibbon, and in Easter term following judgment was given accordingly in Banco Regis; and the suggestion and depositions are entered Trin. 4 Jac. Regis. Rot. 692.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol7/pp142-157

In Norman McNight’s library, a 1958 jacket by Elizabeth Friedlander, more commonly known among type people for her 1930s design Elisabeth/Elizabeth, one of the first typefaces to be credited to a woman.

And on the second weekend of the year, I take my two camera bodies out for a bit of churchcrawling.

 

Wingham is a substantial town/village between Dover and Canterbury, and was once the terminus of a branch of the East Kent Light Railway, though the nearby mine failed to produce any coal.

 

It is an attractive place, but is blighted by the main road that cuts the town in half, and it is a busy road too. On the road there are three pubs, and many fine and ancient houses.

 

St Mary sits beside the road, and it skirts the churchyard to the south and east, and despite being on a grand scale, mature trees in the churchyard do well to hide it from view.

 

I did come here many years ago back in the early days of the Kent Church project, and took no more than a handful of shots, I thought I could do better that that this time.

 

It is a church full of grand tombs, memorials and other features that I am looking forward to share with you, most curious of which is a curved passageway that leads from the northeast corner of the Oxenden chapel to the chancel.

 

I was met inside by one of the wardens, cleaning up with a large soft broom, after a while he came over to see what I was doing, so i explained about the project, and also said what a fine church it was (such comments always go down well I find) and that the memorials on display look fabulous, but I could see two more hidden away behind the organ in what is now the vestry, but was once the north chapel, or the Palmer family chapel. He got out his keys and unlocked the vestry door, allowing me to photograph the one memorial still visible.

 

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An enormous church, picturesquely set at an angle of the village street. It owes its size to the fact that it supported a college of priests in the Middle Ages. During the sixteenth century it was substantially rebuilt, but the north aisle was not replaced, reducing the church to the odd shape we see today. The unusual pillars which divide the nave from the south aisle are of timber, not stone as a result of lack of money. At the end of the south aisle is the Oxenden chapel, which contains that family's excellent bull's head monument. The contemporary metalwork screens and black and white pavements add great dignity to this part of the building. By going through a curved passage from the chapel you can emerge in the chancel, which is dominated by a stone reredos of fifteenth-century date. This French construction was a gift to the church in the 1930s and while it is not good quality carving, is an unusual find in a Kent church.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Wingham

 

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hortly after 1280AD Archbishop Peckham of Canterbury established a college of priests at Wingham, with a provost and six canons. From 1286 the priests lived in the attractive timber-framed house opposite St Mary's church. The college accounts for the size of the church, which seems enormous considering the present size of Wingham itself.

 

There was a cruciform church here before the college was established, but that building was remodelled around 1290, leaving us several excellent Geometric Gothic windows. A south porch and tower were added around 1400. The porch is curious in that there are two stories externally, but internally only one. There are many reminders of the church's past, however; the arch between the south transept and south nave aisle is late Norman, as is a blocked arch on the west wall of the north transept.

 

By the early 16th century the nave was in poor condition. A local brewer named George Ffogarde of Canterbury was granted a license to raise money for its repair. Having a considerable sum of money for church repair, the unscrupulous brewer absconded with the funds, embezzling £224, a huge sum for the time. The missing funds may explain why the nave was rebuilt using cheaper timber posts to support the arcades, rather than more costly stone.

 

The octagonal timber posts are of chestnut wood, topped by a crown-post timber roof. Sometime before the mid-19th century the timbers were encased in plaster to resemble Doric columns, but thankfully the plaster has been stripped off and we can appreciate the timber! The nave was rebuilt in the late 16th century, diminishing its footprint and leaving behind some rather odd features, like an external piscina on what was originally the easternmost pier of the nave arcade. Another odd touch is provided by the north transept, remodelled with wood frames in the Georgian period. I'm not sure I can call to mind another essentially medieval church with wooden-framed windows!

 

In the chancel is a lovely 14th century triple-seat sedilia and piscina. The chancel and nave are separated by a 15th century screen, now truncated, with blank panels which must have once boasted painted figures of saints. But the real treasure in the chancel is a series of ten 14th century misericords. Six of the misericord carvings are simply decorative, with floral or foliage designs. Two show animals; one appears to be a horse, another a donkey. The final two carvings are the most interesting; one shows a woman in a wimple, the other a Green Man peering out from a screen of foliage.

 

Behind the altar is a lovely 15th century reredos, brought here from Troyes in France. The reredos is in two sections, the upper section depicting the Passion of Christ, the lower showing the Last Supper and the Adoration of the Kings. There are small fragments of rather attractive 14th century grisailles glass in the chancel windows, and near the font are a number of surviving medieval floor tiles.

 

The interior is full of monuments to the Oxenden and Palmer families. The finest of these are to be found in the north transept chapel. On the east wall of the chapel is a memorial to Sir Nicholas Palmer (d. 1624). The memorial was designed by Nicholas Stone and shows effigies of Palmer and his wife under Corinthian columns and an open pediment. On the north wall is the monument to a later Thomas Palmer (d. 1656) with a bust of the deceased, now somewhat the worse for wear. A tablet to Streynsham Master (d. 1718) is on the south chapel wall, and has a fairly typical pair of skulls at the base of the tablet, wreathed in olive branches.

 

The most extravagant and eye-catching memorial in the church, however, is to be found in the north transept chapel, which is guarded by ornate wrought-iron screens. In the centre of the chapel is an ebullient obelisk, dated 1682, commemorating the Oxenden family. This free-standing obelisk, possibly designed by Arnold Quellin, is of white stone, with exquisite fruit and flowers cascading down each side, with large black ox heads at each angle of the base. The base is embellished with four putti (cherubic 'infants'). The effect is quite extraordinary; most people will either love it or hate it (I loved it). Also in the south transept is a wall tablet to Charles Tripp (d. 1624).

Other monuments worth mentioning include a 14th century tomb recess in the south aisle wall and a number of 15th century indents in the chancel floor which once contained memorial brasses to canons.

 

The church is set within a large walled enclosure, dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Unusually, the churchyard wall has been listed Grade-II by the Department of the Environment for its historical interest.

 

www.britainexpress.com/counties/kent/churches/wingham.htm

 

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WINGHAM

IS the next adjoining parish south-westward from Ash, situated for the most part in the upper half hundred of the same name, and having in it the boroughs of Wingham-street, Deane, Twitham, and Wenderton, which latter is in the lower half hundred of Wingham.

 

WINGHAM is situated in a healthy pleasant country, the greatest part of it is open uninclosed arable lands, the soil of which, though chalky, is far from being unfertile. The village, or town of Wingham, is nearly in the middle of the parish, having the church and college at the south-west part of it; behind the latter is a field, still called the Vineyard. The village contains about fifty houses, one of which is the court-lodge, and is built on the road leading from Canterbury to Sandwich, at the west end of it runs the stream, called the Wingham river, which having turned a corn-mill here, goes on and joins the Lesser Stour, about two miles below; on each side the stream is a moist tract of meadow land. Near the south boundary of the parish is the mansion of Dene, situated in the bottom, a dry, though dull and gloomy habitation; and at the opposite side, next to Staple, the ruinated mansion of Brook, in a far more open and pleasant situation. To the northward the parish extends a considerable way, almost as far as the churches of Preston and Elmstone. The market, granted anno 36 king Henry III. as mentioned hereafter, if it ever was held, has been disused for a number of years past; though the market-house seems yet remaining. There are two fairs held yearly here, on May 12, and November 12, for cattle and pedlary.

 

In 1710 there was found on the court-lodge farm, by the plough striking against it, a chest or coffin, of large thick stones, joined together, and covered with a single one at the top. At the bottom were some black ashes, but nothing else in it. The ground round about was searched, but nothing else was sound.

 

Henry de Wengham, a person of great note and extraordinary parts, and much in favour with Henry III. was born here, who in 1255 made him lord chancellor. In 1259, he was elected bishop of Winchester, which he resused, but towards the latter end of the same year he was chosen bishop of London, being still chancellor, and was consecrated the beginning of the year following. He died in 1262, and was buried in his own cathedral. He bore for his arms, Gules, a heart between two wings, displayed, or.

 

WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ. eldest son of Sir William Cowper, bart. of Ratling-court, in Nonington, having been made lord-keeper of the great seal in 1705, was afterwards by letters patent, dated Dec. 14, 1706, created lord Cowper, baron Cowper of Wingham; and in 1709, was declared lord chancellor. After which, anno 4 George I. he was created earl Cowper and viscount Fordwich, in whose descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. Peter-Lewis-Francis Cowper, the fifth and present earl Cowper, viscount Fordwich and baron of Wingham. (fn. 1)

 

The MANOR OF WINGHAM was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, given to it in the early period of the Saxon heptarchy, but being torn from it during the troubles of those times, it was restored to the church in the year 941, by king Edmund, his brother Eadred, and Edwin that king's son. (fn. 2) Accordingly it is thus entered, under the general title of the archbishop's possessions, taken in the survey of Domesday:

 

In the lath of Estrei, in Wingeham hundred, the archbishop himself holds Wingeham in demesne. It was taxed at forty sulings in the time of king Edward the Consessor, and now for thirty-five. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there are eight carucates, and four times twenty and five villeins, with twenty borderers having fifty-seven carucates. There are eight servants, and two mills of thirty-four sulings. Wood for the pannage of five hogs, and two small woods for fencing. In its whole value, in the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth seventy-seven pounds, when he received it the like, and now one hundred pounds. Of this manor William de Arcis holds one suling in Fletes, and there be has in demesne one carucate, and four villeins, and one knight with one carucate, and one fisbery, with a saltpit of thirty pence. The whole value is forty shillings. Of this ma nor five of the archbishop's men hold five sulings and an half and three yokes, and there they have in demesne eight carucates, and twenty-two borderers, and eight servants. In the whole they are worth twenty-one pounds.

 

In the 36th year of king Henry III. archbishop Boniface obtained the grant of a market at this place. The archbishops had a good house on this manor, in which they frequently resided. Archbishop Baldwin, in king Henry II.'s reign, staid at his house here for some time during his contention with the monks of Christ-church, concerning his college at Hackington. Archbishop Winchelsea entertained king Edward I. here in his 23d year, as did archbishop Walter Reynolds king Edward II. in his 18th year. And king Edward III. in his 5th year, having landed at Dover, with many lords and nobles in his train, came to Wingham, where he was lodged and entertained by archbishop Meopham. And this manor continued part of the see of Canterbury till archbishop Cranmer, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. exchanged it with the king for other premises. After which it continued in the crown till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted the scite, called Wingham court, with the demesne lands of the manor, to trustees, for the use of the city of London. From whom, by the direction of the mayor and commonalty, it was conveyed, at the latter end of that reign, to Sir William Cowper, knight and baronet, in whose descendants it has continued down to the right hon. Peter-Francis Cowper, earl Cowper, who is the present owner of it. (fn. 3)

 

BUT THE MANOR ITSELF, with the royalties, profits of courts, &c. remained still in the crown. Since which, the bailiwic of it, containing the rents and pro fits of the courts, with the fines, amerciaments, reliess, &c. and the privilege of holding the courts of it, by the bailiff of it, have been granted to the family of Oxenden, and Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, is now in possession of the bailiwic of it. A court leet and court baron is held for this manor.

 

TRAPHAM is a mansion in this parish, which was formerly in the possession of a family of the same name, who resided at it, but after they were extinct it passed into that of Trippe, who bore for their arms, Gules, a chevron, or, between three borses heads erased, sable, bridled, collared and crined of the second; (fn. 4) and John Tripp, esq. resided here in queen Elizabeth's reign, as did his grandson Charles, who seems to have alienated it to Sir Christopher Harflete, of St. Stephen's, whose son Tho. Harflete, esq. left an only daughter and heir Afra, who carried it in marriage to John St. Leger, esq. of Doneraile, in Ireland, descended from Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy of Ireland in Henry VIII.'s reign, and they joined in the alienation of it to Brook Bridges, esq of the adjoining parish of Goodneston, whose descendant Sir Brook Wm. Bridges, bart. of that place, is the present owner of it.

 

The MANOR OF DENE, situated in the valley, at the southern boundary of this parish, was antiently the inheritance of a family who took their surname from it, and held it by knight's service of the archbishop, in king Edward I's reign, but they seem to have been extinct here in that of king Edward III. After which it passed into the family of Hussey, who bore for their arms, Per chevron, argent and vert, three birds counterchanged; and then to Wood, before it came by sale into the family of Oxenden, who appear to have been possessed of it at the latter end of Henry VI.'s reign, about which time they had become by marriage, owners of Brook and other estates in this parish. The family of Oxenden have been resident in this county from the reign of king Edward III. Solomon Oxenden, being the first mentioned in the several pedigrees of it, whose near relation Richard Oxenden was prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, in that reign; in this name and family of Oxenden, whose arms were Argent, a chevron, gules, between three oxen, sable, armed, or; which coat was confirmed to the family by Gyan, king at arms, anno 24 Henry VI. this manor and seat continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, of Dene, who was on May 8, 1678, created a baronet, whose youngest grandson Sir George Oxenden, bart. succeeding at length to the title on the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, resided at Dene, where he died in 1775, having served in parliament for Sandwich, and been employed in high offices in administration, and leaving behind him the character of a compleat gentleman. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Edward Dunck, esq. of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, by whom he had two sons, of whom George, the second, was made by will heir to the estate of Sir Basil Dixwell, bart. of Brome, on his death, s. p. and changed his name to Dixwell as enjoined by it, but died soon afterwards likewise, s. p. and that estate came at length to his eldest brother Henry, who succeeded his father in the title of Baronet. He married Margaret, daughter and coheir of Sir George Chudleigh, bart. of Devonshire, since deceased, by whom he has issue Henry Oxenden, esq. of Madekyn, in Barham, who married Mary, one of the daughters of Col. Graham, of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, by whom he has issue. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. now resides at Brome, and is the present possessor of this manor and seat, as well as the rest of his father's estates in this parish. (fn. 5) Lady Hales, widow of Sir Thomas Pym Hales, bart. of Bekesborne, now resides in it.

 

TWITHAM, now usually called Twittam, is a hamlet in this parish, adjoining to Goodneston, the principal estate in which once belonged to a family of that name, one of whom Alanus de Twitham is recorded as having been with king Richard I. at the siege of Acon, in Palestine, who bore for his arms, Semee of crosscroslets, and three cinquesoils, argent, and held this estate in Twitham, of the archbishop, and they appear to have continued possessed of it in the 3d year of king Richard II. Some time after which it came into the possession of Fineux, and William Fineux sold it anno 33 Henry VIII. to Ingram Wollet, whose heirs passed it away to one of the family of Oxenden, of Wingham, in whose descendants it has continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, the present possessor of it.

 

On the foundation of the college of Wingham, archbishop Peckham, in 1286, endowed the first diaconal prebend in it, which he distinguished by the name of the prebend of Twitham, with the tithes of the lands of Alanus de Twitham, which he freely held of the archbishop there in Goodwynestone, at Twytham. (fn. 6)

 

BROOK is an estate in this parish, situated northward from Twitham, which was formerly the estate of the Wendertons, of Wenderton, in this parish, in which it remained till by a female heir Jane, it went in marriage to Richard Oxenden, gent. of Wingham, who died in 1440, and was buried in Wingham church, in whose name and family it continued down to Henry Oxenden, of Brook, who left two daughters and coheirs, of whom Mary married Richard Oxenden, of Grays Inn, barrister-at-law, fourth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart, who afterwards, on his wife's becoming sole heiress of Brook, possessed it, and resided here. He left Elizabeth his sole daughter and heir, who carried it in marriage to Streynsham Master, esq. a captain in the royal navy, the eldest surviving son of James Master, esq. of East Langdon, who died some few days after his marriage; upon which she became again possessed of it in her own right, and dying in 1759, s. p. gave it by will to Henry Oxenden, esq. now Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and he is the present owner of it.

 

WENDERTON is a manor and antient seat, situated northward from Wingham church, eminent, says Philipott, for its excellent air, situation, and prospect, which for many successive generations had owners of that surname, one of whom, John de Wenderton, is mentioned in Fox's Martyrology, as one among other tenants of the manor of Wingham, on whom archbishop Courtnay, in 1390, imposed a penance for neglecting to perform some services due from that manor. In his descendants this seat continued till John Wenderton, of Wenderton, in the 1st year of Henry VIII. passed it away to archbishop Warham, who at his decease in 1533, gave it to his youngest brother John Warham, whose great-grandson John, by his will in 1609, ordered this manor to be sold, which it accordingly soon afterwards was to Manwood, from which name it was alienated, about the middle of the next reign of king Charles I. to Vincent Denne, gent. who resided here, and died in 1642, s. p. whose four nieces afterwards became by will possessed of it, and on the partition of their estates, the manor and mansion, with part of the lands since called Great Wenderton, was allotted to Mary, the youngest of them, who afterwards married Vincent Denne, sergeant-at-law, and the remaining part of it, which adjoins to them, since called Little Wenderton, to Dorothy, the third sister, afterwards married to Roger Lukin, gent. of London, who soon afterwards sold his share to Richard Oxenden, esq. of Brook, from one of which family it was sold to Underdown, by a female heir of which name, Frances, it went in marriage to John Carter, esq. of Deal, the present owner of it.

 

BUT GREAT WENDERTON continued in the possession of Sergeant Denne, till his death in 1693, when Dorothy, his eldest daughter and coheir, carried it in marriage to Mr. Thomas Ginder, who bore Argent, on a pale, sable, a cross fuchee, or, impaling azure, three lions heads, or; as they are on his monument. He resided at it till his death in 1716, as did his widow till her decease in 1736, when it came to her nephew Mr. Thomas Hatley, who left two daughters his coheirs, the eldest surviving of whom, Anne, carried it in marriage, first to Richard Nicholas, esq. and then successively to Mr. Smith and Mr. James Corneck, of London, and Mrs. Corneck, the widow of the latter, is the present possessor of it.

 

At the boundary of this parish, adjoining to Preston and Ash, lies THE MANOR OF WALMESTONE, usually called Wamston, which was antiently part of the possessions of the family of Septvans, one of whom, Robert de Septvans, held it in king Edward II.'s reign, of the archbishop; whose descendant Sir William de Septvans died possessed of it in the 25th year of that reign. (fn. 7) How long it continued in this name I have not found; but at the beginning of king Edward IV.'s reign it was become the property of William Bonington, of Canterbury, who died in 1463, and directed it by his will to be sold. After which it became, about the latter end of king Henry VIII.'s reign, the property of Walter Hendley, esq. the king's attorney-general, who left three daughters his coheirs, and they joined in the sale of it to Alday, who alienated it to Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, one of whose daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to Mervin Touchet, earl of Castlehaven, who being convicted of high crimes and misdemeanors, was executed anno 7 Charles I. Soon after which this manor seems to have been divided, and one part of it, since called Little Walmestone, in which was included the manor and part of the demesne lands, passed from his heirs to the Rev. John Smith, rector of Wickham Breaus, who having founded a scholarship at Oxford, out of the lands of it, presently afterwards sold it to Solly, of Pedding, in which name it continued till Stephen Solly, gent. of Pedding, and his two sons, John and Stephen, in 1653, joined in the conveyance of it to Thomas Winter, yeoman, of Wingham, in which name it remained for some time. At length, after some intermediate owners, it was sold to Sympson, and John Sympson, esq. of Canterbury, died possessed of it in 1748, leaving his wife surviving, who held it at her decease, upon which it came to her husband's heir-atlaw, and it is now accordingly in the possession of Mr. Richard Simpson.

 

BUT GREAT WALMESTONE, consisting of the mansion-house, with a greater part of the demesne lands of the manor, was passed away by the heirs of the earl of Castlehaven to Brigham, and Mr. Charles Brigham, of London, in the year 1653, sold it to William Rutland, of London, who left two daughters his coheirs, of whom Mary married John Ketch, by whom she had a sole daughter Anne, who afterwards at length became possessed of it, and carried it in marriage to Samuel Starling, gent. of Worcestershire, who in 1718, conveyed it, his only son Samuel joining in it, to Thomas Willys, esq. of London, afterwards created a baronet. After which it passed in the same manner, and in the like interests and shares, as the manor of Dargate, in Hernehill, down to Matthew, Robert and Thomas Mitchell, the trustees for the several uses to which this, among other estates belonging to the Willis's, had been limited; and they joined in the sale of it, in 1789, to Mr. William East, whose son, Mr. John East, of Wingham, is the present owner of it.

 

ARCHBISHOP KILWARBY intended to found a college in this church of Wingham, but resigning his archbishopric before he could put his design in practice, archbishop Peckham, his successor, in the year 1286, perfected his predecessor's design, and founded A COLLEGE in this church, for a provost, whose portion, among other premises, was the profits of this church and the vicarage of it, and six secular canons; the prebends of which he distinguished by the names of the several places from whence their respective portions arose, viz. Chilton, Pedding, Twitham, Bonnington, Ratling, and Wimlingswold. The provost's lodge, which appears by the foundation charter to have before been the parsonage, was situated adjoining to the church-yard; and the houses of the canons, at this time called Canon-row, opposite to it. These latter houses are, with their gardens and appurtenances, esteemed to be within the liberty of the town and port of Hastings, and jurisdiction of the cinque ports. This college was suppressed in the 1st year of king Edward VI. among others of the like sort, when the whole revenue of it was valued at 208l. 14s. 3½d. per annum, and 193l. 2s. 1d. clear; but Leland says, it was able to dispend at the suppression only eighty-four pounds per annum. Edward Cranmer, the last master, had at the dissolution a pension of twenty pounds per annum, which he enjoyed in 1553. (fn. 8)

 

After the dissolution of the college, the capital mansion, late belonging to the provost, remained in the crown till king Edward VI. in his 7th year, granted the scite of it, with the church appropriate of Wingham, and all tithes whatsoever arising within the parish, and one acre of glebe-land in it, to Sir Henry Palmer, subject to a payment of twenty pounds annually to the curate or vicar of it.

