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This week’s theme for Smile on Saturday is “Full of Memories”

This stuffed chicken is full of memories for me.

 

It all started in the summer of 1982 when I was sitting at McDonald’s with a couple of friends, Keith and Billy. As we sat sipping our sodas, in walked Jack, a boy that worked at McDonald’s along with Keith. I had never met Jack before but Keith had mentioned him on several occasions and I pictured Jack to be Superman, someone that could leap tall buildings and save the world because of the way Keith had spoken about him.

 

Needless to say, the picture I had in my head about Jack was far different from the boy that stood before me. No, this boy was tall and thin with chestnut hair. He was wearing cut-off jeans and a dirty t-shirt, having been working outside all day before arriving at his evening job. I was thinking to myself, this is the Superman you keep speaking of, hmmm. We were briefly introduced and that was that. I wasn’t really expecting to see Jack again, after all, others always said he was an all-work and no play kind of guy.

 

The next day, Billy and I were sitting in his car in the public parking lot. We were contemplating what we should do next because the rest of the gang didn’t show up to hang out. It was decided we would go to the Bluegrass and get a coke. The Bluegrass was a drive-in restaurant in Ashland, Kentucky where they played country music and the servers wore roller skates. Before Billy could start his car, I noticed in the side view mirror that there was a familiar face in the car that was directly behind us. It was Jack. I threw open the passenger door and skipped up to Jack’s car. He rolled down the window and I asked him if he wanted to go with us. He shrugged and said sure, why not.

 

Jack and I ran into each other a few times after that before exchanging numbers. Then we started calling each other on occasion. This was very normal for me; I called all of my friends on occasion. Somehow, I found I was calling Jack a little more often than my other friends to see if he was going to town on a Friday night. He would rarely say yes, instead he would say I might be there for a while. Going to town meant hanging out with friends in the parking lot, or going to the Scratch and Tilt game room to play arcade games. I have to say, when I would call, regardless of his evasive answer, he would always show up.

 

Several months went by and Jack and I casually hung out sometimes with other friends and sometimes just the two of us. We had begun to call each other silly names like turkey. Then one day, he showed up at my house with this stuffed chicken in tow. He immediately handed it to me. There was a lot of laughter and silliness that went with this encounter. I was like… What’s this? He said Happy Valentine’s day (1983). Much more laughter followed and I said, you got me a chicken? His reply was “I couldn’t find a turkey”.

 

There is a lot more to this story but I don’t want to bore anyone to death. I will just say Jack became my Superman; he is my hero and my world. We will be celebrating our 37th anniversary in three days.

 

I hope you smile a lot today and every day, happy snapping.

 

The Lemon Duck cryptocurrency-mining botnet has added the ProxyLogon group of exploits to its bag of tricks, targeting Microsoft Exchange servers.

 

Lemon Duck targets victims’ computer resources to mine the Monero virtual currency, with self-propagating capabilities and a modular framework that allows it to infect additional systems that become part of the botnet. It has been active since at least the end of December 2018, and Cisco Talos calls it “one of the more complex” mining botnets, with several interesting tricks up its sleeve.

 

Crazy Tuesday

Birds

Today was the last day of 2015 and I figured I’d met my last stranger of the year earlier in the afternoon while downtown. Wrong. On my way home, while doing a couple of final errands on the Danforth in Toronto’s east end, I saw her leaning against a restaurant window looking at her smart phone. Her beautiful face was hard to miss and I really liked the way her big fur hood framed it.

 

I introduced myself and explained my project request. I sensed that she was nervous about it (and I couldn’t blame her) but as I showed her my card with sample photos and emphasized the multicultural aspect of my project she warmed to the idea. When I explained I could do it in 2-3 minutes right there on the sidewalk, she agreed. Meet Amani.

 

I did my usual, which is to demonstrate where I wanted her to stand and then we switched places. I find this little “how to” demo really works well; otherwise my verbal explanation often leads to confusion. As we switched places I gave my standard final instructions which were “You don’t have to do anything special or any fancy poses – just make sure you look into the lens of my camera which always seems to give the best results.” To my surprise, Amani dropped her hood while I was doing a quick check of my camera settings. In the past I would have asked her to put it back up but I have learned to go with the way people choose to present themselves. I then make my request (sunglasses off, for example.) When I had photographed her sans hood, I told her I actually liked the way the hood framed her face which surprised her but she was happy to oblige.

 

We both liked the photos on my camera display and proceeded to chat. Amani is Eritrean but was born in Saudi Arabia. Eritrea is a country in the Horn of Africa (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eritrea) She is 27 and came to Canada with a brother and sister for a better life at the age of 17. When I asked if the “better life” had come true she was quick to say it had. She told me that in Saudi Arabia non-Saudis have trouble getting an education or work. On top of that, there are restrictions on what women can and can’t do.

 

Amani has just one semester to go at university and will have a qualification in Human Resources. We talked a bit about how happy my youngest son is as a Human Resources labor relations specialist and she was happy to hear that her career plan might be a good one. She works part-time as a server to help meet her student expenses.

 

What is the greatest challenge she has faced in life? “Actually, it was trying to decide on a career direction.” I got the impression that she had done general studies but did not have focus until she “accidentally” discovered human resources. Her message to the world? “Peace. Just world peace. We need that more than anything.”

 

Amani was a delightful person to meet and chat with and I felt honesty and warmth in our brief conversation. It turned out she had been waiting outside the nail salon next door for a chair to open up so she could get a manicure. Not wanting to keep her from her appointed task on the last day of the year, I thanked her and we exchanged contact information.

 

Thank you Amani for taking the time to meet and for taking part in The Human Family project on Flickr. I wish you luck in your final semester and may 2016 treat you well.

 

This is my 131st submission to The Human Family Group on Flickr.

 

You can view more street portraits and stories by visiting The Human Family.

 

Discover a really nice breakfast café and meet a friendly, interesting person. What better way to start a day?

 

My artist wife and I drove the 45 minutes to Whitby, a city east of Toronto, in order to retrieve her painting at the conclusion of an exhibit. A quick internet search of “breakfast” and “Whitby” revealed an intriguing find: The Food + Art Café. The owners combined the first letter of "Food" and the word "Art" to come up with the cheeky name The Fart Café. (thefartcafe.com)

 

The Fart Café is located on a main drag in Whitby, Dundas Street