 

The Palmers of Wingham were descended from a very antient one at Angmerin, in Suffex, who bore for their arms, Or, two bars, gules, each charged with three tresoils of the field, in chief, a greyhound, currant, sable. In the seventh descent from Ralph Palmer, esq. of that place, in king Edward II.'s reign, was descended Sir Edward Palmer, of Angmerin, who left three sons, born on three successive Sundays, of whom John, the eldest, was of Sussex, which branch became extinct in queen Elizabeth's reign; Sir Henry, the second son, was of Wingham; and Sir Thomas, the youngest, was beheaded in queen Mary's reign. Sir Henry Palmer, the second son, having purchased the grant of the college of Wingham, as before-mentioned, made it the seat of his residence, as did his son Sir Thomas Palmer, who was sheriff anno 37 Elizabeth, and created a baronet in 1621. He so constantly resided at Wingham, that he is said to have kept sixty Christmases, without intermission, in this mansion, with great hospitality. He had three sons, each of whom were knighted. From the youngest of whom, Sir James, descended the Palmers, of Dauney, in Buckinghamshire, who upon the eldest branch becoming extinct, have succeeded to the title of baronet; and by his second wife he had Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemain. Sir Thomas Palmer, the eldest of the three brothers, died in his father's life-time, and left Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, heir to his grandfather; in whose descendants, baronets, of this place, this mansion, with the parsonage of Wingham appropriate, continued down to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, who died possessed of it in 1723, having had three wives; by the first he had four daughters; by the second he had a son Herbert, born before marriage, and afterwards a daughter Frances; the third was Mrs. Markham, by whom he had no issue; and she afterwards married Thomas Hey, esq. whom she likewise survived. Sir Thomas Palmer, by his will, gave this seat, with the parsonage appropriate and tithes of Wingham, inter alia, after his widow's decease, to his natural son Herbert Palmer, esq. above-mentioned, who married Bethia, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, bart. of Knolton. He died in 1760, s. p. and by will devised his interest in the reversion of this seat, with the parsonage, to his wife Bethia, for her life, and afterwards to his sister Mrs. Frances Palmer, in tail. But he never had possession of it, for lady Palmer furvived him, on whose death in 1763, Mrs. Bethia Palmer, his widow, became entitled to it, and afterwards married John Cosnan, esq. who died in 1773. She survived him, and resided here till her death in 1789. In the intermediate time, Mrs. Frances Palmer having barred the entail made by her natural brother Herbett above-mentioned, died, having devised the see of this estate, by her will in 1770, to the Rev. Thomas Hey, rector of Wickhambreaux, and his heirs, being the eldest son of the last lady Palmer by her last husband. Mr. Hey accordingly, on the death of Mrs. Cosnan, who died s. p. succeeded to this seat and estate. He married first Ethelreda, eldest daughter and coheir of dean Lynch, since deceased, by whom he has no surviving issue; and secondly, Mrs. Pugett, widow of Mr. Puget, of London. He now resides in this seat of Wingham college, having been created D. D. and promoted to a prebend of the church of Rochester.

 

Charities.

JOHN CHURCH, yeoman, of this parish, in 1604, gave 1cl. to the poor, to distribute yearly at Easter, 10s. to the poor for the interest of it.

 

HECTOR DU MONT, a Frenchman, born in 1632, gave the silver cup and patten for the holy communion.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, president for the East-India Company at Surat, in 1660, gave the velvet cushion and pulpitcloth.

 

JOHN RUSHBEACHER, gent. of this parish, in 1663, gave five acres of land in Woodnesborough, the rents to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish, now of the yearly value of 4l.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, above-mentioned, in 1682, gave 500l. for the repairing and beautifying this church, and the Dene chancel.

 

SIR JAMES OXENDEN, knight and baronet, of Dene, founded and endowed a school in this parish with 16l. per annum for ever, for teaching twenty poor children reading and writing, now in the patronage of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

RICHARD OXENDEN, esq. of Brook, in 1701, gave an annuity of 4l. for ever, to the minister, for the reading of divine service and preaching a sermon, in this church, on every Wednesday in Lent, and on Good Friday; and he at the same time gave 20s. yearly for ever, to be distributed, with the consent of the heirs of the Brook estate, to eight poor people, who should be at divine service on Easter-day, to be paid out of the lands of Brook, now vested in Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

THOMAS PALMER, esq. of St. Dunstan's in the East, London, gave 300l for the repairing, adorning and beautifying the great chancel of this church.

 

MRS. ELIZABETH MASTER, esq. relict of Strensham Master, of Brook, in 1728, gave the large silver flaggon; and MRS. SYBILLA OXENDEN, spinster, of Brook, at the same time gave a large silver patten for the communion.

 

Besides the above benefactions, there have been several lesser ones given at different times in money, both to the poor and for the church. All which are recorded in a very handsome table in the church, on which are likewise painted the arms of the several benefactors

 

There are about forty poor constantly relieved, and casually twenty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

The church, which is exempt from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a handsome building, consisting of two isles and three chancels, having a slim spire steeple at the west end, in which is a peal of eight bells and a clock. The church consists of two isles and three chancels. The former appear to have been built since the reformation; the latter are much more antient. It is handsome and well built; the pillars between the isles, now cased with wood, are slender and well proportioned. The outside is remarkably beautiful in the flint-work, and the windows throughout it, were regular and handsomely disposed, superior to other churches, till later repairs destroyed their uniformity. The windows were formerly richly ornamented with painted glass, the remains of which are but small. In the south window, in old English letters, is Edward Warham, gentill . . . . of making this window . . . . and underneath the arms of Warham. In the north isle is a brass tablet for Christopher Harris, curate here, and rector of Stourmouth, obt. Nov. 24, 1719. Over the entrance from this isle into the high chancel, is carved on the partition, the Prince of Wales's badge and motto. In the south wall is a circular arch, plain, seemingly over a tomb. A monument for T. Ginder, gent. obt. 1716. In the south east window the arms of Warham. A memorial for Vincent Denne, gent. of Wenderton, obt. 1642. In the high chancel are seven stalls on each side. On the pavement are several stones, robbed of their brasses, over the provosts and religious of the college. A stone, coffin-shaped, and two crosses pomelle, with an inscription round in old French capitals, for master John de Sarestone, rector, ob. XII Kal. May MCCLXXI. Several monuments and memorials for the family of Palmer. The south chancel is called the Dene chancel, belonging to that seat, under which is a vault, in which the family of Oxenden, owners of it, are deposited. In the middle, on the pavement, is a very costly monument, having at the corners four large black oxens beads, in allusion to their name and arms. It was erected in 1682. On the four tablets on the base is an account of the family of Oxenden, beginning with Henry, who built Denehouse, and ending with Dr. Oxenden, dean of the arches, who died in 1704. There are monuments in it likewise for the Trippes. The north chancel is called the Brook chancel, as belonging to that seat, in which are monuments for the Oxendens and Masters's of this seat. This chancel is shut out from the church, and is made use of as a school-room, by which means the monuments are much desaced, and the gravestones, from the filth in it, have become wholly obliterated. On one of these stones was a brass plate, now gone, for Henry Oxenden, esq. who built Dene, obt. 1597.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of the marquis of Juliers, and widow of John, son of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, after being solemnly veiled a nun, quitted her prosession, and was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace de Danbrichescourt, in a chapel of the mansion-house of Robert de Brome, a canon of this collegiate church, in 1360; for which she and her husband were enjoined different kinds of penance during their lives, which is well worth the reading, for the uncommon superstitious mockery of them. (fn. 9)

 

At the time of the reformation, the church was partly collegiate, and partly parochial. The high chancel, separated from the rest of the church by a partition, served for the members of the college to perform their quire service in. The two isles of the church were for the parishioners, who from thence could hear the quire service; and in the north isle was a roodlost, where one of the vicars went up and read the gospel to the people. At which time, I find mention of a parish chancel likewise.

 

The church of Wingham formerly comprehended not only this parish, but those likewise of Ash, Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wimlingswold; but archbishop Peckham, in 1282, divided them into four distinct parochial churches, and afterwards appropriated them to his new-founded college of Wingham, with a saving to them of certain portions which the vicars of them were accustomed to receive. The profits of this church and the vicarage of it, together with the parsonage-house, being thus appropriated and allotted to the provost, as part of his portion and maintenance, the archbishop, in order that the church should be duly served, by his foundation charter, ordered, that the provost and canons should each of them keep a vicar who should constantly serve in it. In which state it continued till the suppression of the college, in the 1st year of king Edward VI. when it came, among the rest of the revenues of the college, into the hands of the crown, where this parsonage appropriate, to which was annexed, the nomination of the perpetual curate serving in this church, remained till it was granted by king Edward VI. in his 7th year, to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. Since which it has continued in like manner, together with the scite of the college, as has been already mentioned, to the Rev. Dr. Hey, who is the present possessor of this parsonage, together with the patronage of the perpetual curacy of the church of Wingham.

 

In 1640 the communicants here were three hundred and sixty-one.

 

¶The curacy is endowed with a stipend of twenty pounds per annum, paid by the owner of the parsonage, and reserved to the curate in the original grant of the college by king Edward VI. and with four pounds per annum, being the Oxenden gift before mentioned; besides which, the stipend of the resident curate, and his successors, was increased in 1797, by a liberal benefaction made by the Rev. Dr. Hey, of one hundred pounds per annum, clear of all deductions, to be paid out of the parsonage, and of a house, garden, and piece of pasture land adjoining, for the curate's use, both which were settled by him on trustees for that purpose.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp224-241

Mary Ann Shaffer and Annie Barrows

The Guernsey Literary and Potato Peel Pie Society

First published in: 2008

This edition: Bantam 2009

ISBN: 978-0-440-29700-0

Genre: (post-)WW2, romance

Pages: 300

Cover design by Roberto de Vicq de Cumptich; cover photograph by Christian Raoul Skrein von Bumbala

 

This book with one of the most unusual and interesting titles I've run across in years has been recommended to me countless times, by various people - people who have gotten to know me and my taste in books rather well ever since I've started this project. Needless to say, I happily agreed to do something with their insistence that I should read THE GUERNSEY LITERARY AND POTATO PEEL PIE SOCIETY; I figured this one would be right up my alley. And it was.

 

GUERNSEY LITERARY is as adorable as the title suggests. Centered around Juliet Ashton, this epistolary novel has her writing and receiving letters from her closest friends - one of them being her publisher and confidant, Sidney Stark. One day, she receives a letter from a man called Dawsey Adams, who hails from the island Guernsey and is one of the founding members of - that's right - the Guernsey Literary and Potato Peel Pie Society. Intrigued, Juliet pursues this interesting new contact, and soon finds herself completely taken with the society and all of its members... and Guernsey itself.

 

Much like Juliet Ashton, I myself felt utterly in love with everything Guernsey: the people and the book club which was founded out of necessity during the German Occupation of the island. In that sense I already felt I was like Juliet in some way. There's a part in the book which has Juliet writing about why she called of her engagement to Rob: he had boxed up all of her books and put his sports trophees in their bookcase instead! (Me: "BLASPHEMY!") Ohhh no. No no no. That just isn't right! Furthermore, I'm also inclined to throw teapots at insufferably rude and irritating people (unless said teapot is too pretty).

 

Not only could I relate to Juliet in every possible way, I also understood GUERNSEY LITERARY to be about the love of reading and books. Reading as a means of an escape, but also as a means of joy and happiness during hard times - World War 2 in this case. This turned out to be a book after my own heart: a book about loving books, a book about loving people who love books. I also discovered more joy in my life ever since I've started reading more. So I feel I understood this book, why it was written and why it is loved so much today. It's for us, readers.

 

Despite the many smiles generated by reading this book, it is also important to stress that it does not in any way make light of the subject of the second world war. Yes, GUERNSEY LITERARY is light and uplifting, and this was refreshing in a way; I tend to avoid WW2 books because they can be too hard to bear (for me). WW2 is treated with sincerity and respect in GUERNSEY LITERARY, but the subject never weighs too heavily. But tragic tales are included, blended in with the triumphant ones. The story of Elizabeth, one of the society's members, will pull at your heartstrings, while other stories will make you laugh.

 

What perhaps saddened me equally as some of the stories described in GUERNSEY LITERARY was knowing that the author, Mary Ann Shaffer, passed away before seeing her work published. Her niece, Annie Barrows, has been so good as to help her aunt complete her novel. But there won't be any more books by Shaffer, which I feel as a loss. Shaffer was in my opinion an author with the talent to write one of the most human books I've read in a while, selecting those precious moments that move any human being to laughter or tears and putting these moments into unpretentious, simple words that make sense and are beautiful for the feelings they evoke.

 

Apart from being a book about the love of books and Guernsey post-WW2, GUERNSEY LITERARY is also about deep friendship (the kind that's for life). I was touched by the letters that were sent to Juliet from everyone in Guernsey - and vice versa - and the bonds created through handwritten efforts. In a way, it made me miss the good old days of sending out real letters as a means to get to know someone and to keep in touch. Before email and Twitter, when you'd head out to your post box and find that letter with real stamps on it, little drawings and stickers covering the envelope, a letter inside with one of the most personal traits a human being can have: real handwriting. Okay, GUERNSEY LITERARY is a printed book, but that excitement of letter writing seems as real as can be.

 

Finally, GUERNSEY LITERARY is a sweet and at times comical love story to be enjoyed by romantic souls, whether you're an Austen fan and/or love a good chick lit every now and then. Juliet reminded me in some ways of Austen's Emma, as she's for the longest time oblivious to her own feelings while misinterprating situations around her.

 

It has been a while since I've read a book about which I have nothing negative to say. Nothing to stress or point out as a 'fair reviewer' should try to do. I've got nothing but appreciation and (re)commendation for this one. Get this book. Cozy up somewhere and let THE GUERNSEY LITERARY AND POTATO PEEL PIE SOCIETY sweep you off your feet, as it has swept Juliet off hers - and me off mine.

 

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R&R series © Karin E. Lips 2008-2010 (and beyond)

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Copyright © Karin Elizabeth. All rights reserved.

R&R series © Karin Elizabeth. Do NOT copy and repost or reproduce the review or photo anywhere without my permission.

 

No group images or (admin) invites wanted in my comments. I will delete your comments.

 

Play nice.

I block assholes.

 

THIS IS NOT FREE STOCK.

"To the memory of the honourable Craven Howard, descended from Thomas Duke of Norfolk and Margaret daughter of Thomas Lord Audley of Walden, Lord High Chancellor of England.

The eldest son of which marriage was created Earl of Suffolk, the 15th of James the First . (Constituted Lord High Treasurer of England in ye 12th year of the same reign) . And married Elizabeth eldest daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knevet of Charleton in ye county of Wilts by whom he had Theophilus who succeeded him in the earldom of Suffolk.

Thomas his second son, created Baron Howard of Charleton, Viscount Andover and Earle of Berkshire, and elected Knights Companion of the most noble Order of the Garter, whose fourth son William by Elizabeth (one of ye daughters and coheirs of William Lord Burleigh) married Elizabeth +++ the daughter of Lorthiel Lord Dundas one of the Lords of Session in the Kingdom of Scotland, by whom he left issue Craven father of Henry Bowes, Earl of Berkshire & two daughters, by Mary daughter and heiress of George Bowes esq, who is likewise here interred.

He departed this life June the 7th 1700; His relict in the same year August ye 5th"

 

(Craven Howard was the son of William Howard and Elizabeth daughter of Lorthiel Lord Dundas +++

He m1 1673 Anne 1652 - 1682 daughter of Sir Thomas Ogle of Pinchbeck by Anne flic.kr/p/MA4WQ daughter of Sir John Reade of Wrangle : Maid of honour to Queen Catherine of Braganza,

Anne was the grand daughter of Sir John Reade of Wrangle, 1626 & 2nd wife Anne Garrard 1652 flic.kr/p/MA7EN

Children

1. Ann 1703 www.flickr.com/gp/52219527@N00/24d6jz daughter of Sir Thomas Ogle of Pinchbeck

 

He m2 1683 Mary b 1655 heiress of George Bowes & Mary Burdett 1700 www.flickr.com/gp/52219527@N00/554A50

1. Henry Bowes, Earl of Berkshire 1686 - 1757 m (his cousin) Catherine www.flickr.com/gp/52219527@N00/eK4542 daughter of Col James Graham of Levens & Dorothy daughter of William Howard by Elizabeth Dundas +++

1. Mary 1685 - 1724 www.flickr.com/gp/52219527@N00/hdxn7x

 

Imprudence and litigiousness led Howard to squander many of his advantages. He enjoyed a substantial inheritance of lands in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire through his paternal grandmother Lady Elizabeth Cecil, but took as his first wife an ‘ancient maid’ of ‘no fortune’ and settled on her the Northamptonshire estate, which was afterwards lost to him. This ‘disobedient’ marriage brought about a rupture with his mother and a subsequent lawsuit. He also had frequent recourse to law against his cousin Thomas Howard* over the Lincolnshire property.

His second marriage was more astute, resulting in his installation as master of Elford Hall. However, even this did not free him from financial embarrassments, and at his death his estate is said to have been seriously encumbered. Litigation was still a popular pursuit with him, as was speculation in various commercial and industrial projects. Besides his involvement in the Linen Manufacturing Company, he was a member of a consortium that in the mid-1690s was attempting an ambitious waterworks scheme in London; and he was one of the ‘inventors’ of the ‘Light Royal’, an unsuccessful rival to the convex light.

He sold Revesby Abbey estate including the house he built there, for £14,000 to Joseph Banks flic.kr/p/r2qqDr who made a fortune as agent for the Dukes of Leeds, Norfolk and Newcastle, buying estates in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire

www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1690-1715/member... - Church of St Peter, Elford Staffordshire.

okay last one from sunday >.< lol once again, this is Elizabeth. one of my favorites that I took. I miss her D:

 

in other news, today is my mom's birthday. oh and I'm happy cause Kentucky finally lost ^_^

  

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www.texastargetbirds.com

 

On our first morning in Trinidad we were enjoying the veranda at the Asa Wright Nature Centre when Elizabeth, one of the helpful guides from the centre pointed out this beautiful Bay-headed Tanager in a nearby tree.

 

We will be doing this trip again in spring of 2019, if you think you might be interested more information is available here: www.texastargetbirds.com/group-photo-trips/2019-trinidad/

  

_MG_7174-web

 

Tangara gyrola

 

A REMARKABLE TUDOR PICTURE !

 

Broughton House in Northamptonshire has announced its posession of a remarkable Tudor painting . It has recently become aware of its having an hitherto unappreciated picture of King Henry VIII and his son and daughters . The painting shows the Monarch standing at the head of a table along which ( to his left side ) are stood his son Edward and daughters Mary and Elizabeth .

 

THE JESTER

Probably most significantly , The King's Jester,Will Somers, is also plainly pictured. He is apparently placed between the Monarch and the Heir - although he is in fact in the background - at the Tudor's rear.

 

The recently authenticated picture , itself a copy of an older panel painting , will be displayed at the Duke of Buccleuch's Boughton House,Northamptonshire from August 2008.

 

There are just two other portraits of a youthful Elizabeth , one being at

Hampton Court and the other at Windsor Castle.

 

[ Consider : was the Jester's inclusion in the picture for historical record or to hint of contemporary mischief or deceit ? ]

 

Note : ** If you are interested enough to be viewing the above picture closely , you may already know that it was due to the terrible consequences of the s.t.d.disease suffered by her father ( syphilis ) that Elizabeth lacked full eyebrows.

Worse was inflicted upon her brother Edward who died whilst still a child .

 

[ ** Further information is available in fully informative history books .]

  

PLEASE NOTE : that the Lenton Sands Flickr notes to pictures should not be accepted as being absolute material fact . Mistakes can be made made both during their initial composition and their being placed on-line.

 

This was actually a difficult photo to put together. I was shooting with my cousins 60D so it wasn't full frame. There wasnt a lot of room behind me either so there was no way to get a wide shot. I ended up taking a panorama of the staircase without her on it and then individual panoramas of her in the different positions. I had to just hope that it came together. I stitched the staircase together and placed each composite of Elizabeth one at a time. After a long time fiddling with the proportions of the set and each girl, I ended up with what you see here.

 

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Glass plate negative that was once part of the late David Jenkinson Collection.It can be seen, plate 9 in his book Profile of the Duchesses. The caption reads " when de-streamlined in 1946, No 6221 ran in drab wartime black for a few months,seen at Crewe. A lovely portrait shot of 'Queen Elizabeth' one of the earlier withdrawals of the class in 1963.

Some area of the sky was missing on the glass plate so I've copied some in above the chimney.

 

Glass Plate negative - Epson V700 photo scanner Nik Collection Software.

simonlathlanecollection.zenfolio.com/

St Mary, Kenninghall, Norfolk

 

Kenninghall, the village, is surrounded by other villages which are far better known, although not necessarily for their churches. Banham has its zoo, Bressingham its gardens and Quidenham has its convent and the Norfolk children's hospice. So it comes as a surprise to discover that Kenninghall is a large, comfortable, self-sufficient kind of place, and its great church is grander, and perhaps more interesting, than those of its neighbours.

 

St Mary stands in an imposing position above the road, the south side particularly striking with its big Perpendicular windows and a clerestory of five small double light windows. There never was an aisle on this side. The tower is big and bulky. Mortlock says that a spire was intended, and the money for it committed, by the Duke of Norfolk, whose shield can still be seen on the south-east buttress of the nave. But Norfolk was imprisoned for treason before it could be built, his assets frozen, and then, of course, the English Reformation intervened.

 

St Mary is exactly the kind of church which would be better known if it was in another county and not so much off the beaten track. You step into a large, urban church, full of confidence, and with more than a few survivals of the building's late-medieval and early-modern life. Best of all is the tympanum bearing the royal arms of Queen Elizabeth, one of only four sets in all East Anglia. It has been fixed at the east end of the north aisle, but you can still see that it was shaped to fit the chancel arch. God save the Queene, reads the legend, a crowned lion and a gorgeous speckled red dragon flanking the Tudor arms. This is a much simpler affair than the more famous, and more elaborate, Elizabethan arms a few miles off at Tivetshall. Here, the arms are cleanly drawn and charged with the quiet triumph of Protestantism. As if that wasn't enough, the church also has the arms of Charles I hanging above the north door.

 

On the other side of the church there are fragments of a large brass. The main figures are gone, but surviving are the two groups of children. These have been reset on a wall, so if there is a fire they will melt - floor-mounted brasses don't melt in fires - but at least it makes them easy to look at. With them are a pair of image brackets remounted from elsewhere, one of them ornate with fleurons. Roughly contemporary with the brasses is what must have been a magnificent towering font cover. It rises like a steeple, familiar in style from elsewhere in Norfolk at Elsing and Walpole St Peter. Similarly battered are the remains of a medieval table tomb with empty brass inlays, pressed into service as a side altar in the chancel.

 

The glass is pretty much all of the 20th Century, although you might be forgiven for thinking otherwise because the east windows and chancel south windows by Heaton, Butler & Bayne are all still very much 19th Century in style, based on workshop cartoons used up to half a century earlier. In fact, the earliest window here is from 1900. The best of them is the 1960s one on the south side of the nave depicting the figures of the East Anglian Saints Felix and Walstan. Lively and animated, St Walstan swings his scythe and the evangelical St Felix holds a lighted candle and an open book. They are by Paul Jefferies for King & Son of Norwich.

 

The only earlier glass survival is a delightful single quarry depicting a marriage knot of 1636. Its jauntiness is countered by the sobriety of the small, simple memorial reset against the tower arch to two young children, Michael and Mary Marner, who died seven years apart in the middle of the 18th century. A verse explains that The Great Jehovah full of Love through Death's dark shades did send to take these pretty spotless Doves to Joys that never End, which must have been small comfort, even in those days.

Built in 2004 near the replica of the ship Elizabeth, one of Walter Raleigh's seven ships that brought colonists to what would become the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke. The original screwpile lighthouse was lost in 1955 while being transported by barge from its original location in the middle of the bay.

 

I'm actually curious as to why this has more views than my other pictures. It's all right, but I was never crazy about it; I really had doubts about posting it at all.

View On Black

 

the Elizabeth II, a representation of the 16th century English merchant ship Elizabeth, one of the seven ships used in the three voyages financed by Sir Walter Raleigh for the British to first settle in manteo in the 1580's. Although not an exact replica of the ships used in those voyages, since no drawings of those exist, Elizabeth II faithfully represents the ships of that era, which were the same size. They had the ballast weight record to determine the correct size of the original ships.

You don't really think anyone is going to open a church in this weather? Said Jools. And at about the same time, a warden's wife was saying, you're not going to go and open the church are you? No one will visit a church on a day like this.

 

So, the madness of man wins out, as I did visit and found that the warden had just opened the church.

 

Sadly, Great Mongehmam wasn't open later, but looked interesting enough to demand a return visit ASAP.

 

As I now know, any settlement ending with "bourne" should have a stream source or running through it. And that is the case here, a winterbourne, though not as frequently running as the Nailbourne rises here and flows to Sandwich.

 

Northbourne lies to the west of Deal, in a patchwork of fields and woods that is most pleasant. It used to be near to Tilmanstone Colliery and the Davy Lamp hanging in the chancel remembers this.

 

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One of the few cruciform churches to have been built in Kent in the twelfth century, on the site of, and incorporating fragments of, a Saxon building. Curtains help shut off parts of the church during the winter months. There is a good mass dial by the main door. The Lady Chapel contains the monument to Sir Edwin Sandys and his wife (d. 1629). It is one of the best of its date in Kent and shows the pair in recumbent position hand in hand. Surprisingly the wordy inscription was not added until 1830! The chancel was refitted in the mid-nineteenth century but the east window shows good quality medieval stonework of thirteenth-century date.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Northbourne

 

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NORTHBORNE,

USUALLY called Norborne, as it is written in the survey of Domesday, lies the next parish westward from Little Mongeham, being so called from the north borne, or stream, which runs from hence into the river at Sandwich. There are four boroughs in it, Norborne, Finglesham, Asheley, and Tickness, or Tickenhurst, for each of which a borsholder is chosen at the manor court of Norborne.

 

THIS PARISH lies for the most part exceedingly dry and healthy, in a fine uphill, open and pleasant country, though it extends northward towards Howbridge and Foulmead, into a low country of wet ground and marsh lands. It is a large parish, for although it is very long and narrow, extending only a mile and an half from east to west, yet it is full five miles from north to south, till it joins Waldershare and Whitfield. The part of this parish containing the borough, hamlet, and manor of Tickenhurst, is separated from the rest of it by the parishes of Eastry, Ham, and Betshanger, intervening; and there is a small part of the parish of Goodneston within this of Norborne, and entirely surrounded by it. The soil of this parish being so very extensive, must necessarily vary much. It is, however, much inclined to chalk, and is throughout it very hilly; though much of it is very light earth, yet there is a great deal of rich fertile land in the lower part of it northward. There is much uninclosed land and open downs interspersed throughout it. The street of Norborne, having the church and vicarage-house within it, and containing twentysix houses, is situated at the north-east boundary of the parish. Near it is Norborne-court, the almonry or parsonage, and a house and estate, called the Vine farm, now in the possession of the hon. lady Frances Benson.

 

Besides this, there are several other streets, hamlets, and eminent farms, within the bounds of this parish, of which, those most worthy of notice, the reader will find described hereafter.

 

THE MANOR OF NORBORNE, which is of very large extent, was given in the year 618, by Eadbald, king of Kent, by the description of a certain part of his kingdom, containing thirty plough lands, called Northborne, to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, in which monastery his father lay, and where he had ordered himself to be buried. In this state it con tinued at the time of taking the survey of Domesday, in the 15th year of the Conqueror's reign, in which it is entered under the general title of the land of the church of St. Augustine, as follows:

 

In the lath of Estrea. In Cornelest hundred.

 

The abbot himself holds Norborne. It was taxed at thirty sulings. The arable land is fifty-four carucates. In demesne there are three, and seventy-nine villeins, with forty-two borderers, having thirty-seven carucates. There are forty acres of meadow, and wood for the pannage of ten hogs.

 

In the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth four times twenty pounds; when he received it twenty pounds; now seventy-six pounds.

 

Of the lands of the villeins of this manor, Oidelard holds one suling, and there he has two carucates, with eleven borderers..... It is worth four pounds. .... Of the same land of the villeins, Gislebert holds two sulings, all but half a yoke, and there he has one carucate, and four villeins, with one carucate. It is worth six pounds.

 

Wadard holds of this manor three sulings, all but sixty acres of the land of the villeins, and there he has one carucate, and eight villeins, with one carucate and two servants. It is worth nine pounds; but he pays no service to the abbot, except thirty shillings, which he pays in the year.

 

Odelin holds of the same land of the villeins one suling, and there he has one carucate, with three borderers..... It is worth three pounds.

 

Marcherius holds of the same land of the villeins what is worth eight shillings.

 

Osbern the son of Letard holds half a suling, and eleven acres of meadow, of the land of the villeins, which is worth twenty-five shillings. He pays to the abbot fifteen shillings.

 

Rannulf de Colubers holds one yoke .......worth fifty pence.

 

Rannulf de Ualbadon holds one yoke, and pays from thence fifty pence.

 

The above-mentioned Oidelard holds also of this manor one suling, and it is called Bevesfel, and there he has two carucates, with ten borderers. It is worth six pounds.

 

In the reign of king Edward II. the 7th of it, anno 1313, the abbot claimed upon a quo warranto, in the iter of H. de Stanton and his sociates, justices itinerant, and was allowed sundry liberties therein mentioned in this manor, among others, and the view of frank-pledge, and likewise wrec of the sea in this manor in particular, in like manner as has been mentioned before in the description of the several manors belonging to the monastery, in the former parts of this History. (fn. 1) And the liberty of the view of frankpledge was in particular further confirmed by that king, in his 10th year.

 

King Edward III. in his 5th year, anno 1330, exempted the men and tenants of this manor from their attendance at the turne of the sheriff, before made by the borsholder, with four men of each borough within it; and directed his writ to Roger de Reynham, then sheriff, commanding that in future they should be allowed to perform the same with one man only.

 

In the 8th year of king Richard II. the measurement of the abbot and convent's lands at Nordburne, with 208 acres of wood, was 2179 acres and an half and one rood.

 

Salamon de Ripple, a monk of this monastery, being, about the 10th year of king Edward III. appointed by the abbot keeper of this manor, among others, made great improvements in many of them, and in particular he new built the barns here, and a very fair chapel, from the foundations. But after wards, in the year 1371, their great storehouses here, full of corn, were, by the negligence of a workman, entirely burnt down; the damage of which was estimated at one thousand pounds.

 

After which, I find nothing further in particular relating to this manor, which continued part of the possessions of the monastery, till its final dissolution, in the 30th year of king Hen. VIII. when it was surrendered into the king's hands, with whom this manor continued but a small time; for the king, in his 31st year, granted it, with the parsonage or rectory, to archbishop Cranmer, in exchange, and it remained parcel of the possessions of the see of Canterbury, till archbishop Parker, in the 3d year of queen Elizabeth, reconveyed it to the crown, in exchange. After which, the manor itself, with its courts, franchises, and liberties, continued in the crown, till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted it in fee to William White and others, to hold, as of his manor of East Greenwich, by sealty only, in free and common socage, and not in capite, or by knight's service; (fn. 2) and they that year sold it to Stephen Alcocke, gent. of London, who next year passed it away by sale, with some exceptions, to Edward Boys, gent. of Betshanger, to hold of the king in like manner, as above-mentioned. His descendant, Edward Grotius Boys, dying s. p. in 1706, gave it by will to his kinsman, Thomas Brett, LL. D. of Spring grove, and he, in 1713, alienated it to Salmon Morrice, esq. afterwards an admiral of the British navy, and of Betshanger, whose grandson William Morrice, esq. died possessed of it in 1787, unmarried; upon which it came to his only brother, James Morrice, clerk, who is the present owner of this manor.

 

The fee-farm rent reserved when this manor was granted away by the crown, came into the hands of the earl of Ilchester, who in 1788 sold it to the Rev. Mr. Morrice, the present owner of this manor; so there is now no fee-farm rent paid for it.

 

A court leet and court baron is yearly held for it; at the former of which, two constables, one for the upper half hundred, and the other for the lower half hundred of Cornilo, are chosen. The present manorhouse is a small cottage in Norborne-street, built upon the waste for that purpose.

 

NORTHBORNE-COURT, usually called Norborne abbey, from its having belonged to the abbey of St. Augustine, was the antient court-lodge of the manor, before they were separated by different grants from the crown. It is said to have been in the time of the Saxons the palace of king Eadbald, who gave it as above-mentioned, with the manor, to the above monastery. Accordingly, Leland, in his Itinerary, says, (fn. 3) "A ii myles or more fro Sandwich from Northburn cummeth a fresch water yn to Sandwich haven. At Northburn was the palayce or maner of Edbalde Ethelberts sunne. There but a few years syns (viz. in king Henry VIII.'s reign) yn breking a side of the walle yn the hawle were found ii childrens bones that had been mured up as yn burielle yn time of Paganits of the Saxons. Among one of the childrens bones was found a styffe pynne of Latin." This court-lodge, with the demesne lands of the manor, remained but a very short time in the hands of the crown, after the reconveyance of it by the archbishop, in the 3d year of queen Elizabeth, as has been mentioned above; for it was almost immediately afterwards granted by the queen, for life, to Edward Sanders, gent. her foster brother. He afterwards resided at Norborne court, having married Anne, daughter and coheir of Francis, son of Milo Pendrath of Norborne, by Elizabeth, one of the heirs of Thomas Lewin, and nurse to queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth. His ancestors had resided for some generations at Chilton, in Ash, but were originally descended from Minister, in Thanet. They bore for their arms, Or, on a chevron, gules, three mullets, argent, between three elephants heads, erased, of the second. (fn. 4) On his death, about the middle of that reign, the possession of it reverted to the crown, where it remained, till king James I. soon after his accession, granted it in see to Sir Edwin Sandys, on whom he conferred the honour of knighthood, and had given this estate, for his firm attachment to him at that time. He rebuilt this mansion, and kept his shrievalty at it, in the 14th year of king James I. and dying in the year 1629, was buried in the vault which he had made in this church for himself and his posterity, and in which most of his direct descendants were afterwards deposited. He was second son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York, by his second wife. The archbishop's eldest son was Samuel, who was of Worcestershire, from whom descended the lords Sandys, late of Ombersley, in that county. Two of his younger sons were, Miles Sandys, of Worcestershire, and George, the noted traveller. They bore for their arms, Or, a fess dancette, between three cross croslets, fitchee, gules.o

 

Sir Edwin Sandys, though he had four wives, left male issue only by his last wife. From Edwin, their second son, descended the Sandys's, of Norbornecourt; and from Richard, the third son, those of Canterbury, still remaining there. On Sir Edwin Sandys's death, in 1629, his eldest son, Henry Sandys, esq. succeeded to this estate; and on his death, s. p. his next brother, Col. Edwin Sandys, the noted rebel colonel under Oliver Cromwell, well known for his sacrilegious depredations and insolent cruelties to the royalists, who died at Norborne-court of the wound he had received in 1642, at the battle of Worcester, His grandson Sir Richard Sandys, of Norborne-court, was created a baronet in 1684, and died in 1726. By his first wife he left only four daughters his coheirs, viz. Priscilla, the eldest, married to Henry Sandys, esq. (grandson of Henry Sandys, esq. of Downe, the son of Col. Richard Sandys, the younger brother of Col. Edwin Sandys, the great grandfather of Priscilla, above-mentioned). Mary, the second daughter and coheir, married William Roberts, esq. of Harbledowne; Elizabeth, the third daughter, died unmarried soon after her father's death; and Anne, the fourth and youngest daughter, married Charles Pyott, esq. of Canterbury, and they respectively, in right of their wives, became possessed of this, among the rest of his estates, in undivided shares, by the entail made in Sir Richard Sandys's will.

 

The third part of Henry Sandys, in right of his wife Priscilla, descended to his son Richard Sandys, esq. of Canterbury, whose surviving sons, and daughter Susan married to Henry Godfrey Faussett, esq. of Heppington, at length succeeded to it.

 

The third part of William Roberts, in right of his wife Mary, descended at length to his grand-daughter Mary, only daughter of Edward Wollet, esq. who carried it in marriage to Sir Robert Mead Wilmot, bart. and on his decease came to his eldest son Sir Robert Wilmot, bart.

 

The remaining third part of Charles Pyott, esq. in right of his wife Anne, descended to his only daughter Anne, married to Robert Thomas Pyott, esq. of Hull, but afterwards of Canterbury.

 

In 1795, all the parties interested in this estate joined in conveying their respective shares to the several purchasers undermentioned: to James Tillard, esq. of Street-End Place, near Canterbury, Northborne-court lodge, farm, and lands; to Robert-Thomas Pyott, esq. Stoneheap-farm; to Wm. Wyborn, the scite of the late mansion house, gardens, and LongLane farm; to Mr. John Parker, Cold-Harbour farm; and to several other persons, the remaining small detached parts of this estate. The whole purchase-monies amounting nearly to 30,000l. The whole estate contained near 1100 acres, all tithe-free, except about forty acres.

 

The mansion of Norborne-court, the residence of the Sandys's, appears to have been a large and stately building. It was pulled down in 1750, and the materials sold; and the walls are all that now remain of it, forming a very considerable ruin. Near the house was a handsome chapel, formerly used by the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, when they visited this mansion, and afterwards by the Sandys family. It is at this time nearly entire, excepting the roof, which has been long since taken off.

 

LITTLE BETSHANGER is an estate in the western part of this parish, which was antiently accounted a manor, and had once owners of the same name; one of whom, Ralph de Betshanger, was possessed of it in king Edward II.'s reign, as was his descendant Thomas de Bethanger, in the 20th year of the next reign of king Edward III. Soon after which, Roger de Cliderow, says Philipott, was proprietor of it, as appears by the seals of old evidences, which commenced from that reign, the shields on which are upon a chevron, between three eagles, five annulets. Notwithstanding which, it appears by the gravestone over his successor, Richard Clitherow, esq. in Ash church, that the arms of these Clitherows were, Three cups covered, within a bordure, ingrailed, or; at least that he bore different arms from those of his predecessor. At length, Roger Clitherow died without male issue, leaving three daughters his coheirs; of whom Joane, the second, married John Stoughton, of Dartford, second son of Sir John Stoughton, lord-mayor of London. After which, this estate was alienated from this family of Stoughton to Gibbs, from which name it passed into that of Omer; in which it staid, till Laurence Omer, gent. of Ash, leaving an only daughter and heir Jane, she carried it in marriage to T. Stoughton, gent of Ash, afterwards of St. Martin's, Canterbury, son of Edward Stoughton, of Ash, the grandson of John Stoughton, of Dartford, the former possessor of this estate. He died in 1591, leaving three daughters his coheirs; of whom, Elizabeth was married to Thomas Wild, esq. of St. Martin's, Canterbury; Ellen to Edward Nethersole, gent. and Mary to Henry Paramore, gent. of St. Nicholas, and they by a joint conveyance passed it away to Mr. John Gookin, who about the first year of king James, alienated it to Sir Henry Lodelow, and he again, in the next year of king Charles I. sold it to Edward Boys, esq. of Great Betshanger, whole descendant Edward Grotius Boys, dying s. p. in 1706, gave it by will to his kinsman Thomas Brett, LL. D. who not long afterwards alienated it to Sir Henry Furnese, bart. of Waldershare, and his son, Sir Robert Furnese, bart. of the same place, died possessed of it in 1733. His three daughters and coheirs afterwards succeeded to his estates, on the partition of which this estate was wholly allotted, among others, to Anne, the eldest sister, wife of John, viscount St. John, which was confirmed by an act passed next year. After which it descended down to their grandson George, viscount Bolingbroke, who sold it in 1791 to Mr. Thomas Clark, the present owner of it. The house is large, and has been the residence of gentlemen; a family of the name of Boys has inhabited it for many years, Mr. John Boys now resides in it, a gentleman, whose scientific knowledge in husbandry is well known, especially by the publication of the Agricultural Society of the state of it, and its improvements in this county, for which they are, I believe, wholly indebted to him.

 

THE TITHES of this estate of Little Betshanger, as well great as small, belonged, with those of Finglisham in this parish, to the abbot and convent of St. Augusting, and were assigned in the year 1128 to the cloathing of the monks there; and after the dissolution of the monastery were granted together to the archbishop of Canterbury, part of whose revenues they remain at this time. (fn. 5)

 

Mr. Boteler, of Eastry, found near Little Betshanger, the plant astragalus glyeyphyllos, wild liquorice, or liquorice vetch, which is very scarce, and has never been observed by him any where else.

 

THE MANOR OF TICKENHURST, now called Tickness; in Domesday, Ticheteste, and in other antient records, Tygenhurst, is situated in the borough and hamlet of its own name. It lies most part of it in this parish, but at some distance westward from the rest of it, several parishes intervening, and partly in that of Knolton. In the time of the Conqueror, Odo, the great bishop of Baieux and earl of Kent, was owner of it, and continued so at the taking of the survey of Domesday, in which this manor is thus entered in it, under the general title of the bishop's lands:

 

Turstin holds of the bishop Ticheteste. It was taxed at one suling and an half. The arable land is ..... In demesne there is one carucate, with four borderers, and a small wood. In the time of king Edward the Consessor it was worth four pounds, and afterwards forty shillings, now one hundred shillings. Edric de Alham held it of king Edward.

 

Four years after the taking of the above survey, the bishop was disgraced, and all his possessions were confiscated to the crown. After which, this manor came into the possession of a family, which took their surname from it, some of whom were witnesses to deeds of a very antient date; but they became ex tinct before the reign of king Henry VI. and it was afterwards the property of the Stoddards, ancestors of those of this name, of Mottingham, in this county, in which this manor remained for some generations, till about the latter end of queen Elizabeth's reign it was alienated to Peyton, of Knolton; since which it has continued in the possession of the owners of that manor and seat, down to Sir Narborough D'Aeth, bart. now of Knolton, the present owner of it.

 

In the year 1074, the bishop of Baieux gave to St. Augustine's monastery, those tithes which his tenants had; i. e. the chamberlain Adelold, in the villes of Cnolton, Tickenhurst, and Ringelton, and likewise of Bedleshangre, and of Osbern Paisforer, in the small ville of Bocland, all which the king confirmed by his charter. But the tithes of Cnolton and Ringelton, William de Albiney, in process of time, being lord of the fee of those lands, took away from the monastery through his power; and the tithe of Boclonde, Roger de Malmains took away from it.

 

Within this borough and hamlet of Tickenhurst are two farms, called Great and Little Tickenhurst, belonging to Sir Narborough D'Aeth, bart, both which pay tithes to the almonry or parsonage of Norborne, formerly belonging to St. Augustine's monastery.

 

NEAR THE north west boundary of the parish is the HAMLET OF WEST-STREET, containing five houses. In it is an estate, called WEST-STREET, alias PARK GATE, the first mention that I find of which is in the will of Roger Litchfield, anno 1513, who mentions his farm of West-street. This, with another farm called Parkgate, (the buildings of which are now pulled down) stood in Ham parish. Sir Cloudesley Shovel was in later times possessed of this estate, and after his unfortunate decease, his two daughters and coheirs. On the division of their estate, Anne the youngest daughter, entitled her husband John Black wood to the possession of it. He died in 1777, and was succeeded in it by his two sons and coheirs in gavelkind, Shovel Blackwood, esq. and Col. John Blackwood, of Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, who made a division of their inheritance; in which partition this estate of West-street, alias Parkgate, was, among others, allotted to the latter, who next year procured an act for the sale of it. After his death this estate came to his widow, who sold it in 1790 to Mr. William Nethersole, the present owner of it.

 

ABOUT HALF A MILE from West-street is THE HAMLET OF FINGLESHAM, containing thirty houses. It is written in the survey of Domesday, Flenguessam, in which it is thus entered, under the title of lands held of the archbishop by knight's service:

 

In Estrei hundred. William Folet holds of the archbishop, Flenguessam. It was taxed at half a suling. There he has six villeins, with one carucate and an half.

 

After this, I find no further mention of this place for some time; but in the reign of king Edward I. in the year 1288, the king granted licence to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, to appropriate to their use a messuage, and certain rents and lands in different parishes, and among others, in the tenancy of Norborne, at Fenlesham.

 

In later times I find that William Poyshe, of Norborne, by will in 1524, gave his place at Fynglisham, to John his son, and that Thomas Parker, late one of the jurats of Sandwich, by will in 1596, gave to Nicholas Parker, his brother's son, his house and lands in Fynglisham, called Fynglisham farm, situated in this street. His descendant, Valentine Parker, gent. resided here in 1669, and by will gave this estate to his godson, Mr. Valentine Hild, or Hoile, from whom it has descended to his great-grandson Mr. Thomas Hoile, the present owner of it.

 

ROBERT, abbot of St. Augustine's monastery, in king Henry III.'s reign, anno 1240, confirmed an exchange, made by his convent, of all THE TITHES of Finglesham and Little Betshangre, as well great as small, to the eleemosinary of his monastery, which tithes had before belonged to the chamberlain of it. (fn. 6) These tithes of Finglisham now belong to the archbishop, and are, with those of Little Betshanger in this parish, demised by him on a beneficial lease.

 

Through Finglesham, and over Howe bridge, the high road leads to Deal. From hence, the water, called the Gestling, or north stream, takes its course towards the river Stour, below Sandwich.

 

AT A SMALL DISTANCE southward from Finglesham, is the little HAMLET OF MARLEY, which consists of only four houses, one of which is that of GROVE, alias MARLEY FARM, the former of which is its proper name, though it is now usually called by the latter. It formerly belonged to the family of Brett. Percival Brett, of Wye, possessed it in 1630, whose descendant, Richard Brett, gent. left an only daughter Catherine, who married John Cook, formerly of Mersham, but afterwards of Canterbury, clerk. They left two daughters, Catherine, wife of Thomas Shindler, alderman of Canterbury, and Mary, and they joined in the conveyance of this estate, in 1727, to John Paramor, gent. of Statenborough; after which, it descended in like manner as Statenborough, to his niece, Mrs. Jane Hawker, afterwards the wife of John Dilnot, esq. who on her death became possessed of the see of it, which he sold in 1792, together with a farm in Finglisham, to William Boteler, esq. of Eastry, who resided here, and two years afterwards alienated them both to Mr. James Jeken, of Oxney, the present owner of them.

 

ABOUT A MILE south-westward, at the western boundary of this parish, is THE MANOR OF WESTCOURT, alias BURNT-HOUSE, stiled in the antient book of the Fædary of Kent, the manor of Westcourt, alias East Betshanger, and said in it to have been held of the late monastery of St. Augustine by knight's service, being then the property of Roger Litchfield, who died possessed of it in 1513, and in his will calls it a manor, since which it has always had the same owners as Great Betshanger, and is now possessed accordingly by the Rev. James Morrice.

 

Upon the north-north east point of the open downs adjoining to Little Betshanger are the remains of a camp, formed for the forces which lay here, under the command of Capt. Peke, to oppose the landing of the Spaniards, at the time of the armada, in 1588. About a mile further southward from hence, over an open uninclosed country, is Stoneheap, a good farm, which has long had the same owners as Norbornecourt, and is now by a late purchase, wholly vested in Robert-Thomas Pyott, esq. as has been already mentioned before. This estate is tithe-free, being most probably part of the demesnes of Norborne manor. It takes tithes of corn and grain, of eighteen acres of land in Little Mongeham, belonging to Mr. John Boys, and twenty-two acres in Norborne, late belonging to Sir Edward Dering, bart. separate from it, but by what means I know not.

 

AT A LIKE DISTANCE, still further southward, is WEST STUDDAL, formerly written Stodwald, an estate which some time since belonged to a branch of the numerous family of Harvey, originally of Tilmanstone, under which a further account of them may be seen. In the descendants of this family it continued down to Richard Harvey, who was afterwards of Dane-court; not long after which, this estate came into the possession of James Six, of whom it was purchased by Sir Henry Furnese, bart. of Waldershare, about the year 1707. After which it passed, in the allotment of the Furnese estates, to Sir Edward Dering, bart. who not long since conveyed it to Solley, of Sandwich, and he sold it to Mr. Thomas Packe, of Deal, whose daughter carried it in marriage to James Methurst Pointer, esq. who lately sold it to Mr. Laurence Dilnot, the present owner of it.

 

FROM HENCE over Maimage, but more properly Malmains down, is THE HAMLET OF ASHLEY, containing fifteen houses. In it is Ashley farm, belonging to Mrs. Elizabeth Herring. The rectory or parsonage of Ashley, called in antient records, Essela, was part of the possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, with whom it continued till the dissolution of that abbey, anno 30 Henry VIII. After which it was granted to the archbishop, of whom it is now held on a beneficial lease; the interest in which belongs to Isaac Bargrave, esq. of Eastry, in right of his late wife Sarah, sister and coheir of Robert Lynch, M. D. of Canterbury, and to Mrs. Elizabeth Herring above-mentioned, the other sister and coheir. This lease consists of the glebe of land, with the tithes of the hamlet of Ashley, West Studdal, Minacre, Napchester, and of others in Little Mungeham.

 

SOUTHWARD from the above, is THE HAMLET OF MINACRE, sometimes spelt Minaker, one moiety, or half of which, was formerly the property of Silkwood, and was purchased of one of them by Sir Robert Furnese, bart. of Waldershare. Since which it has passed in like manner as the rest of the Furnese estates in this county, which came to the late earl of Guildford, by his marriage with the countess of Rockingham, one of Sir Robert Furnese's daughters and coheirs, and his grandson the present right hon. George Augustus, earl of Guildford, is now owner of it.

 

The other moiety, or half of this hamlet, belongs to Mr. Leonard Woodward, of Ashley.

 

Still further southward, at the utmost limits of this parish, is another hamlet of five houses, called NAPCHESTER, which adjoins to the parishes of Walder share and Whitfield, the principal farm of which belongs to the earl of Guildford. There are no fairs kept in this parish.

 

Charities.

SIR RICHARD SANDYS, bart. of this parish, by will in 1726, gave to the churchwardens and overseers 5l. to be laid out in buying coals at the cheapest time of the year, and to be by them sold out to the poor at the same price that they cost, and the monies arising from such sale to be a fund, to be yearly employed for the same purpose.

 

The poor constantly relieved are about twenty-five, casually thirty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Sandwich.

 

The church, which is exempted from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Augustine. It is a large goodly building, consisting of a nave, chancel, and transept, having a large square tower in the middle, which has probably been much higher. There are five bells in it. The church is built of flint, with quoins, door, and window cases of ashler squared stone; some arches of the windows are pointed, some circular, and some with zig-zag ornaments. The western arch of the tower is pointed with triple dancette ornaments; the others circular. The chancel is repaired by the archbishop's lessee of the almonry. In the south transept, which is repaired by the Sandys's family, is a large vault, in which are deposited their remains. Over it is a most costly and sumptuous monument, having at the back a plain blank tablet; on the tomb the recumbent essigies of a knight in armour and his lady in a loose mantle. Above the pediment, and in other places, several shields of arms, with the coat of Sandys, with quarterings and impalements. This tomb is for Sir Edwin Sandys, second son of Edwin, archbishop of York. He had a grant of Norborne court from king James I. and died in 1639. (His marriages and issue have been already mentioned before). This monument was erected by him in his life time; but he who erected this sumptuous monument, and added the provisional blank tablet and escutcheons on it, with a thought of securing to himself and his posterity a king of immortality, left not one behind him, of all his numerous children, who had the least veneration for him, or respect for his memory; both the tablet and escutcheons remaining a blank at this time. In the nave is a memorial for Richard Harvie of Eastry, obt. 1675. In the church-yard are three altar-tombs, one for George Shocklidge, A. M. vicar forty-nine years, ob. 1772; arms, Three fishes, their heads conjoined in fess, their tails extended into the corners of the escutcheon; and the other two for the family of Gibbon.

 

The church of Norborne, with its chapels of Cotmanton and Sholdon, was antiently appendant to the manor, and was in early times appropriated to the abbey of St. Augustine; and in 1128, anno 29 king Henry I. was assigned by Hugh, the abbot of it, to the use of the eleemosinary or almonry belonging to it, which almonry was an hospital, built just without the gate of the monastery, for the reception of strangers and the poor resorting to it from all parts, and the relief of the weak and infirm.

 

After this, there were continual disputes between the abbots of this monastery and the several archbishops, concerning their respective privileges and jurisdictions relating to the churches belonging to it, among others, to this of Norborne, which at last ended in the allowance of the abbot's exemption from all such jurisdiction; archbishop Arundel in 1397 pronouncing a definitive sentence in the abbot's favour; all which may be found inserted at large in Thorne's Chronicle. (fn. 7)

 

In the year 1295, the abbot made an institution of several new deanries, for the purpose of apportioning the churches belonging to his monastery to each of them, as exempt from the jurisdiction of the archbishop; in which institution this church was included in the new deanry of Sturry. This caused great contentions between the abbots and the several archbishops, which at last ended in the total abolition of this new institution.

 

In which state this appropriation, with the advowson of the vicarage, remained, till the final dissolution of the abbey in the 30th year of king Henry VIII. when it came into the king's hands, whence the parsonage appropriate, otherwise called the Almonry farm, was granted the next year in exchange to the archbishop, and it remains parcel of the possessions of the see of Canterbury at this time.

 

But the advowson of the vicarage of this church, being excepted out of the above grant, remained in the crown, till king Edward VI. in his 1st year granted it, being an advowson in gross, to the archbishop, in whose successors it has continued to this time, his grace the archbishop being the present patron of it.

 

¶Though the church of Norborne was so early appropriated to the use of the almonry, as has been mentioned before, and a vicarage instituted in it, yet there was no endowment of it till the 1st year of the reign of king Edward I. when the abbot and convent, under their chapter seal, granted an endowment of it, which was approved of by the archbishop's commissary. He decreed and ordained, that the vicar should have the usual mansion of the vicarage, with the garden, and two acres of land contiguous to it, together with eleven acres of land lying at Donneslonde, and the way usual to the same; all which the vicars had heretofore enjoyed. And that they should have yearly two cows feeding, and the right of feeding them, from the feast, of St. Gregory until that of St. Martin in winter, with the cows of the religious wheresoever within the bounds of the parish. Also that they should have, in the name of their vicarage, within the limits or titheries of this church, or chapels of it, all the tithes whatsoever of sheaves, corn, and other vegetables, in orchards or gardens, being dug with the foot; and also all tithes arising from all mills so situated then, or which hereafter might be built, excepting of the mill of the religious, nigh to the King's highway, leading from Northborne towards Canterbury. Also that they should receive, in the name of the vicarage, all tithes of hay arising within the parish, or within the bounds of the chapels aforesaid, excepting the tithe of hay, arising from the meadows of the religious in this parish, at the time of the endowment. Also that they should receive, in the name of the vicarage, all oblations whatsoever in the church of Northborne, and the chapels or oratories, wheresoever situated, dependent on it, excepting the oblations made by strangers, not parishioners of the church, or chapels, in the chapel of the religious, situated within their manor of Norborne, which they had retained to themselves. Moreover, that the vicars should receive all tithes of lambs, wool, chicken, calves, ducks, pigs, geese, swans, peas, pigeons, milk, milk-meats, trades, merchandizes, eggs, flax, hemp, broom, rushes, fisheries, pasture, apples, onions, garlic, pears, and all manner of small tithes, within the bounds, or tithings of the church and chapels aforesaid, in any shape arising or to arise in future; and also whatsoever legacies should be left in future to the church and chapels, and especially the tithes of reed, rushes, and silva cædua, whenever cut down, within the bounds or tithings of the chapels of Cotmanton and Scholdon, to this church belonging, or at any time arising. But that the vicars should undergo the burthen of serving in divine offices themselves, or other fit priests, in this church and chapels depending on it; but that the burthen of providing bread and wine, lights, and other things, which should be necessary there for the celebration of divine services, they should undergo in the said church and chapels, at their own expence, excepting in the chapel of Cotmanton; in which the burthens of this kind, and likewise of the rebuilding and repairing of the chapel, used to be borne, by the lords of the manor of Cotmanton. In the payment likewise of the tenth, or other quota of ecclesiastical benefices, when it happened that the same should be imposed on the churches in England, or in the archbishop's province or diocese, the vicars and their successors there, according to the portion of taxation of the said vicarage, should be bound to pay the same for the said vicarage. But the burthens of repairing and rebuilding the chancel of the church of Northborne, and the chapel of Scholdon depending on it, within and without; and of finding and repairing the books, vestments, and ornaments of the church and chapel of Scholdon, which by the rectors of churches ought, or were wont to be found and repaired of custom or of right, and other burthens ordinary and extraordinary incumbent on the said church and chapel, the religious should undergo for ever and acknowledge; all and singular of which, he, the aforesaid John, archbishop of Canterbury, approving, confirmed by that his ordinary authority, reserving to him and his successors, &c. (fn. 8)

 

In 1396 there was an agreement entered into between the rector of East Langdon and the vicar of Norborne, concerning the annual payment of four shillings to the latter. In which the parishioners of East Langdon are mentioned as being bound to contribute to the repair of the church of Norborne.

 

The vicarage of Norborne, with the chapel of Sholdon annexed, is valued in the king's books at 12l. 11s. 8d. and the yearly tents at 1l. 5s. 2d.

 

In 1578 here were one hundred and ninety-two communicants, and it was valued at sixty pounds. In 1640 here were communicants two hundred and ninety-seven, and it was valued at Seventy-four pounds.

 

Here is a good vicarage-house, which with the homestall, measures two acres; and there are nine acres of glebe land beside.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp583-604

And on the second weekend of the year, I take my two camera bodies out for a bit of churchcrawling.

 

Wingham is a substantial town/village between Dover and Canterbury, and was once the terminus of a branch of the East Kent Light Railway, though the nearby mine failed to produce any coal.

 

It is an attractive place, but is blighted by the main road that cuts the town in half, and it is a busy road too. On the road there are three pubs, and many fine and ancient houses.

 

St Mary sits beside the road, and it skirts the churchyard to the south and east, and despite being on a grand scale, mature trees in the churchyard do well to hide it from view.

 

I did come here many years ago back in the early days of the Kent Church project, and took no more than a handful of shots, I thought I could do better that that this time.

 

It is a church full of grand tombs, memorials and other features that I am looking forward to share with you, most curious of which is a curved passageway that leads from the northeast corner of the Oxenden chapel to the chancel.

 

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An enormous church, picturesquely set at an angle of the village street. It owes its size to the fact that it supported a college of priests in the Middle Ages. During the sixteenth century it was substantially rebuilt, but the north aisle was not replaced, reducing the church to the odd shape we see today. The unusual pillars which divide the nave from the south aisle are of timber, not stone as a result of lack of money. At the end of the south aisle is the Oxenden chapel, which contains that family's excellent bull's head monument. The contemporary metalwork screens and black and white pavements add great dignity to this part of the building. By going through a curved passage from the chapel you can emerge in the chancel, which is dominated by a stone reredos of fifteenth-century date. This French construction was a gift to the church in the 1930s and while it is not good quality carving, is an unusual find in a Kent church.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Wingham

 

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hortly after 1280AD Archbishop Peckham of Canterbury established a college of priests at Wingham, with a provost and six canons. From 1286 the priests lived in the attractive timber-framed house opposite St Mary's church. The college accounts for the size of the church, which seems enormous considering the present size of Wingham itself.

 

There was a cruciform church here before the college was established, but that building was remodelled around 1290, leaving us several excellent Geometric Gothic windows. A south porch and tower were added around 1400. The porch is curious in that there are two stories externally, but internally only one. There are many reminders of the church's past, however; the arch between the south transept and south nave aisle is late Norman, as is a blocked arch on the west wall of the north transept.

 

By the early 16th century the nave was in poor condition. A local brewer named George Ffogarde of Canterbury was granted a license to raise money for its repair. Having a considerable sum of money for church repair, the unscrupulous brewer absconded with the funds, embezzling £224, a huge sum for the time. The missing funds may explain why the nave was rebuilt using cheaper timber posts to support the arcades, rather than more costly stone.

 

The octagonal timber posts are of chestnut wood, topped by a crown-post timber roof. Sometime before the mid-19th century the timbers were encased in plaster to resemble Doric columns, but thankfully the plaster has been stripped off and we can appreciate the timber! The nave was rebuilt in the late 16th century, diminishing its footprint and leaving behind some rather odd features, like an external piscina on what was originally the easternmost pier of the nave arcade. Another odd touch is provided by the north transept, remodelled with wood frames in the Georgian period. I'm not sure I can call to mind another essentially medieval church with wooden-framed windows!

 

In the chancel is a lovely 14th century triple-seat sedilia and piscina. The chancel and nave are separated by a 15th century screen, now truncated, with blank panels which must have once boasted painted figures of saints. But the real treasure in the chancel is a series of ten 14th century misericords. Six of the misericord carvings are simply decorative, with floral or foliage designs. Two show animals; one appears to be a horse, another a donkey. The final two carvings are the most interesting; one shows a woman in a wimple, the other a Green Man peering out from a screen of foliage.

 

Behind the altar is a lovely 15th century reredos, brought here from Troyes in France. The reredos is in two sections, the upper section depicting the Passion of Christ, the lower showing the Last Supper and the Adoration of the Kings. There are small fragments of rather attractive 14th century grisailles glass in the chancel windows, and near the font are a number of surviving medieval floor tiles.

 

The interior is full of monuments to the Oxenden and Palmer families. The finest of these are to be found in the north transept chapel. On the east wall of the chapel is a memorial to Sir Nicholas Palmer (d. 1624). The memorial was designed by Nicholas Stone and shows effigies of Palmer and his wife under Corinthian columns and an open pediment. On the north wall is the monument to a later Thomas Palmer (d. 1656) with a bust of the deceased, now somewhat the worse for wear. A tablet to Streynsham Master (d. 1718) is on the south chapel wall, and has a fairly typical pair of skulls at the base of the tablet, wreathed in olive branches.

 

The most extravagant and eye-catching memorial in the church, however, is to be found in the north transept chapel, which is guarded by ornate wrought-iron screens. In the centre of the chapel is an ebullient obelisk, dated 1682, commemorating the Oxenden family. This free-standing obelisk, possibly designed by Arnold Quellin, is of white stone, with exquisite fruit and flowers cascading down each side, with large black ox heads at each angle of the base. The base is embellished with four putti (cherubic 'infants'). The effect is quite extraordinary; most people will either love it or hate it (I loved it). Also in the south transept is a wall tablet to Charles Tripp (d. 1624).

Other monuments worth mentioning include a 14th century tomb recess in the south aisle wall and a number of 15th century indents in the chancel floor which once contained memorial brasses to canons.

 

The church is set within a large walled enclosure, dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Unusually, the churchyard wall has been listed Grade-II by the Department of the Environment for its historical interest.

 

www.britainexpress.com/counties/kent/churches/wingham.htm

 

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WINGHAM

IS the next adjoining parish south-westward from Ash, situated for the most part in the upper half hundred of the same name, and having in it the boroughs of Wingham-street, Deane, Twitham, and Wenderton, which latter is in the lower half hundred of Wingham.

 

WINGHAM is situated in a healthy pleasant country, the greatest part of it is open uninclosed arable lands, the soil of which, though chalky, is far from being unfertile. The village, or town of Wingham, is nearly in the middle of the parish, having the church and college at the south-west part of it; behind the latter is a field, still called the Vineyard. The village contains about fifty houses, one of which is the court-lodge, and is built on the road leading from Canterbury to Sandwich, at the west end of it runs the stream, called the Wingham river, which having turned a corn-mill here, goes on and joins the Lesser Stour, about two miles below; on each side the stream is a moist tract of meadow land. Near the south boundary of the parish is the mansion of Dene, situated in the bottom, a dry, though dull and gloomy habitation; and at the opposite side, next to Staple, the ruinated mansion of Brook, in a far more open and pleasant situation. To the northward the parish extends a considerable way, almost as far as the churches of Preston and Elmstone. The market, granted anno 36 king Henry III. as mentioned hereafter, if it ever was held, has been disused for a number of years past; though the market-house seems yet remaining. There are two fairs held yearly here, on May 12, and November 12, for cattle and pedlary.

 

In 1710 there was found on the court-lodge farm, by the plough striking against it, a chest or coffin, of large thick stones, joined together, and covered with a single one at the top. At the bottom were some black ashes, but nothing else in it. The ground round about was searched, but nothing else was sound.

 

Henry de Wengham, a person of great note and extraordinary parts, and much in favour with Henry III. was born here, who in 1255 made him lord chancellor. In 1259, he was elected bishop of Winchester, which he resused, but towards the latter end of the same year he was chosen bishop of London, being still chancellor, and was consecrated the beginning of the year following. He died in 1262, and was buried in his own cathedral. He bore for his arms, Gules, a heart between two wings, displayed, or.

 

WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ. eldest son of Sir William Cowper, bart. of Ratling-court, in Nonington, having been made lord-keeper of the great seal in 1705, was afterwards by letters patent, dated Dec. 14, 1706, created lord Cowper, baron Cowper of Wingham; and in 1709, was declared lord chancellor. After which, anno 4 George I. he was created earl Cowper and viscount Fordwich, in whose descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. Peter-Lewis-Francis Cowper, the fifth and present earl Cowper, viscount Fordwich and baron of Wingham. (fn. 1)

 

The MANOR OF WINGHAM was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, given to it in the early period of the Saxon heptarchy, but being torn from it during the troubles of those times, it was restored to the church in the year 941, by king Edmund, his brother Eadred, and Edwin that king's son. (fn. 2) Accordingly it is thus entered, under the general title of the archbishop's possessions, taken in the survey of Domesday:

 

In the lath of Estrei, in Wingeham hundred, the archbishop himself holds Wingeham in demesne. It was taxed at forty sulings in the time of king Edward the Consessor, and now for thirty-five. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there are eight carucates, and four times twenty and five villeins, with twenty borderers having fifty-seven carucates. There are eight servants, and two mills of thirty-four sulings. Wood for the pannage of five hogs, and two small woods for fencing. In its whole value, in the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth seventy-seven pounds, when he received it the like, and now one hundred pounds. Of this manor William de Arcis holds one suling in Fletes, and there be has in demesne one carucate, and four villeins, and one knight with one carucate, and one fisbery, with a saltpit of thirty pence. The whole value is forty shillings. Of this ma nor five of the archbishop's men hold five sulings and an half and three yokes, and there they have in demesne eight carucates, and twenty-two borderers, and eight servants. In the whole they are worth twenty-one pounds.

 

In the 36th year of king Henry III. archbishop Boniface obtained the grant of a market at this place. The archbishops had a good house on this manor, in which they frequently resided. Archbishop Baldwin, in king Henry II.'s reign, staid at his house here for some time during his contention with the monks of Christ-church, concerning his college at Hackington. Archbishop Winchelsea entertained king Edward I. here in his 23d year, as did archbishop Walter Reynolds king Edward II. in his 18th year. And king Edward III. in his 5th year, having landed at Dover, with many lords and nobles in his train, came to Wingham, where he was lodged and entertained by archbishop Meopham. And this manor continued part of the see of Canterbury till archbishop Cranmer, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. exchanged it with the king for other premises. After which it continued in the crown till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted the scite, called Wingham court, with the demesne lands of the manor, to trustees, for the use of the city of London. From whom, by the direction of the mayor and commonalty, it was conveyed, at the latter end of that reign, to Sir William Cowper, knight and baronet, in whose descendants it has continued down to the right hon. Peter-Francis Cowper, earl Cowper, who is the present owner of it. (fn. 3)

 

BUT THE MANOR ITSELF, with the royalties, profits of courts, &c. remained still in the crown. Since which, the bailiwic of it, containing the rents and pro fits of the courts, with the fines, amerciaments, reliess, &c. and the privilege of holding the courts of it, by the bailiff of it, have been granted to the family of Oxenden, and Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, is now in possession of the bailiwic of it. A court leet and court baron is held for this manor.

 

TRAPHAM is a mansion in this parish, which was formerly in the possession of a family of the same name, who resided at it, but after they were extinct it passed into that of Trippe, who bore for their arms, Gules, a chevron, or, between three borses heads erased, sable, bridled, collared and crined of the second; (fn. 4) and John Tripp, esq. resided here in queen Elizabeth's reign, as did his grandson Charles, who seems to have alienated it to Sir Christopher Harflete, of St. Stephen's, whose son Tho. Harflete, esq. left an only daughter and heir Afra, who carried it in marriage to John St. Leger, esq. of Doneraile, in Ireland, descended from Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy of Ireland in Henry VIII.'s reign, and they joined in the alienation of it to Brook Bridges, esq of the adjoining parish of Goodneston, whose descendant Sir Brook Wm. Bridges, bart. of that place, is the present owner of it.

 

The MANOR OF DENE, situated in the valley, at the southern boundary of this parish, was antiently the inheritance of a family who took their surname from it, and held it by knight's service of the archbishop, in king Edward I's reign, but they seem to have been extinct here in that of king Edward III. After which it passed into the family of Hussey, who bore for their arms, Per chevron, argent and vert, three birds counterchanged; and then to Wood, before it came by sale into the family of Oxenden, who appear to have been possessed of it at the latter end of Henry VI.'s reign, about which time they had become by marriage, owners of Brook and other estates in this parish. The family of Oxenden have been resident in this county from the reign of king Edward III. Solomon Oxenden, being the first mentioned in the several pedigrees of it, whose near relation Richard Oxenden was prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, in that reign; in this name and family of Oxenden, whose arms were Argent, a chevron, gules, between three oxen, sable, armed, or; which coat was confirmed to the family by Gyan, king at arms, anno 24 Henry VI. this manor and seat continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, of Dene, who was on May 8, 1678, created a baronet, whose youngest grandson Sir George Oxenden, bart. succeeding at length to the title on the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, resided at Dene, where he died in 1775, having served in parliament for Sandwich, and been employed in high offices in administration, and leaving behind him the character of a compleat gentleman. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Edward Dunck, esq. of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, by whom he had two sons, of whom George, the second, was made by will heir to the estate of Sir Basil Dixwell, bart. of Brome, on his death, s. p. and changed his name to Dixwell as enjoined by it, but died soon afterwards likewise, s. p. and that estate came at length to his eldest brother Henry, who succeeded his father in the title of Baronet. He married Margaret, daughter and coheir of Sir George Chudleigh, bart. of Devonshire, since deceased, by whom he has issue Henry Oxenden, esq. of Madekyn, in Barham, who married Mary, one of the daughters of Col. Graham, of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, by whom he has issue. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. now resides at Brome, and is the present possessor of this manor and seat, as well as the rest of his father's estates in this parish. (fn. 5) Lady Hales, widow of Sir Thomas Pym Hales, bart. of Bekesborne, now resides in it.

 

TWITHAM, now usually called Twittam, is a hamlet in this parish, adjoining to Goodneston, the principal estate in which once belonged to a family of that name, one of whom Alanus de Twitham is recorded as having been with king Richard I. at the siege of Acon, in Palestine, who bore for his arms, Semee of crosscroslets, and three cinquesoils, argent, and held this estate in Twitham, of the archbishop, and they appear to have continued possessed of it in the 3d year of king Richard II. Some time after which it came into the possession of Fineux, and William Fineux sold it anno 33 Henry VIII. to Ingram Wollet, whose heirs passed it away to one of the family of Oxenden, of Wingham, in whose descendants it has continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, the present possessor of it.

 

On the foundation of the college of Wingham, archbishop Peckham, in 1286, endowed the first diaconal prebend in it, which he distinguished by the name of the prebend of Twitham, with the tithes of the lands of Alanus de Twitham, which he freely held of the archbishop there in Goodwynestone, at Twytham. (fn. 6)

 

BROOK is an estate in this parish, situated northward from Twitham, which was formerly the estate of the Wendertons, of Wenderton, in this parish, in which it remained till by a female heir Jane, it went in marriage to Richard Oxenden, gent. of Wingham, who died in 1440, and was buried in Wingham church, in whose name and family it continued down to Henry Oxenden, of Brook, who left two daughters and coheirs, of whom Mary married Richard Oxenden, of Grays Inn, barrister-at-law, fourth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart, who afterwards, on his wife's becoming sole heiress of Brook, possessed it, and resided here. He left Elizabeth his sole daughter and heir, who carried it in marriage to Streynsham Master, esq. a captain in the royal navy, the eldest surviving son of James Master, esq. of East Langdon, who died some few days after his marriage; upon which she became again possessed of it in her own right, and dying in 1759, s. p. gave it by will to Henry Oxenden, esq. now Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and he is the present owner of it.

 

WENDERTON is a manor and antient seat, situated northward from Wingham church, eminent, says Philipott, for its excellent air, situation, and prospect, which for many successive generations had owners of that surname, one of whom, John de Wenderton, is mentioned in Fox's Martyrology, as one among other tenants of the manor of Wingham, on whom archbishop Courtnay, in 1390, imposed a penance for neglecting to perform some services due from that manor. In his descendants this seat continued till John Wenderton, of Wenderton, in the 1st year of Henry VIII. passed it away to archbishop Warham, who at his decease in 1533, gave it to his youngest brother John Warham, whose great-grandson John, by his will in 1609, ordered this manor to be sold, which it accordingly soon afterwards was to Manwood, from which name it was alienated, about the middle of the next reign of king Charles I. to Vincent Denne, gent. who resided here, and died in 1642, s. p. whose four nieces afterwards became by will possessed of it, and on the partition of their estates, the manor and mansion, with part of the lands since called Great Wenderton, was allotted to Mary, the youngest of them, who afterwards married Vincent Denne, sergeant-at-law, and the remaining part of it, which adjoins to them, since called Little Wenderton, to Dorothy, the third sister, afterwards married to Roger Lukin, gent. of London, who soon afterwards sold his share to Richard Oxenden, esq. of Brook, from one of which family it was sold to Underdown, by a female heir of which name, Frances, it went in marriage to John Carter, esq. of Deal, the present owner of it.

 

BUT GREAT WENDERTON continued in the possession of Sergeant Denne, till his death in 1693, when Dorothy, his eldest daughter and coheir, carried it in marriage to Mr. Thomas Ginder, who bore Argent, on a pale, sable, a cross fuchee, or, impaling azure, three lions heads, or; as they are on his monument. He resided at it till his death in 1716, as did his widow till her decease in 1736, when it came to her nephew Mr. Thomas Hatley, who left two daughters his coheirs, the eldest surviving of whom, Anne, carried it in marriage, first to Richard Nicholas, esq. and then successively to Mr. Smith and Mr. James Corneck, of London, and Mrs. Corneck, the widow of the latter, is the present possessor of it.

 

At the boundary of this parish, adjoining to Preston and Ash, lies THE MANOR OF WALMESTONE, usually called Wamston, which was antiently part of the possessions of the family of Septvans, one of whom, Robert de Septvans, held it in king Edward II.'s reign, of the archbishop; whose descendant Sir William de Septvans died possessed of it in the 25th year of that reign. (fn. 7) How long it continued in this name I have not found; but at the beginning of king Edward IV.'s reign it was become the property of William Bonington, of Canterbury, who died in 1463, and directed it by his will to be sold. After which it became, about the latter end of king Henry VIII.'s reign, the property of Walter Hendley, esq. the king's attorney-general, who left three daughters his coheirs, and they joined in the sale of it to Alday, who alienated it to Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, one of whose daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to Mervin Touchet, earl of Castlehaven, who being convicted of high crimes and misdemeanors, was executed anno 7 Charles I. Soon after which this manor seems to have been divided, and one part of it, since called Little Walmestone, in which was included the manor and part of the demesne lands, passed from his heirs to the Rev. John Smith, rector of Wickham Breaus, who having founded a scholarship at Oxford, out of the lands of it, presently afterwards sold it to Solly, of Pedding, in which name it continued till Stephen Solly, gent. of Pedding, and his two sons, John and Stephen, in 1653, joined in the conveyance of it to Thomas Winter, yeoman, of Wingham, in which name it remained for some time. At length, after some intermediate owners, it was sold to Sympson, and John Sympson, esq. of Canterbury, died possessed of it in 1748, leaving his wife surviving, who held it at her decease, upon which it came to her husband's heir-atlaw, and it is now accordingly in the possession of Mr. Richard Simpson.

 

BUT GREAT WALMESTONE, consisting of the mansion-house, with a greater part of the demesne lands of the manor, was passed away by the heirs of the earl of Castlehaven to Brigham, and Mr. Charles Brigham, of London, in the year 1653, sold it to William Rutland, of London, who left two daughters his coheirs, of whom Mary married John Ketch, by whom she had a sole daughter Anne, who afterwards at length became possessed of it, and carried it in marriage to Samuel Starling, gent. of Worcestershire, who in 1718, conveyed it, his only son Samuel joining in it, to Thomas Willys, esq. of London, afterwards created a baronet. After which it passed in the same manner, and in the like interests and shares, as the manor of Dargate, in Hernehill, down to Matthew, Robert and Thomas Mitchell, the trustees for the several uses to which this, among other estates belonging to the Willis's, had been limited; and they joined in the sale of it, in 1789, to Mr. William East, whose son, Mr. John East, of Wingham, is the present owner of it.

 

ARCHBISHOP KILWARBY intended to found a college in this church of Wingham, but resigning his archbishopric before he could put his design in practice, archbishop Peckham, his successor, in the year 1286, perfected his predecessor's design, and founded A COLLEGE in this church, for a provost, whose portion, among other premises, was the profits of this church and the vicarage of it, and six secular canons; the prebends of which he distinguished by the names of the several places from whence their respective portions arose, viz. Chilton, Pedding, Twitham, Bonnington, Ratling, and Wimlingswold. The provost's lodge, which appears by the foundation charter to have before been the parsonage, was situated adjoining to the church-yard; and the houses of the canons, at this time called Canon-row, opposite to it. These latter houses are, with their gardens and appurtenances, esteemed to be within the liberty of the town and port of Hastings, and jurisdiction of the cinque ports. This college was suppressed in the 1st year of king Edward VI. among others of the like sort, when the whole revenue of it was valued at 208l. 14s. 3½d. per annum, and 193l. 2s. 1d. clear; but Leland says, it was able to dispend at the suppression only eighty-four pounds per annum. Edward Cranmer, the last master, had at the dissolution a pension of twenty pounds per annum, which he enjoyed in 1553. (fn. 8)

 

After the dissolution of the college, the capital mansion, late belonging to the provost, remained in the crown till king Edward VI. in his 7th year, granted the scite of it, with the church appropriate of Wingham, and all tithes whatsoever arising within the parish, and one acre of glebe-land in it, to Sir Henry Palmer, subject to a payment of twenty pounds annually to the curate or vicar of it.

 

The Palmers of Wingham were descended from a very antient one at Angmerin, in Suffex, who bore for their arms, Or, two bars, gules, each charged with three tresoils of the field, in chief, a greyhound, currant, sable. In the seventh descent from Ralph Palmer, esq. of that place, in king Edward II.'s reign, was descended Sir Edward Palmer, of Angmerin, who left three sons, born on three successive Sundays, of whom John, the eldest, was of Sussex, which branch became extinct in queen Elizabeth's reign; Sir Henry, the second son, was of Wingham; and Sir Thomas, the youngest, was beheaded in queen Mary's reign. Sir Henry Palmer, the second son, having purchased the grant of the college of Wingham, as before-mentioned, made it the seat of his residence, as did his son Sir Thomas Palmer, who was sheriff anno 37 Elizabeth, and created a baronet in 1621. He so constantly resided at Wingham, that he is said to have kept sixty Christmases, without intermission, in this mansion, with great hospitality. He had three sons, each of whom were knighted. From the youngest of whom, Sir James, descended the Palmers, of Dauney, in Buckinghamshire, who upon the eldest branch becoming extinct, have succeeded to the title of baronet; and by his second wife he had Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemain. Sir Thomas Palmer, the eldest of the three brothers, died in his father's life-time, and left Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, heir to his grandfather; in whose descendants, baronets, of this place, this mansion, with the parsonage of Wingham appropriate, continued down to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, who died possessed of it in 1723, having had three wives; by the first he had four daughters; by the second he had a son Herbert, born before marriage, and afterwards a daughter Frances; the third was Mrs. Markham, by whom he had no issue; and she afterwards married Thomas Hey, esq. whom she likewise survived. Sir Thomas Palmer, by his will, gave this seat, with the parsonage appropriate and tithes of Wingham, inter alia, after his widow's decease, to his natural son Herbert Palmer, esq. above-mentioned, who married Bethia, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, bart. of Knolton. He died in 1760, s. p. and by will devised his interest in the reversion of this seat, with the parsonage, to his wife Bethia, for her life, and afterwards to his sister Mrs. Frances Palmer, in tail. But he never had possession of it, for lady Palmer furvived him, on whose death in 1763, Mrs. Bethia Palmer, his widow, became entitled to it, and afterwards married John Cosnan, esq. who died in 1773. She survived him, and resided here till her death in 1789. In the intermediate time, Mrs. Frances Palmer having barred the entail made by her natural brother Herbett above-mentioned, died, having devised the see of this estate, by her will in 1770, to the Rev. Thomas Hey, rector of Wickhambreaux, and his heirs, being the eldest son of the last lady Palmer by her last husband. Mr. Hey accordingly, on the death of Mrs. Cosnan, who died s. p. succeeded to this seat and estate. He married first Ethelreda, eldest daughter and coheir of dean Lynch, since deceased, by whom he has no surviving issue; and secondly, Mrs. Pugett, widow of Mr. Puget, of London. He now resides in this seat of Wingham college, having been created D. D. and promoted to a prebend of the church of Rochester.

 

Charities.

JOHN CHURCH, yeoman, of this parish, in 1604, gave 1cl. to the poor, to distribute yearly at Easter, 10s. to the poor for the interest of it.

 

HECTOR DU MONT, a Frenchman, born in 1632, gave the silver cup and patten for the holy communion.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, president for the East-India Company at Surat, in 1660, gave the velvet cushion and pulpitcloth.

 

JOHN RUSHBEACHER, gent. of this parish, in 1663, gave five acres of land in Woodnesborough, the rents to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish, now of the yearly value of 4l.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, above-mentioned, in 1682, gave 500l. for the repairing and beautifying this church, and the Dene chancel.

 

SIR JAMES OXENDEN, knight and baronet, of Dene, founded and endowed a school in this parish with 16l. per annum for ever, for teaching twenty poor children reading and writing, now in the patronage of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

RICHARD OXENDEN, esq. of Brook, in 1701, gave an annuity of 4l. for ever, to the minister, for the reading of divine service and preaching a sermon, in this church, on every Wednesday in Lent, and on Good Friday; and he at the same time gave 20s. yearly for ever, to be distributed, with the consent of the heirs of the Brook estate, to eight poor people, who should be at divine service on Easter-day, to be paid out of the lands of Brook, now vested in Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

THOMAS PALMER, esq. of St. Dunstan's in the East, London, gave 300l for the repairing, adorning and beautifying the great chancel of this church.

 

MRS. ELIZABETH MASTER, esq. relict of Strensham Master, of Brook, in 1728, gave the large silver flaggon; and MRS. SYBILLA OXENDEN, spinster, of Brook, at the same time gave a large silver patten for the communion.

 

Besides the above benefactions, there have been several lesser ones given at different times in money, both to the poor and for the church. All which are recorded in a very handsome table in the church, on which are likewise painted the arms of the several benefactors

 

There are about forty poor constantly relieved, and casually twenty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

The church, which is exempt from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a handsome building, consisting of two isles and three chancels, having a slim spire steeple at the west end, in which is a peal of eight bells and a clock. The church consists of two isles and three chancels. The former appear to have been built since the reformation; the latter are much more antient. It is handsome and well built; the pillars between the isles, now cased with wood, are slender and well proportioned. The outside is remarkably beautiful in the flint-work, and the windows throughout it, were regular and handsomely disposed, superior to other churches, till later repairs destroyed their uniformity. The windows were formerly richly ornamented with painted glass, the remains of which are but small. In the south window, in old English letters, is Edward Warham, gentill . . . . of making this window . . . . and underneath the arms of Warham. In the north isle is a brass tablet for Christopher Harris, curate here, and rector of Stourmouth, obt. Nov. 24, 1719. Over the entrance from this isle into the high chancel, is carved on the partition, the Prince of Wales's badge and motto. In the south wall is a circular arch, plain, seemingly over a tomb. A monument for T. Ginder, gent. obt. 1716. In the south east window the arms of Warham. A memorial for Vincent Denne, gent. of Wenderton, obt. 1642. In the high chancel are seven stalls on each side. On the pavement are several stones, robbed of their brasses, over the provosts and religious of the college. A stone, coffin-shaped, and two crosses pomelle, with an inscription round in old French capitals, for master John de Sarestone, rector, ob. XII Kal. May MCCLXXI. Several monuments and memorials for the family of Palmer. The south chancel is called the Dene chancel, belonging to that seat, under which is a vault, in which the family of Oxenden, owners of it, are deposited. In the middle, on the pavement, is a very costly monument, having at the corners four large black oxens beads, in allusion to their name and arms. It was erected in 1682. On the four tablets on the base is an account of the family of Oxenden, beginning with Henry, who built Denehouse, and ending with Dr. Oxenden, dean of the arches, who died in 1704. There are monuments in it likewise for the Trippes. The north chancel is called the Brook chancel, as belonging to that seat, in which are monuments for the Oxendens and Masters's of this seat. This chancel is shut out from the church, and is made use of as a school-room, by which means the monuments are much desaced, and the gravestones, from the filth in it, have become wholly obliterated. On one of these stones was a brass plate, now gone, for Henry Oxenden, esq. who built Dene, obt. 1597.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of the marquis of Juliers, and widow of John, son of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, after being solemnly veiled a nun, quitted her prosession, and was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace de Danbrichescourt, in a chapel of the mansion-house of Robert de Brome, a canon of this collegiate church, in 1360; for which she and her husband were enjoined different kinds of penance during their lives, which is well worth the reading, for the uncommon superstitious mockery of them. (fn. 9)

 

At the time of the reformation, the church was partly collegiate, and partly parochial. The high chancel, separated from the rest of the church by a partition, served for the members of the college to perform their quire service in. The two isles of the church were for the parishioners, who from thence could hear the quire service; and in the north isle was a roodlost, where one of the vicars went up and read the gospel to the people. At which time, I find mention of a parish chancel likewise.

 

The church of Wingham formerly comprehended not only this parish, but those likewise of Ash, Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wimlingswold; but archbishop Peckham, in 1282, divided them into four distinct parochial churches, and afterwards appropriated them to his new-founded college of Wingham, with a saving to them of certain portions which the vicars of them were accustomed to receive. The profits of this church and the vicarage of it, together with the parsonage-house, being thus appropriated and allotted to the provost, as part of his portion and maintenance, the archbishop, in order that the church should be duly served, by his foundation charter, ordered, that the provost and canons should each of them keep a vicar who should constantly serve in it. In which state it continued till the suppression of the college, in the 1st year of king Edward VI. when it came, among the rest of the revenues of the college, into the hands of the crown, where this parsonage appropriate, to which was annexed, the nomination of the perpetual curate serving in this church, remained till it was granted by king Edward VI. in his 7th year, to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. Since which it has continued in like manner, together with the scite of the college, as has been already mentioned, to the Rev. Dr. Hey, who is the present possessor of this parsonage, together with the patronage of the perpetual curacy of the church of Wingham.

 

In 1640 the communicants here were three hundred and sixty-one.

 

¶The curacy is endowed with a stipend of twenty pounds per annum, paid by the owner of the parsonage, and reserved to the curate in the original grant of the college by king Edward VI. and with four pounds per annum, being the Oxenden gift before mentioned; besides which, the stipend of the resident curate, and his successors, was increased in 1797, by a liberal benefaction made by the Rev. Dr. Hey, of one hundred pounds per annum, clear of all deductions, to be paid out of the parsonage, and of a house, garden, and piece of pasture land adjoining, for the curate's use, both which were settled by him on trustees for that purpose.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp224-241

St Mary, Kenninghall, Norfolk

 

Kenninghall, the village, is surrounded by other villages which are far better known, although not necessarily for their churches. Banham has its zoo, Bressingham its gardens and Quidenham has its convent and the Norfolk children's hospice. So it comes as a surprise to discover that Kenninghall is a large, comfortable, self-sufficient kind of place, and its great church is grander, and perhaps more interesting, than those of its neighbours.

 

St Mary stands in an imposing position above the road, the south side particularly striking with its big Perpendicular windows and a clerestory of five small double light windows. There never was an aisle on this side. The tower is big and bulky. Mortlock says that a spire was intended, and the money for it committed, by the Duke of Norfolk, whose shield can still be seen on the south-east buttress of the nave. But Norfolk was imprisoned for treason before it could be built, his assets frozen, and then, of course, the English Reformation intervened.

 

St Mary is exactly the kind of church which would be better known if it was in another county and not so much off the beaten track. You step into a large, urban church, full of confidence, and with more than a few survivals of the building's late-medieval and early-modern life. Best of all is the tympanum bearing the royal arms of Queen Elizabeth, one of only four sets in all East Anglia. It has been fixed at the east end of the north aisle, but you can still see that it was shaped to fit the chancel arch. God save the Queene, reads the legend, a crowned lion and a gorgeous speckled red dragon flanking the Tudor arms. This is a much simpler affair than the more famous, and more elaborate, Elizabethan arms a few miles off at Tivetshall. Here, the arms are cleanly drawn and charged with the quiet triumph of Protestantism. As if that wasn't enough, the church also has the arms of Charles I hanging above the north door.

 

On the other side of the church there are fragments of a large brass. The main figures are gone, but surviving are the two groups of children. These have been reset on a wall, so if there is a fire they will melt - floor-mounted brasses don't melt in fires - but at least it makes them easy to look at. With them are a pair of image brackets remounted from elsewhere, one of them ornate with fleurons. Roughly contemporary with the brasses is what must have been a magnificent towering font cover. It rises like a steeple, familiar in style from elsewhere in Norfolk at Elsing and Walpole St Peter. Similarly battered are the remains of a medieval table tomb with empty brass inlays, pressed into service as a side altar in the chancel.

 

The glass is pretty much all of the 20th Century, although you might be forgiven for thinking otherwise because the east windows and chancel south windows by Heaton, Butler & Bayne are all still very much 19th Century in style, based on workshop cartoons used up to half a century earlier. In fact, the earliest window here is from 1900. The best of them is the 1960s one on the south side of the nave depicting the figures of the East Anglian Saints Felix and Walstan. Lively and animated, St Walstan swings his scythe and the evangelical St Felix holds a lighted candle and an open book. They are by Paul Jefferies for King & Son of Norwich.

 

The only earlier glass survival is a delightful single quarry depicting a marriage knot of 1636. Its jauntiness is countered by the sobriety of the small, simple memorial reset against the tower arch to two young children, Michael and Mary Marner, who died seven years apart in the middle of the 18th century. A verse explains that The Great Jehovah full of Love through Death's dark shades did send to take these pretty spotless Doves to Joys that never End, which must have been small comfort, even in those days.

And on the second weekend of the year, I take my two camera bodies out for a bit of churchcrawling.

 

Wingham is a substantial town/village between Dover and Canterbury, and was once the terminus of a branch of the East Kent Light Railway, though the nearby mine failed to produce any coal.

 

It is an attractive place, but is blighted by the main road that cuts the town in half, and it is a busy road too. On the road there are three pubs, and many fine and ancient houses.

 

St Mary sits beside the road, and it skirts the churchyard to the south and east, and despite being on a grand scale, mature trees in the churchyard do well to hide it from view.

 

I did come here many years ago back in the early days of the Kent Church project, and took no more than a handful of shots, I thought I could do better that that this time.

 

It is a church full of grand tombs, memorials and other features that I am looking forward to share with you, most curious of which is a curved passageway that leads from the northeast corner of the Oxenden chapel to the chancel.

 

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An enormous church, picturesquely set at an angle of the village street. It owes its size to the fact that it supported a college of priests in the Middle Ages. During the sixteenth century it was substantially rebuilt, but the north aisle was not replaced, reducing the church to the odd shape we see today. The unusual pillars which divide the nave from the south aisle are of timber, not stone as a result of lack of money. At the end of the south aisle is the Oxenden chapel, which contains that family's excellent bull's head monument. The contemporary metalwork screens and black and white pavements add great dignity to this part of the building. By going through a curved passage from the chapel you can emerge in the chancel, which is dominated by a stone reredos of fifteenth-century date. This French construction was a gift to the church in the 1930s and while it is not good quality carving, is an unusual find in a Kent church.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Wingham

 

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hortly after 1280AD Archbishop Peckham of Canterbury established a college of priests at Wingham, with a provost and six canons. From 1286 the priests lived in the attractive timber-framed house opposite St Mary's church. The college accounts for the size of the church, which seems enormous considering the present size of Wingham itself.

 

There was a cruciform church here before the college was established, but that building was remodelled around 1290, leaving us several excellent Geometric Gothic windows. A south porch and tower were added around 1400. The porch is curious in that there are two stories externally, but internally only one. There are many reminders of the church's past, however; the arch between the south transept and south nave aisle is late Norman, as is a blocked arch on the west wall of the north transept.

 

By the early 16th century the nave was in poor condition. A local brewer named George Ffogarde of Canterbury was granted a license to raise money for its repair. Having a considerable sum of money for church repair, the unscrupulous brewer absconded with the funds, embezzling £224, a huge sum for the time. The missing funds may explain why the nave was rebuilt using cheaper timber posts to support the arcades, rather than more costly stone.

 

The octagonal timber posts are of chestnut wood, topped by a crown-post timber roof. Sometime before the mid-19th century the timbers were encased in plaster to resemble Doric columns, but thankfully the plaster has been stripped off and we can appreciate the timber! The nave was rebuilt in the late 16th century, diminishing its footprint and leaving behind some rather odd features, like an external piscina on what was originally the easternmost pier of the nave arcade. Another odd touch is provided by the north transept, remodelled with wood frames in the Georgian period. I'm not sure I can call to mind another essentially medieval church with wooden-framed windows!

 

In the chancel is a lovely 14th century triple-seat sedilia and piscina. The chancel and nave are separated by a 15th century screen, now truncated, with blank panels which must have once boasted painted figures of saints. But the real treasure in the chancel is a series of ten 14th century misericords. Six of the misericord carvings are simply decorative, with floral or foliage designs. Two show animals; one appears to be a horse, another a donkey. The final two carvings are the most interesting; one shows a woman in a wimple, the other a Green Man peering out from a screen of foliage.

 

Behind the altar is a lovely 15th century reredos, brought here from Troyes in France. The reredos is in two sections, the upper section depicting the Passion of Christ, the lower showing the Last Supper and the Adoration of the Kings. There are small fragments of rather attractive 14th century grisailles glass in the chancel windows, and near the font are a number of surviving medieval floor tiles.

 

The interior is full of monuments to the Oxenden and Palmer families. The finest of these are to be found in the north transept chapel. On the east wall of the chapel is a memorial to Sir Nicholas Palmer (d. 1624). The memorial was designed by Nicholas Stone and shows effigies of Palmer and his wife under Corinthian columns and an open pediment. On the north wall is the monument to a later Thomas Palmer (d. 1656) with a bust of the deceased, now somewhat the worse for wear. A tablet to Streynsham Master (d. 1718) is on the south chapel wall, and has a fairly typical pair of skulls at the base of the tablet, wreathed in olive branches.

 

The most extravagant and eye-catching memorial in the church, however, is to be found in the north transept chapel, which is guarded by ornate wrought-iron screens. In the centre of the chapel is an ebullient obelisk, dated 1682, commemorating the Oxenden family. This free-standing obelisk, possibly designed by Arnold Quellin, is of white stone, with exquisite fruit and flowers cascading down each side, with large black ox heads at each angle of the base. The base is embellished with four putti (cherubic 'infants'). The effect is quite extraordinary; most people will either love it or hate it (I loved it). Also in the south transept is a wall tablet to Charles Tripp (d. 1624).

Other monuments worth mentioning include a 14th century tomb recess in the south aisle wall and a number of 15th century indents in the chancel floor which once contained memorial brasses to canons.

 

The church is set within a large walled enclosure, dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Unusually, the churchyard wall has been listed Grade-II by the Department of the Environment for its historical interest.

 

www.britainexpress.com/counties/kent/churches/wingham.htm

 

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WINGHAM

IS the next adjoining parish south-westward from Ash, situated for the most part in the upper half hundred of the same name, and having in it the boroughs of Wingham-street, Deane, Twitham, and Wenderton, which latter is in the lower half hundred of Wingham.

 

WINGHAM is situated in a healthy pleasant country, the greatest part of it is open uninclosed arable lands, the soil of which, though chalky, is far from being unfertile. The village, or town of Wingham, is nearly in the middle of the parish, having the church and college at the south-west part of it; behind the latter is a field, still called the Vineyard. The village contains about fifty houses, one of which is the court-lodge, and is built on the road leading from Canterbury to Sandwich, at the west end of it runs the stream, called the Wingham river, which having turned a corn-mill here, goes on and joins the Lesser Stour, about two miles below; on each side the stream is a moist tract of meadow land. Near the south boundary of the parish is the mansion of Dene, situated in the bottom, a dry, though dull and gloomy habitation; and at the opposite side, next to Staple, the ruinated mansion of Brook, in a far more open and pleasant situation. To the northward the parish extends a considerable way, almost as far as the churches of Preston and Elmstone. The market, granted anno 36 king Henry III. as mentioned hereafter, if it ever was held, has been disused for a number of years past; though the market-house seems yet remaining. There are two fairs held yearly here, on May 12, and November 12, for cattle and pedlary.

 

In 1710 there was found on the court-lodge farm, by the plough striking against it, a chest or coffin, of large thick stones, joined together, and covered with a single one at the top. At the bottom were some black ashes, but nothing else in it. The ground round about was searched, but nothing else was sound.

 

Henry de Wengham, a person of great note and extraordinary parts, and much in favour with Henry III. was born here, who in 1255 made him lord chancellor. In 1259, he was elected bishop of Winchester, which he resused, but towards the latter end of the same year he was chosen bishop of London, being still chancellor, and was consecrated the beginning of the year following. He died in 1262, and was buried in his own cathedral. He bore for his arms, Gules, a heart between two wings, displayed, or.

 

WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ. eldest son of Sir William Cowper, bart. of Ratling-court, in Nonington, having been made lord-keeper of the great seal in 1705, was afterwards by letters patent, dated Dec. 14, 1706, created lord Cowper, baron Cowper of Wingham; and in 1709, was declared lord chancellor. After which, anno 4 George I. he was created earl Cowper and viscount Fordwich, in whose descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. Peter-Lewis-Francis Cowper, the fifth and present earl Cowper, viscount Fordwich and baron of Wingham. (fn. 1)

 

The MANOR OF WINGHAM was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, given to it in the early period of the Saxon heptarchy, but being torn from it during the troubles of those times, it was restored to the church in the year 941, by king Edmund, his brother Eadred, and Edwin that king's son. (fn. 2) Accordingly it is thus entered, under the general title of the archbishop's possessions, taken in the survey of Domesday:

 

In the lath of Estrei, in Wingeham hundred, the archbishop himself holds Wingeham in demesne. It was taxed at forty sulings in the time of king Edward the Consessor, and now for thirty-five. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there are eight carucates, and four times twenty and five villeins, with twenty borderers having fifty-seven carucates. There are eight servants, and two mills of thirty-four sulings. Wood for the pannage of five hogs, and two small woods for fencing. In its whole value, in the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth seventy-seven pounds, when he received it the like, and now one hundred pounds. Of this manor William de Arcis holds one suling in Fletes, and there be has in demesne one carucate, and four villeins, and one knight with one carucate, and one fisbery, with a saltpit of thirty pence. The whole value is forty shillings. Of this ma nor five of the archbishop's men hold five sulings and an half and three yokes, and there they have in demesne eight carucates, and twenty-two borderers, and eight servants. In the whole they are worth twenty-one pounds.

 

In the 36th year of king Henry III. archbishop Boniface obtained the grant of a market at this place. The archbishops had a good house on this manor, in which they frequently resided. Archbishop Baldwin, in king Henry II.'s reign, staid at his house here for some time during his contention with the monks of Christ-church, concerning his college at Hackington. Archbishop Winchelsea entertained king Edward I. here in his 23d year, as did archbishop Walter Reynolds king Edward II. in his 18th year. And king Edward III. in his 5th year, having landed at Dover, with many lords and nobles in his train, came to Wingham, where he was lodged and entertained by archbishop Meopham. And this manor continued part of the see of Canterbury till archbishop Cranmer, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. exchanged it with the king for other premises. After which it continued in the crown till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted the scite, called Wingham court, with the demesne lands of the manor, to trustees, for the use of the city of London. From whom, by the direction of the mayor and commonalty, it was conveyed, at the latter end of that reign, to Sir William Cowper, knight and baronet, in whose descendants it has continued down to the right hon. Peter-Francis Cowper, earl Cowper, who is the present owner of it. (fn. 3)

 

BUT THE MANOR ITSELF, with the royalties, profits of courts, &c. remained still in the crown. Since which, the bailiwic of it, containing the rents and pro fits of the courts, with the fines, amerciaments, reliess, &c. and the privilege of holding the courts of it, by the bailiff of it, have been granted to the family of Oxenden, and Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, is now in possession of the bailiwic of it. A court leet and court baron is held for this manor.

 

TRAPHAM is a mansion in this parish, which was formerly in the possession of a family of the same name, who resided at it, but after they were extinct it passed into that of Trippe, who bore for their arms, Gules, a chevron, or, between three borses heads erased, sable, bridled, collared and crined of the second; (fn. 4) and John Tripp, esq. resided here in queen Elizabeth's reign, as did his grandson Charles, who seems to have alienated it to Sir Christopher Harflete, of St. Stephen's, whose son Tho. Harflete, esq. left an only daughter and heir Afra, who carried it in marriage to John St. Leger, esq. of Doneraile, in Ireland, descended from Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy of Ireland in Henry VIII.'s reign, and they joined in the alienation of it to Brook Bridges, esq of the adjoining parish of Goodneston, whose descendant Sir Brook Wm. Bridges, bart. of that place, is the present owner of it.

 

The MANOR OF DENE, situated in the valley, at the southern boundary of this parish, was antiently the inheritance of a family who took their surname from it, and held it by knight's service of the archbishop, in king Edward I's reign, but they seem to have been extinct here in that of king Edward III. After which it passed into the family of Hussey, who bore for their arms, Per chevron, argent and vert, three birds counterchanged; and then to Wood, before it came by sale into the family of Oxenden, who appear to have been possessed of it at the latter end of Henry VI.'s reign, about which time they had become by marriage, owners of Brook and other estates in this parish. The family of Oxenden have been resident in this county from the reign of king Edward III. Solomon Oxenden, being the first mentioned in the several pedigrees of it, whose near relation Richard Oxenden was prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, in that reign; in this name and family of Oxenden, whose arms were Argent, a chevron, gules, between three oxen, sable, armed, or; which coat was confirmed to the family by Gyan, king at arms, anno 24 Henry VI. this manor and seat continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, of Dene, who was on May 8, 1678, created a baronet, whose youngest grandson Sir George Oxenden, bart. succeeding at length to the title on the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, resided at Dene, where he died in 1775, having served in parliament for Sandwich, and been employed in high offices in administration, and leaving behind him the character of a compleat gentleman. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Edward Dunck, esq. of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, by whom he had two sons, of whom George, the second, was made by will heir to the estate of Sir Basil Dixwell, bart. of Brome, on his death, s. p. and changed his name to Dixwell as enjoined by it, but died soon afterwards likewise, s. p. and that estate came at length to his eldest brother Henry, who succeeded his father in the title of Baronet. He married Margaret, daughter and coheir of Sir George Chudleigh, bart. of Devonshire, since deceased, by whom he has issue Henry Oxenden, esq. of Madekyn, in Barham, who married Mary, one of the daughters of Col. Graham, of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, by whom he has issue. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. now resides at Brome, and is the present possessor of this manor and seat, as well as the rest of his father's estates in this parish. (fn. 5) Lady Hales, widow of Sir Thomas Pym Hales, bart. of Bekesborne, now resides in it.

 

TWITHAM, now usually called Twittam, is a hamlet in this parish, adjoining to Goodneston, the principal estate in which once belonged to a family of that name, one of whom Alanus de Twitham is recorded as having been with king Richard I. at the siege of Acon, in Palestine, who bore for his arms, Semee of crosscroslets, and three cinquesoils, argent, and held this estate in Twitham, of the archbishop, and they appear to have continued possessed of it in the 3d year of king Richard II. Some time after which it came into the possession of Fineux, and William Fineux sold it anno 33 Henry VIII. to Ingram Wollet, whose heirs passed it away to one of the family of Oxenden, of Wingham, in whose descendants it has continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, the present possessor of it.

 

On the foundation of the college of Wingham, archbishop Peckham, in 1286, endowed the first diaconal prebend in it, which he distinguished by the name of the prebend of Twitham, with the tithes of the lands of Alanus de Twitham, which he freely held of the archbishop there in Goodwynestone, at Twytham. (fn. 6)

 

BROOK is an estate in this parish, situated northward from Twitham, which was formerly the estate of the Wendertons, of Wenderton, in this parish, in which it remained till by a female heir Jane, it went in marriage to Richard Oxenden, gent. of Wingham, who died in 1440, and was buried in Wingham church, in whose name and family it continued down to Henry Oxenden, of Brook, who left two daughters and coheirs, of whom Mary married Richard Oxenden, of Grays Inn, barrister-at-law, fourth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart, who afterwards, on his wife's becoming sole heiress of Brook, possessed it, and resided here. He left Elizabeth his sole daughter and heir, who carried it in marriage to Streynsham Master, esq. a captain in the royal navy, the eldest surviving son of James Master, esq. of East Langdon, who died some few days after his marriage; upon which she became again possessed of it in her own right, and dying in 1759, s. p. gave it by will to Henry Oxenden, esq. now Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and he is the present owner of it.

 

WENDERTON is a manor and antient seat, situated northward from Wingham church, eminent, says Philipott, for its excellent air, situation, and prospect, which for many successive generations had owners of that surname, one of whom, John de Wenderton, is mentioned in Fox's Martyrology, as one among other tenants of the manor of Wingham, on whom archbishop Courtnay, in 1390, imposed a penance for neglecting to perform some services due from that manor. In his descendants this seat continued till John Wenderton, of Wenderton, in the 1st year of Henry VIII. passed it away to archbishop Warham, who at his decease in 1533, gave it to his youngest brother John Warham, whose great-grandson John, by his will in 1609, ordered this manor to be sold, which it accordingly soon afterwards was to Manwood, from which name it was alienated, about the middle of the next reign of king Charles I. to Vincent Denne, gent. who resided here, and died in 1642, s. p. whose four nieces afterwards became by will possessed of it, and on the partition of their estates, the manor and mansion, with part of the lands since called Great Wenderton, was allotted to Mary, the youngest of them, who afterwards married Vincent Denne, sergeant-at-law, and the remaining part of it, which adjoins to them, since called Little Wenderton, to Dorothy, the third sister, afterwards married to Roger Lukin, gent. of London, who soon afterwards sold his share to Richard Oxenden, esq. of Brook, from one of which family it was sold to Underdown, by a female heir of which name, Frances, it went in marriage to John Carter, esq. of Deal, the present owner of it.

 

BUT GREAT WENDERTON continued in the possession of Sergeant Denne, till his death in 1693, when Dorothy, his eldest daughter and coheir, carried it in marriage to Mr. Thomas Ginder, who bore Argent, on a pale, sable, a cross fuchee, or, impaling azure, three lions heads, or; as they are on his monument. He resided at it till his death in 1716, as did his widow till her decease in 1736, when it came to her nephew Mr. Thomas Hatley, who left two daughters his coheirs, the eldest surviving of whom, Anne, carried it in marriage, first to Richard Nicholas, esq. and then successively to Mr. Smith and Mr. James Corneck, of London, and Mrs. Corneck, the widow of the latter, is the present possessor of it.

 

At the boundary of this parish, adjoining to Preston and Ash, lies THE MANOR OF WALMESTONE, usually called Wamston, which was antiently part of the possessions of the family of Septvans, one of whom, Robert de Septvans, held it in king Edward II.'s reign, of the archbishop; whose descendant Sir William de Septvans died possessed of it in the 25th year of that reign. (fn. 7) How long it continued in this name I have not found; but at the beginning of king Edward IV.'s reign it was become the property of William Bonington, of Canterbury, who died in 1463, and directed it by his will to be sold. After which it became, about the latter end of king Henry VIII.'s reign, the property of Walter Hendley, esq. the king's attorney-general, who left three daughters his coheirs, and they joined in the sale of it to Alday, who alienated it to Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, one of whose daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to Mervin Touchet, earl of Castlehaven, who being convicted of high crimes and misdemeanors, was executed anno 7 Charles I. Soon after which this manor seems to have been divided, and one part of it, since called Little Walmestone, in which was included the manor and part of the demesne lands, passed from his heirs to the Rev. John Smith, rector of Wickham Breaus, who having founded a scholarship at Oxford, out of the lands of it, presently afterwards sold it to Solly, of Pedding, in which name it continued till Stephen Solly, gent. of Pedding, and his two sons, John and Stephen, in 1653, joined in the conveyance of it to Thomas Winter, yeoman, of Wingham, in which name it remained for some time. At length, after some intermediate owners, it was sold to Sympson, and John Sympson, esq. of Canterbury, died possessed of it in 1748, leaving his wife surviving, who held it at her decease, upon which it came to her husband's heir-atlaw, and it is now accordingly in the possession of Mr. Richard Simpson.

 

BUT GREAT WALMESTONE, consisting of the mansion-house, with a greater part of the demesne lands of the manor, was passed away by the heirs of the earl of Castlehaven to Brigham, and Mr. Charles Brigham, of London, in the year 1653, sold it to William Rutland, of London, who left two daughters his coheirs, of whom Mary married John Ketch, by whom she had a sole daughter Anne, who afterwards at length became possessed of it, and carried it in marriage to Samuel Starling, gent. of Worcestershire, who in 1718, conveyed it, his only son Samuel joining in it, to Thomas Willys, esq. of London, afterwards created a baronet. After which it passed in the same manner, and in the like interests and shares, as the manor of Dargate, in Hernehill, down to Matthew, Robert and Thomas Mitchell, the trustees for the several uses to which this, among other estates belonging to the Willis's, had been limited; and they joined in the sale of it, in 1789, to Mr. William East, whose son, Mr. John East, of Wingham, is the present owner of it.

 

ARCHBISHOP KILWARBY intended to found a college in this church of Wingham, but resigning his archbishopric before he could put his design in practice, archbishop Peckham, his successor, in the year 1286, perfected his predecessor's design, and founded A COLLEGE in this church, for a provost, whose portion, among other premises, was the profits of this church and the vicarage of it, and six secular canons; the prebends of which he distinguished by the names of the several places from whence their respective portions arose, viz. Chilton, Pedding, Twitham, Bonnington, Ratling, and Wimlingswold. The provost's lodge, which appears by the foundation charter to have before been the parsonage, was situated adjoining to the church-yard; and the houses of the canons, at this time called Canon-row, opposite to it. These latter houses are, with their gardens and appurtenances, esteemed to be within the liberty of the town and port of Hastings, and jurisdiction of the cinque ports. This college was suppressed in the 1st year of king Edward VI. among others of the like sort, when the whole revenue of it was valued at 208l. 14s. 3½d. per annum, and 193l. 2s. 1d. clear; but Leland says, it was able to dispend at the suppression only eighty-four pounds per annum. Edward Cranmer, the last master, had at the dissolution a pension of twenty pounds per annum, which he enjoyed in 1553. (fn. 8)

 

After the dissolution of the college, the capital mansion, late belonging to the provost, remained in the crown till king Edward VI. in his 7th year, granted the scite of it, with the church appropriate of Wingham, and all tithes whatsoever arising within the parish, and one acre of glebe-land in it, to Sir Henry Palmer, subject to a payment of twenty pounds annually to the curate or vicar of it.

 

The Palmers of Wingham were descended from a very antient one at Angmerin, in Suffex, who bore for their arms, Or, two bars, gules, each charged with three tresoils of the field, in chief, a greyhound, currant, sable. In the seventh descent from Ralph Palmer, esq. of that place, in king Edward II.'s reign, was descended Sir Edward Palmer, of Angmerin, who left three sons, born on three successive Sundays, of whom John, the eldest, was of Sussex, which branch became extinct in queen Elizabeth's reign; Sir Henry, the second son, was of Wingham; and Sir Thomas, the youngest, was beheaded in queen Mary's reign. Sir Henry Palmer, the second son, having purchased the grant of the college of Wingham, as before-mentioned, made it the seat of his residence, as did his son Sir Thomas Palmer, who was sheriff anno 37 Elizabeth, and created a baronet in 1621. He so constantly resided at Wingham, that he is said to have kept sixty Christmases, without intermission, in this mansion, with great hospitality. He had three sons, each of whom were knighted. From the youngest of whom, Sir James, descended the Palmers, of Dauney, in Buckinghamshire, who upon the eldest branch becoming extinct, have succeeded to the title of baronet; and by his second wife he had Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemain. Sir Thomas Palmer, the eldest of the three brothers, died in his father's life-time, and left Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, heir to his grandfather; in whose descendants, baronets, of this place, this mansion, with the parsonage of Wingham appropriate, continued down to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, who died possessed of it in 1723, having had three wives; by the first he had four daughters; by the second he had a son Herbert, born before marriage, and afterwards a daughter Frances; the third was Mrs. Markham, by whom he had no issue; and she afterwards married Thomas Hey, esq. whom she likewise survived. Sir Thomas Palmer, by his will, gave this seat, with the parsonage appropriate and tithes of Wingham, inter alia, after his widow's decease, to his natural son Herbert Palmer, esq. above-mentioned, who married Bethia, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, bart. of Knolton. He died in 1760, s. p. and by will devised his interest in the reversion of this seat, with the parsonage, to his wife Bethia, for her life, and afterwards to his sister Mrs. Frances Palmer, in tail. But he never had possession of it, for lady Palmer furvived him, on whose death in 1763, Mrs. Bethia Palmer, his widow, became entitled to it, and afterwards married John Cosnan, esq. who died in 1773. She survived him, and resided here till her death in 1789. In the intermediate time, Mrs. Frances Palmer having barred the entail made by her natural brother Herbett above-mentioned, died, having devised the see of this estate, by her will in 1770, to the Rev. Thomas Hey, rector of Wickhambreaux, and his heirs, being the eldest son of the last lady Palmer by her last husband. Mr. Hey accordingly, on the death of Mrs. Cosnan, who died s. p. succeeded to this seat and estate. He married first Ethelreda, eldest daughter and coheir of dean Lynch, since deceased, by whom he has no surviving issue; and secondly, Mrs. Pugett, widow of Mr. Puget, of London. He now resides in this seat of Wingham college, having been created D. D. and promoted to a prebend of the church of Rochester.

 

Charities.

JOHN CHURCH, yeoman, of this parish, in 1604, gave 1cl. to the poor, to distribute yearly at Easter, 10s. to the poor for the interest of it.

 

HECTOR DU MONT, a Frenchman, born in 1632, gave the silver cup and patten for the holy communion.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, president for the East-India Company at Surat, in 1660, gave the velvet cushion and pulpitcloth.

 

JOHN RUSHBEACHER, gent. of this parish, in 1663, gave five acres of land in Woodnesborough, the rents to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish, now of the yearly value of 4l.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, above-mentioned, in 1682, gave 500l. for the repairing and beautifying this church, and the Dene chancel.

 

SIR JAMES OXENDEN, knight and baronet, of Dene, founded and endowed a school in this parish with 16l. per annum for ever, for teaching twenty poor children reading and writing, now in the patronage of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

RICHARD OXENDEN, esq. of Brook, in 1701, gave an annuity of 4l. for ever, to the minister, for the reading of divine service and preaching a sermon, in this church, on every Wednesday in Lent, and on Good Friday; and he at the same time gave 20s. yearly for ever, to be distributed, with the consent of the heirs of the Brook estate, to eight poor people, who should be at divine service on Easter-day, to be paid out of the lands of Brook, now vested in Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

THOMAS PALMER, esq. of St. Dunstan's in the East, London, gave 300l for the repairing, adorning and beautifying the great chancel of this church.

 

MRS. ELIZABETH MASTER, esq. relict of Strensham Master, of Brook, in 1728, gave the large silver flaggon; and MRS. SYBILLA OXENDEN, spinster, of Brook, at the same time gave a large silver patten for the communion.

 

Besides the above benefactions, there have been several lesser ones given at different times in money, both to the poor and for the church. All which are recorded in a very handsome table in the church, on which are likewise painted the arms of the several benefactors

 

There are about forty poor constantly relieved, and casually twenty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

The church, which is exempt from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a handsome building, consisting of two isles and three chancels, having a slim spire steeple at the west end, in which is a peal of eight bells and a clock. The church consists of two isles and three chancels. The former appear to have been built since the reformation; the latter are much more antient. It is handsome and well built; the pillars between the isles, now cased with wood, are slender and well proportioned. The outside is remarkably beautiful in the flint-work, and the windows throughout it, were regular and handsomely disposed, superior to other churches, till later repairs destroyed their uniformity. The windows were formerly richly ornamented with painted glass, the remains of which are but small. In the south window, in old English letters, is Edward Warham, gentill . . . . of making this window . . . . and underneath the arms of Warham. In the north isle is a brass tablet for Christopher Harris, curate here, and rector of Stourmouth, obt. Nov. 24, 1719. Over the entrance from this isle into the high chancel, is carved on the partition, the Prince of Wales's badge and motto. In the south wall is a circular arch, plain, seemingly over a tomb. A monument for T. Ginder, gent. obt. 1716. In the south east window the arms of Warham. A memorial for Vincent Denne, gent. of Wenderton, obt. 1642. In the high chancel are seven stalls on each side. On the pavement are several stones, robbed of their brasses, over the provosts and religious of the college. A stone, coffin-shaped, and two crosses pomelle, with an inscription round in old French capitals, for master John de Sarestone, rector, ob. XII Kal. May MCCLXXI. Several monuments and memorials for the family of Palmer. The south chancel is called the Dene chancel, belonging to that seat, under which is a vault, in which the family of Oxenden, owners of it, are deposited. In the middle, on the pavement, is a very costly monument, having at the corners four large black oxens beads, in allusion to their name and arms. It was erected in 1682. On the four tablets on the base is an account of the family of Oxenden, beginning with Henry, who built Denehouse, and ending with Dr. Oxenden, dean of the arches, who died in 1704. There are monuments in it likewise for the Trippes. The north chancel is called the Brook chancel, as belonging to that seat, in which are monuments for the Oxendens and Masters's of this seat. This chancel is shut out from the church, and is made use of as a school-room, by which means the monuments are much desaced, and the gravestones, from the filth in it, have become wholly obliterated. On one of these stones was a brass plate, now gone, for Henry Oxenden, esq. who built Dene, obt. 1597.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of the marquis of Juliers, and widow of John, son of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, after being solemnly veiled a nun, quitted her prosession, and was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace de Danbrichescourt, in a chapel of the mansion-house of Robert de Brome, a canon of this collegiate church, in 1360; for which she and her husband were enjoined different kinds of penance during their lives, which is well worth the reading, for the uncommon superstitious mockery of them. (fn. 9)

 

At the time of the reformation, the church was partly collegiate, and partly parochial. The high chancel, separated from the rest of the church by a partition, served for the members of the college to perform their quire service in. The two isles of the church were for the parishioners, who from thence could hear the quire service; and in the north isle was a roodlost, where one of the vicars went up and read the gospel to the people. At which time, I find mention of a parish chancel likewise.

 

The church of Wingham formerly comprehended not only this parish, but those likewise of Ash, Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wimlingswold; but archbishop Peckham, in 1282, divided them into four distinct parochial churches, and afterwards appropriated them to his new-founded college of Wingham, with a saving to them of certain portions which the vicars of them were accustomed to receive. The profits of this church and the vicarage of it, together with the parsonage-house, being thus appropriated and allotted to the provost, as part of his portion and maintenance, the archbishop, in order that the church should be duly served, by his foundation charter, ordered, that the provost and canons should each of them keep a vicar who should constantly serve in it. In which state it continued till the suppression of the college, in the 1st year of king Edward VI. when it came, among the rest of the revenues of the college, into the hands of the crown, where this parsonage appropriate, to which was annexed, the nomination of the perpetual curate serving in this church, remained till it was granted by king Edward VI. in his 7th year, to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. Since which it has continued in like manner, together with the scite of the college, as has been already mentioned, to the Rev. Dr. Hey, who is the present possessor of this parsonage, together with the patronage of the perpetual curacy of the church of Wingham.

 

In 1640 the communicants here were three hundred and sixty-one.

 

¶The curacy is endowed with a stipend of twenty pounds per annum, paid by the owner of the parsonage, and reserved to the curate in the original grant of the college by king Edward VI. and with four pounds per annum, being the Oxenden gift before mentioned; besides which, the stipend of the resident curate, and his successors, was increased in 1797, by a liberal benefaction made by the Rev. Dr. Hey, of one hundred pounds per annum, clear of all deductions, to be paid out of the parsonage, and of a house, garden, and piece of pasture land adjoining, for the curate's use, both which were settled by him on trustees for that purpose.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp224-241

Band playing at the wedding of David Copperthwaite to Marlene Wilkinson in 1963. The band has been identified as either Crescent City or Spartan and includes David Copperthwaite (smoking in sunglasses) and Dennis Armstrong (cornet player). The lady behind the band, on the left holding a cup, is Sarah Spencer Hudson who later married John Normington. Slide photograph taken by John Normington.

 

The item is part of the John Normington Collection, donated to Keighley and District Local History Society by John's daughter Liz Hornby in September 2021.

 

John Normington was born in Keighley on 26th May 1929, the son of William Normington, and grew up in the Exley Head area of the town. He was joined by younger brother William five years later. John attended Ingrow Primary School and later won a scholarship for Keighley Boys’ Grammar School. His interest in music started with playing the drums at the age of six, then swapping to take up the piano.

 

His first job was at Keighley Library, where he remained (except for a break for National Service in 1947-49) until taking early retirement in March 1984. He was made Chief Assistant (Deputy) in 1953 having studied at the Leeds School of Librarianship. He ultimately became a lecturer himself in Cataloguing and Classification. He worked alongside local historian Ian Dewhirst for many years. Six months after he retired from Keighley Library in 1984, he took up the part-time role of Library Assistant at South Craven School. He got married to Sarah Spencer Hudson and they had a daughter, Elizabeth.

 

One of his passions beyond the library was his music, and in performing. In the 1940s and 1950s he both acted with and played the drums for the Ingrow St. John’s Parish Church Players. Later he played the piano (and occasionally the drums) for Keighley Amateurs (of which he was a member for 72 years). Utilising his musical skills, he joined the Good Time Jazz Band in 1978. Another passion was potholing, having been introduced to it in the late 1940s, and he joined the Craven Pothole Club in 1952. He served as President of the Club in 1982 and as treasurer from 1984 to 1992. He was also a member of the 40 Club, the Grafton Club and Haworth Round Table. John died on 11th January 2020 at the age of 90.

Tickets issued by the West Yorkshire Road Car Co. Ltd. who operated bus services in the Keighley area. The tickets are two shillings each.

 

The item is part of the John Normington Collection, donated to Keighley and District Local History Society by John's daughter Liz Hornby in September 2021.

 

John Normington was born in Keighley on 26th May 1929, the son of William Normington, and grew up in the Exley Head area of the town. He was joined by younger brother William five years later. John attended Ingrow Primary School and later won a scholarship for Keighley Boys’ Grammar School. His interest in music started with playing the drums at the age of six, then swapping to take up the piano.

 

His first job was at Keighley Library, where he remained (except for a break for National Service in 1947-49) until taking early retirement in March 1984. He was made Chief Assistant (Deputy) in 1953 having studied at the Leeds School of Librarianship. He ultimately became a lecturer himself in Cataloguing and Classification. He worked alongside local historian Ian Dewhirst for many years. Six months after he retired from Keighley Library in 1984, he took up the part-time role of Library Assistant at South Craven School. He got married to Sarah Spencer Hudson and they had a daughter, Elizabeth.

 

One of his passions beyond the library was his music, and in performing. In the 1940s and 1950s he both acted with and played the drums for the Ingrow St. John’s Parish Church Players. Later he played the piano (and occasionally the drums) for Keighley Amateurs (of which he was a member for 72 years). Utilising his musical skills, he joined the Good Time Jazz Band in 1978. Another passion was potholing, having been introduced to it in the late 1940s, and he joined the Craven Pothole Club in 1952. He served as President of the Club in 1982 and as treasurer from 1984 to 1992. He was also a member of the 40 Club, the Grafton Club and Haworth Round Table. John died on 11th January 2020 at the age of 90.

And on the second weekend of the year, I take my two camera bodies out for a bit of churchcrawling.

 

Wingham is a substantial town/village between Dover and Canterbury, and was once the terminus of a branch of the East Kent Light Railway, though the nearby mine failed to produce any coal.

 

It is an attractive place, but is blighted by the main road that cuts the town in half, and it is a busy road too. On the road there are three pubs, and many fine and ancient houses.

 

St Mary sits beside the road, and it skirts the churchyard to the south and east, and despite being on a grand scale, mature trees in the churchyard do well to hide it from view.

 

I did come here many years ago back in the early days of the Kent Church project, and took no more than a handful of shots, I thought I could do better that that this time.

 

It is a church full of grand tombs, memorials and other features that I am looking forward to share with you, most curious of which is a curved passageway that leads from the northeast corner of the Oxenden chapel to the chancel.

 

I was met inside by one of the wardens, cleaning up with a large soft broom, after a while he came over to see what I was doing, so i explained about the project, and also said what a fine church it was (such comments always go down well I find) and that the memorials on display look fabulous, but I could see two more hidden away behind the organ in what is now the vestry, but was once the north chapel, or the Palmer family chapel. He got out his keys and unlocked the vestry door, allowing me to photograph the one memorial still visible.

 

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An enormous church, picturesquely set at an angle of the village street. It owes its size to the fact that it supported a college of priests in the Middle Ages. During the sixteenth century it was substantially rebuilt, but the north aisle was not replaced, reducing the church to the odd shape we see today. The unusual pillars which divide the nave from the south aisle are of timber, not stone as a result of lack of money. At the end of the south aisle is the Oxenden chapel, which contains that family's excellent bull's head monument. The contemporary metalwork screens and black and white pavements add great dignity to this part of the building. By going through a curved passage from the chapel you can emerge in the chancel, which is dominated by a stone reredos of fifteenth-century date. This French construction was a gift to the church in the 1930s and while it is not good quality carving, is an unusual find in a Kent church.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Wingham

 

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hortly after 1280AD Archbishop Peckham of Canterbury established a college of priests at Wingham, with a provost and six canons. From 1286 the priests lived in the attractive timber-framed house opposite St Mary's church. The college accounts for the size of the church, which seems enormous considering the present size of Wingham itself.

 

There was a cruciform church here before the college was established, but that building was remodelled around 1290, leaving us several excellent Geometric Gothic windows. A south porch and tower were added around 1400. The porch is curious in that there are two stories externally, but internally only one. There are many reminders of the church's past, however; the arch between the south transept and south nave aisle is late Norman, as is a blocked arch on the west wall of the north transept.

 

By the early 16th century the nave was in poor condition. A local brewer named George Ffogarde of Canterbury was granted a license to raise money for its repair. Having a considerable sum of money for church repair, the unscrupulous brewer absconded with the funds, embezzling £224, a huge sum for the time. The missing funds may explain why the nave was rebuilt using cheaper timber posts to support the arcades, rather than more costly stone.

 

The octagonal timber posts are of chestnut wood, topped by a crown-post timber roof. Sometime before the mid-19th century the timbers were encased in plaster to resemble Doric columns, but thankfully the plaster has been stripped off and we can appreciate the timber! The nave was rebuilt in the late 16th century, diminishing its footprint and leaving behind some rather odd features, like an external piscina on what was originally the easternmost pier of the nave arcade. Another odd touch is provided by the north transept, remodelled with wood frames in the Georgian period. I'm not sure I can call to mind another essentially medieval church with wooden-framed windows!

 

In the chancel is a lovely 14th century triple-seat sedilia and piscina. The chancel and nave are separated by a 15th century screen, now truncated, with blank panels which must have once boasted painted figures of saints. But the real treasure in the chancel is a series of ten 14th century misericords. Six of the misericord carvings are simply decorative, with floral or foliage designs. Two show animals; one appears to be a horse, another a donkey. The final two carvings are the most interesting; one shows a woman in a wimple, the other a Green Man peering out from a screen of foliage.

 

Behind the altar is a lovely 15th century reredos, brought here from Troyes in France. The reredos is in two sections, the upper section depicting the Passion of Christ, the lower showing the Last Supper and the Adoration of the Kings. There are small fragments of rather attractive 14th century grisailles glass in the chancel windows, and near the font are a number of surviving medieval floor tiles.

 

The interior is full of monuments to the Oxenden and Palmer families. The finest of these are to be found in the north transept chapel. On the east wall of the chapel is a memorial to Sir Nicholas Palmer (d. 1624). The memorial was designed by Nicholas Stone and shows effigies of Palmer and his wife under Corinthian columns and an open pediment. On the north wall is the monument to a later Thomas Palmer (d. 1656) with a bust of the deceased, now somewhat the worse for wear. A tablet to Streynsham Master (d. 1718) is on the south chapel wall, and has a fairly typical pair of skulls at the base of the tablet, wreathed in olive branches.

 

The most extravagant and eye-catching memorial in the church, however, is to be found in the north transept chapel, which is guarded by ornate wrought-iron screens. In the centre of the chapel is an ebullient obelisk, dated 1682, commemorating the Oxenden family. This free-standing obelisk, possibly designed by Arnold Quellin, is of white stone, with exquisite fruit and flowers cascading down each side, with large black ox heads at each angle of the base. The base is embellished with four putti (cherubic 'infants'). The effect is quite extraordinary; most people will either love it or hate it (I loved it). Also in the south transept is a wall tablet to Charles Tripp (d. 1624).

Other monuments worth mentioning include a 14th century tomb recess in the south aisle wall and a number of 15th century indents in the chancel floor which once contained memorial brasses to canons.

 

The church is set within a large walled enclosure, dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Unusually, the churchyard wall has been listed Grade-II by the Department of the Environment for its historical interest.

 

www.britainexpress.com/counties/kent/churches/wingham.htm

 

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WINGHAM

IS the next adjoining parish south-westward from Ash, situated for the most part in the upper half hundred of the same name, and having in it the boroughs of Wingham-street, Deane, Twitham, and Wenderton, which latter is in the lower half hundred of Wingham.

 

WINGHAM is situated in a healthy pleasant country, the greatest part of it is open uninclosed arable lands, the soil of which, though chalky, is far from being unfertile. The village, or town of Wingham, is nearly in the middle of the parish, having the church and college at the south-west part of it; behind the latter is a field, still called the Vineyard. The village contains about fifty houses, one of which is the court-lodge, and is built on the road leading from Canterbury to Sandwich, at the west end of it runs the stream, called the Wingham river, which having turned a corn-mill here, goes on and joins the Lesser Stour, about two miles below; on each side the stream is a moist tract of meadow land. Near the south boundary of the parish is the mansion of Dene, situated in the bottom, a dry, though dull and gloomy habitation; and at the opposite side, next to Staple, the ruinated mansion of Brook, in a far more open and pleasant situation. To the northward the parish extends a considerable way, almost as far as the churches of Preston and Elmstone. The market, granted anno 36 king Henry III. as mentioned hereafter, if it ever was held, has been disused for a number of years past; though the market-house seems yet remaining. There are two fairs held yearly here, on May 12, and November 12, for cattle and pedlary.

 

In 1710 there was found on the court-lodge farm, by the plough striking against it, a chest or coffin, of large thick stones, joined together, and covered with a single one at the top. At the bottom were some black ashes, but nothing else in it. The ground round about was searched, but nothing else was sound.

 

Henry de Wengham, a person of great note and extraordinary parts, and much in favour with Henry III. was born here, who in 1255 made him lord chancellor. In 1259, he was elected bishop of Winchester, which he resused, but towards the latter end of the same year he was chosen bishop of London, being still chancellor, and was consecrated the beginning of the year following. He died in 1262, and was buried in his own cathedral. He bore for his arms, Gules, a heart between two wings, displayed, or.

 

WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ. eldest son of Sir William Cowper, bart. of Ratling-court, in Nonington, having been made lord-keeper of the great seal in 1705, was afterwards by letters patent, dated Dec. 14, 1706, created lord Cowper, baron Cowper of Wingham; and in 1709, was declared lord chancellor. After which, anno 4 George I. he was created earl Cowper and viscount Fordwich, in whose descendants these titles have continued down to the right hon. Peter-Lewis-Francis Cowper, the fifth and present earl Cowper, viscount Fordwich and baron of Wingham. (fn. 1)

 

The MANOR OF WINGHAM was part of the antient possessions of the see of Canterbury, given to it in the early period of the Saxon heptarchy, but being torn from it during the troubles of those times, it was restored to the church in the year 941, by king Edmund, his brother Eadred, and Edwin that king's son. (fn. 2) Accordingly it is thus entered, under the general title of the archbishop's possessions, taken in the survey of Domesday:

 

In the lath of Estrei, in Wingeham hundred, the archbishop himself holds Wingeham in demesne. It was taxed at forty sulings in the time of king Edward the Consessor, and now for thirty-five. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there are eight carucates, and four times twenty and five villeins, with twenty borderers having fifty-seven carucates. There are eight servants, and two mills of thirty-four sulings. Wood for the pannage of five hogs, and two small woods for fencing. In its whole value, in the time of king Edward the Consessor, it was worth seventy-seven pounds, when he received it the like, and now one hundred pounds. Of this manor William de Arcis holds one suling in Fletes, and there be has in demesne one carucate, and four villeins, and one knight with one carucate, and one fisbery, with a saltpit of thirty pence. The whole value is forty shillings. Of this ma nor five of the archbishop's men hold five sulings and an half and three yokes, and there they have in demesne eight carucates, and twenty-two borderers, and eight servants. In the whole they are worth twenty-one pounds.

 

In the 36th year of king Henry III. archbishop Boniface obtained the grant of a market at this place. The archbishops had a good house on this manor, in which they frequently resided. Archbishop Baldwin, in king Henry II.'s reign, staid at his house here for some time during his contention with the monks of Christ-church, concerning his college at Hackington. Archbishop Winchelsea entertained king Edward I. here in his 23d year, as did archbishop Walter Reynolds king Edward II. in his 18th year. And king Edward III. in his 5th year, having landed at Dover, with many lords and nobles in his train, came to Wingham, where he was lodged and entertained by archbishop Meopham. And this manor continued part of the see of Canterbury till archbishop Cranmer, in the 29th year of king Henry VIII. exchanged it with the king for other premises. After which it continued in the crown till king Charles I. in his 5th year, granted the scite, called Wingham court, with the demesne lands of the manor, to trustees, for the use of the city of London. From whom, by the direction of the mayor and commonalty, it was conveyed, at the latter end of that reign, to Sir William Cowper, knight and baronet, in whose descendants it has continued down to the right hon. Peter-Francis Cowper, earl Cowper, who is the present owner of it. (fn. 3)

 

BUT THE MANOR ITSELF, with the royalties, profits of courts, &c. remained still in the crown. Since which, the bailiwic of it, containing the rents and pro fits of the courts, with the fines, amerciaments, reliess, &c. and the privilege of holding the courts of it, by the bailiff of it, have been granted to the family of Oxenden, and Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, is now in possession of the bailiwic of it. A court leet and court baron is held for this manor.

 

TRAPHAM is a mansion in this parish, which was formerly in the possession of a family of the same name, who resided at it, but after they were extinct it passed into that of Trippe, who bore for their arms, Gules, a chevron, or, between three borses heads erased, sable, bridled, collared and crined of the second; (fn. 4) and John Tripp, esq. resided here in queen Elizabeth's reign, as did his grandson Charles, who seems to have alienated it to Sir Christopher Harflete, of St. Stephen's, whose son Tho. Harflete, esq. left an only daughter and heir Afra, who carried it in marriage to John St. Leger, esq. of Doneraile, in Ireland, descended from Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy of Ireland in Henry VIII.'s reign, and they joined in the alienation of it to Brook Bridges, esq of the adjoining parish of Goodneston, whose descendant Sir Brook Wm. Bridges, bart. of that place, is the present owner of it.

 

The MANOR OF DENE, situated in the valley, at the southern boundary of this parish, was antiently the inheritance of a family who took their surname from it, and held it by knight's service of the archbishop, in king Edward I's reign, but they seem to have been extinct here in that of king Edward III. After which it passed into the family of Hussey, who bore for their arms, Per chevron, argent and vert, three birds counterchanged; and then to Wood, before it came by sale into the family of Oxenden, who appear to have been possessed of it at the latter end of Henry VI.'s reign, about which time they had become by marriage, owners of Brook and other estates in this parish. The family of Oxenden have been resident in this county from the reign of king Edward III. Solomon Oxenden, being the first mentioned in the several pedigrees of it, whose near relation Richard Oxenden was prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, in that reign; in this name and family of Oxenden, whose arms were Argent, a chevron, gules, between three oxen, sable, armed, or; which coat was confirmed to the family by Gyan, king at arms, anno 24 Henry VI. this manor and seat continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, of Dene, who was on May 8, 1678, created a baronet, whose youngest grandson Sir George Oxenden, bart. succeeding at length to the title on the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, resided at Dene, where he died in 1775, having served in parliament for Sandwich, and been employed in high offices in administration, and leaving behind him the character of a compleat gentleman. He married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Edward Dunck, esq. of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, by whom he had two sons, of whom George, the second, was made by will heir to the estate of Sir Basil Dixwell, bart. of Brome, on his death, s. p. and changed his name to Dixwell as enjoined by it, but died soon afterwards likewise, s. p. and that estate came at length to his eldest brother Henry, who succeeded his father in the title of Baronet. He married Margaret, daughter and coheir of Sir George Chudleigh, bart. of Devonshire, since deceased, by whom he has issue Henry Oxenden, esq. of Madekyn, in Barham, who married Mary, one of the daughters of Col. Graham, of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, by whom he has issue. Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. now resides at Brome, and is the present possessor of this manor and seat, as well as the rest of his father's estates in this parish. (fn. 5) Lady Hales, widow of Sir Thomas Pym Hales, bart. of Bekesborne, now resides in it.

 

TWITHAM, now usually called Twittam, is a hamlet in this parish, adjoining to Goodneston, the principal estate in which once belonged to a family of that name, one of whom Alanus de Twitham is recorded as having been with king Richard I. at the siege of Acon, in Palestine, who bore for his arms, Semee of crosscroslets, and three cinquesoils, argent, and held this estate in Twitham, of the archbishop, and they appear to have continued possessed of it in the 3d year of king Richard II. Some time after which it came into the possession of Fineux, and William Fineux sold it anno 33 Henry VIII. to Ingram Wollet, whose heirs passed it away to one of the family of Oxenden, of Wingham, in whose descendants it has continued down to Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, the present possessor of it.

 

On the foundation of the college of Wingham, archbishop Peckham, in 1286, endowed the first diaconal prebend in it, which he distinguished by the name of the prebend of Twitham, with the tithes of the lands of Alanus de Twitham, which he freely held of the archbishop there in Goodwynestone, at Twytham. (fn. 6)

 

BROOK is an estate in this parish, situated northward from Twitham, which was formerly the estate of the Wendertons, of Wenderton, in this parish, in which it remained till by a female heir Jane, it went in marriage to Richard Oxenden, gent. of Wingham, who died in 1440, and was buried in Wingham church, in whose name and family it continued down to Henry Oxenden, of Brook, who left two daughters and coheirs, of whom Mary married Richard Oxenden, of Grays Inn, barrister-at-law, fourth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart, who afterwards, on his wife's becoming sole heiress of Brook, possessed it, and resided here. He left Elizabeth his sole daughter and heir, who carried it in marriage to Streynsham Master, esq. a captain in the royal navy, the eldest surviving son of James Master, esq. of East Langdon, who died some few days after his marriage; upon which she became again possessed of it in her own right, and dying in 1759, s. p. gave it by will to Henry Oxenden, esq. now Sir Henry Oxenden, bart. of Brome, and he is the present owner of it.

 

WENDERTON is a manor and antient seat, situated northward from Wingham church, eminent, says Philipott, for its excellent air, situation, and prospect, which for many successive generations had owners of that surname, one of whom, John de Wenderton, is mentioned in Fox's Martyrology, as one among other tenants of the manor of Wingham, on whom archbishop Courtnay, in 1390, imposed a penance for neglecting to perform some services due from that manor. In his descendants this seat continued till John Wenderton, of Wenderton, in the 1st year of Henry VIII. passed it away to archbishop Warham, who at his decease in 1533, gave it to his youngest brother John Warham, whose great-grandson John, by his will in 1609, ordered this manor to be sold, which it accordingly soon afterwards was to Manwood, from which name it was alienated, about the middle of the next reign of king Charles I. to Vincent Denne, gent. who resided here, and died in 1642, s. p. whose four nieces afterwards became by will possessed of it, and on the partition of their estates, the manor and mansion, with part of the lands since called Great Wenderton, was allotted to Mary, the youngest of them, who afterwards married Vincent Denne, sergeant-at-law, and the remaining part of it, which adjoins to them, since called Little Wenderton, to Dorothy, the third sister, afterwards married to Roger Lukin, gent. of London, who soon afterwards sold his share to Richard Oxenden, esq. of Brook, from one of which family it was sold to Underdown, by a female heir of which name, Frances, it went in marriage to John Carter, esq. of Deal, the present owner of it.

 

BUT GREAT WENDERTON continued in the possession of Sergeant Denne, till his death in 1693, when Dorothy, his eldest daughter and coheir, carried it in marriage to Mr. Thomas Ginder, who bore Argent, on a pale, sable, a cross fuchee, or, impaling azure, three lions heads, or; as they are on his monument. He resided at it till his death in 1716, as did his widow till her decease in 1736, when it came to her nephew Mr. Thomas Hatley, who left two daughters his coheirs, the eldest surviving of whom, Anne, carried it in marriage, first to Richard Nicholas, esq. and then successively to Mr. Smith and Mr. James Corneck, of London, and Mrs. Corneck, the widow of the latter, is the present possessor of it.

 

At the boundary of this parish, adjoining to Preston and Ash, lies THE MANOR OF WALMESTONE, usually called Wamston, which was antiently part of the possessions of the family of Septvans, one of whom, Robert de Septvans, held it in king Edward II.'s reign, of the archbishop; whose descendant Sir William de Septvans died possessed of it in the 25th year of that reign. (fn. 7) How long it continued in this name I have not found; but at the beginning of king Edward IV.'s reign it was become the property of William Bonington, of Canterbury, who died in 1463, and directed it by his will to be sold. After which it became, about the latter end of king Henry VIII.'s reign, the property of Walter Hendley, esq. the king's attorney-general, who left three daughters his coheirs, and they joined in the sale of it to Alday, who alienated it to Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, one of whose daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, carried it in marriage to Mervin Touchet, earl of Castlehaven, who being convicted of high crimes and misdemeanors, was executed anno 7 Charles I. Soon after which this manor seems to have been divided, and one part of it, since called Little Walmestone, in which was included the manor and part of the demesne lands, passed from his heirs to the Rev. John Smith, rector of Wickham Breaus, who having founded a scholarship at Oxford, out of the lands of it, presently afterwards sold it to Solly, of Pedding, in which name it continued till Stephen Solly, gent. of Pedding, and his two sons, John and Stephen, in 1653, joined in the conveyance of it to Thomas Winter, yeoman, of Wingham, in which name it remained for some time. At length, after some intermediate owners, it was sold to Sympson, and John Sympson, esq. of Canterbury, died possessed of it in 1748, leaving his wife surviving, who held it at her decease, upon which it came to her husband's heir-atlaw, and it is now accordingly in the possession of Mr. Richard Simpson.

 

BUT GREAT WALMESTONE, consisting of the mansion-house, with a greater part of the demesne lands of the manor, was passed away by the heirs of the earl of Castlehaven to Brigham, and Mr. Charles Brigham, of London, in the year 1653, sold it to William Rutland, of London, who left two daughters his coheirs, of whom Mary married John Ketch, by whom she had a sole daughter Anne, who afterwards at length became possessed of it, and carried it in marriage to Samuel Starling, gent. of Worcestershire, who in 1718, conveyed it, his only son Samuel joining in it, to Thomas Willys, esq. of London, afterwards created a baronet. After which it passed in the same manner, and in the like interests and shares, as the manor of Dargate, in Hernehill, down to Matthew, Robert and Thomas Mitchell, the trustees for the several uses to which this, among other estates belonging to the Willis's, had been limited; and they joined in the sale of it, in 1789, to Mr. William East, whose son, Mr. John East, of Wingham, is the present owner of it.

 

ARCHBISHOP KILWARBY intended to found a college in this church of Wingham, but resigning his archbishopric before he could put his design in practice, archbishop Peckham, his successor, in the year 1286, perfected his predecessor's design, and founded A COLLEGE in this church, for a provost, whose portion, among other premises, was the profits of this church and the vicarage of it, and six secular canons; the prebends of which he distinguished by the names of the several places from whence their respective portions arose, viz. Chilton, Pedding, Twitham, Bonnington, Ratling, and Wimlingswold. The provost's lodge, which appears by the foundation charter to have before been the parsonage, was situated adjoining to the church-yard; and the houses of the canons, at this time called Canon-row, opposite to it. These latter houses are, with their gardens and appurtenances, esteemed to be within the liberty of the town and port of Hastings, and jurisdiction of the cinque ports. This college was suppressed in the 1st year of king Edward VI. among others of the like sort, when the whole revenue of it was valued at 208l. 14s. 3½d. per annum, and 193l. 2s. 1d. clear; but Leland says, it was able to dispend at the suppression only eighty-four pounds per annum. Edward Cranmer, the last master, had at the dissolution a pension of twenty pounds per annum, which he enjoyed in 1553. (fn. 8)

 

After the dissolution of the college, the capital mansion, late belonging to the provost, remained in the crown till king Edward VI. in his 7th year, granted the scite of it, with the church appropriate of Wingham, and all tithes whatsoever arising within the parish, and one acre of glebe-land in it, to Sir Henry Palmer, subject to a payment of twenty pounds annually to the curate or vicar of it.

 

The Palmers of Wingham were descended from a very antient one at Angmerin, in Suffex, who bore for their arms, Or, two bars, gules, each charged with three tresoils of the field, in chief, a greyhound, currant, sable. In the seventh descent from Ralph Palmer, esq. of that place, in king Edward II.'s reign, was descended Sir Edward Palmer, of Angmerin, who left three sons, born on three successive Sundays, of whom John, the eldest, was of Sussex, which branch became extinct in queen Elizabeth's reign; Sir Henry, the second son, was of Wingham; and Sir Thomas, the youngest, was beheaded in queen Mary's reign. Sir Henry Palmer, the second son, having purchased the grant of the college of Wingham, as before-mentioned, made it the seat of his residence, as did his son Sir Thomas Palmer, who was sheriff anno 37 Elizabeth, and created a baronet in 1621. He so constantly resided at Wingham, that he is said to have kept sixty Christmases, without intermission, in this mansion, with great hospitality. He had three sons, each of whom were knighted. From the youngest of whom, Sir James, descended the Palmers, of Dauney, in Buckinghamshire, who upon the eldest branch becoming extinct, have succeeded to the title of baronet; and by his second wife he had Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemain. Sir Thomas Palmer, the eldest of the three brothers, died in his father's life-time, and left Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, heir to his grandfather; in whose descendants, baronets, of this place, this mansion, with the parsonage of Wingham appropriate, continued down to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. of Wingham, who died possessed of it in 1723, having had three wives; by the first he had four daughters; by the second he had a son Herbert, born before marriage, and afterwards a daughter Frances; the third was Mrs. Markham, by whom he had no issue; and she afterwards married Thomas Hey, esq. whom she likewise survived. Sir Thomas Palmer, by his will, gave this seat, with the parsonage appropriate and tithes of Wingham, inter alia, after his widow's decease, to his natural son Herbert Palmer, esq. above-mentioned, who married Bethia, fourth daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, bart. of Knolton. He died in 1760, s. p. and by will devised his interest in the reversion of this seat, with the parsonage, to his wife Bethia, for her life, and afterwards to his sister Mrs. Frances Palmer, in tail. But he never had possession of it, for lady Palmer furvived him, on whose death in 1763, Mrs. Bethia Palmer, his widow, became entitled to it, and afterwards married John Cosnan, esq. who died in 1773. She survived him, and resided here till her death in 1789. In the intermediate time, Mrs. Frances Palmer having barred the entail made by her natural brother Herbett above-mentioned, died, having devised the see of this estate, by her will in 1770, to the Rev. Thomas Hey, rector of Wickhambreaux, and his heirs, being the eldest son of the last lady Palmer by her last husband. Mr. Hey accordingly, on the death of Mrs. Cosnan, who died s. p. succeeded to this seat and estate. He married first Ethelreda, eldest daughter and coheir of dean Lynch, since deceased, by whom he has no surviving issue; and secondly, Mrs. Pugett, widow of Mr. Puget, of London. He now resides in this seat of Wingham college, having been created D. D. and promoted to a prebend of the church of Rochester.

 

Charities.

JOHN CHURCH, yeoman, of this parish, in 1604, gave 1cl. to the poor, to distribute yearly at Easter, 10s. to the poor for the interest of it.

 

HECTOR DU MONT, a Frenchman, born in 1632, gave the silver cup and patten for the holy communion.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, president for the East-India Company at Surat, in 1660, gave the velvet cushion and pulpitcloth.

 

JOHN RUSHBEACHER, gent. of this parish, in 1663, gave five acres of land in Woodnesborough, the rents to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish, now of the yearly value of 4l.

 

SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, above-mentioned, in 1682, gave 500l. for the repairing and beautifying this church, and the Dene chancel.

 

SIR JAMES OXENDEN, knight and baronet, of Dene, founded and endowed a school in this parish with 16l. per annum for ever, for teaching twenty poor children reading and writing, now in the patronage of Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

RICHARD OXENDEN, esq. of Brook, in 1701, gave an annuity of 4l. for ever, to the minister, for the reading of divine service and preaching a sermon, in this church, on every Wednesday in Lent, and on Good Friday; and he at the same time gave 20s. yearly for ever, to be distributed, with the consent of the heirs of the Brook estate, to eight poor people, who should be at divine service on Easter-day, to be paid out of the lands of Brook, now vested in Sir Henry Oxenden, bart.

 

THOMAS PALMER, esq. of St. Dunstan's in the East, London, gave 300l for the repairing, adorning and beautifying the great chancel of this church.

 

MRS. ELIZABETH MASTER, esq. relict of Strensham Master, of Brook, in 1728, gave the large silver flaggon; and MRS. SYBILLA OXENDEN, spinster, of Brook, at the same time gave a large silver patten for the communion.

 

Besides the above benefactions, there have been several lesser ones given at different times in money, both to the poor and for the church. All which are recorded in a very handsome table in the church, on which are likewise painted the arms of the several benefactors

 

There are about forty poor constantly relieved, and casually twenty.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

The church, which is exempt from the archdeacon, is dedicated to St. Mary. It is a handsome building, consisting of two isles and three chancels, having a slim spire steeple at the west end, in which is a peal of eight bells and a clock. The church consists of two isles and three chancels. The former appear to have been built since the reformation; the latter are much more antient. It is handsome and well built; the pillars between the isles, now cased with wood, are slender and well proportioned. The outside is remarkably beautiful in the flint-work, and the windows throughout it, were regular and handsomely disposed, superior to other churches, till later repairs destroyed their uniformity. The windows were formerly richly ornamented with painted glass, the remains of which are but small. In the south window, in old English letters, is Edward Warham, gentill . . . . of making this window . . . . and underneath the arms of Warham. In the north isle is a brass tablet for Christopher Harris, curate here, and rector of Stourmouth, obt. Nov. 24, 1719. Over the entrance from this isle into the high chancel, is carved on the partition, the Prince of Wales's badge and motto. In the south wall is a circular arch, plain, seemingly over a tomb. A monument for T. Ginder, gent. obt. 1716. In the south east window the arms of Warham. A memorial for Vincent Denne, gent. of Wenderton, obt. 1642. In the high chancel are seven stalls on each side. On the pavement are several stones, robbed of their brasses, over the provosts and religious of the college. A stone, coffin-shaped, and two crosses pomelle, with an inscription round in old French capitals, for master John de Sarestone, rector, ob. XII Kal. May MCCLXXI. Several monuments and memorials for the family of Palmer. The south chancel is called the Dene chancel, belonging to that seat, under which is a vault, in which the family of Oxenden, owners of it, are deposited. In the middle, on the pavement, is a very costly monument, having at the corners four large black oxens beads, in allusion to their name and arms. It was erected in 1682. On the four tablets on the base is an account of the family of Oxenden, beginning with Henry, who built Denehouse, and ending with Dr. Oxenden, dean of the arches, who died in 1704. There are monuments in it likewise for the Trippes. The north chancel is called the Brook chancel, as belonging to that seat, in which are monuments for the Oxendens and Masters's of this seat. This chancel is shut out from the church, and is made use of as a school-room, by which means the monuments are much desaced, and the gravestones, from the filth in it, have become wholly obliterated. On one of these stones was a brass plate, now gone, for Henry Oxenden, esq. who built Dene, obt. 1597.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of the marquis of Juliers, and widow of John, son of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, after being solemnly veiled a nun, quitted her prosession, and was clandestinely married to Sir Eustace de Danbrichescourt, in a chapel of the mansion-house of Robert de Brome, a canon of this collegiate church, in 1360; for which she and her husband were enjoined different kinds of penance during their lives, which is well worth the reading, for the uncommon superstitious mockery of them. (fn. 9)

 

At the time of the reformation, the church was partly collegiate, and partly parochial. The high chancel, separated from the rest of the church by a partition, served for the members of the college to perform their quire service in. The two isles of the church were for the parishioners, who from thence could hear the quire service; and in the north isle was a roodlost, where one of the vicars went up and read the gospel to the people. At which time, I find mention of a parish chancel likewise.

 

The church of Wingham formerly comprehended not only this parish, but those likewise of Ash, Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wimlingswold; but archbishop Peckham, in 1282, divided them into four distinct parochial churches, and afterwards appropriated them to his new-founded college of Wingham, with a saving to them of certain portions which the vicars of them were accustomed to receive. The profits of this church and the vicarage of it, together with the parsonage-house, being thus appropriated and allotted to the provost, as part of his portion and maintenance, the archbishop, in order that the church should be duly served, by his foundation charter, ordered, that the provost and canons should each of them keep a vicar who should constantly serve in it. In which state it continued till the suppression of the college, in the 1st year of king Edward VI. when it came, among the rest of the revenues of the college, into the hands of the crown, where this parsonage appropriate, to which was annexed, the nomination of the perpetual curate serving in this church, remained till it was granted by king Edward VI. in his 7th year, to Sir Thomas Palmer, bart. Since which it has continued in like manner, together with the scite of the college, as has been already mentioned, to the Rev. Dr. Hey, who is the present possessor of this parsonage, together with the patronage of the perpetual curacy of the church of Wingham.

 

In 1640 the communicants here were three hundred and sixty-one.

 

¶The curacy is endowed with a stipend of twenty pounds per annum, paid by the owner of the parsonage, and reserved to the curate in the original grant of the college by king Edward VI. and with four pounds per annum, being the Oxenden gift before mentioned; besides which, the stipend of the resident curate, and his successors, was increased in 1797, by a liberal benefaction made by the Rev. Dr. Hey, of one hundred pounds per annum, clear of all deductions, to be paid out of the parsonage, and of a house, garden, and piece of pasture land adjoining, for the curate's use, both which were settled by him on trustees for that purpose.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp224-241

The tops above Keighley in the winter of January / February 1963. The winter of 1962-1963, known as the Big Freeze of 1963, was one of the coldest winters on record in the UK. Slide photograph taken by John Normington.

 

The item is part of the John Normington Collection, donated to Keighley and District Local History Society by John's daughter Liz Hornby in September 2021.

 

John Normington was born in Keighley on 26th May 1929, the son of William Normington, and grew up in the Exley Head area of the town. He was joined by younger brother William five years later. John attended Ingrow Primary School and later won a scholarship for Keighley Boys’ Grammar School. His interest in music started with playing the drums at the age of six, then swapping to take up the piano.

 

His first job was at Keighley Library, where he remained (except for a break for National Service in 1947-49) until taking early retirement in March 1984. He was made Chief Assistant (Deputy) in 1953 having studied at the Leeds School of Librarianship. He ultimately became a lecturer himself in Cataloguing and Classification. He worked alongside local historian Ian Dewhirst for many years. Six months after he retired from Keighley Library in 1984, he took up the part-time role of Library Assistant at South Craven School. He got married to Sarah Spencer Hudson and they had a daughter, Elizabeth.

 

One of his passions beyond the library was his music, and in performing. In the 1940s and 1950s he both acted with and played the drums for the Ingrow St. John’s Parish Church Players. Later he played the piano (and occasionally the drums) for Keighley Amateurs (of which he was a member for 72 years). Utilising his musical skills, he joined the Good Time Jazz Band in 1978. Another passion was potholing, having been introduced to it in the late 1940s, and he joined the Craven Pothole Club in 1952. He served as President of the Club in 1982 and as treasurer from 1984 to 1992. He was also a member of the 40 Club, the Grafton Club and Haworth Round Table. John died on 11th January 2020 at the age of 90.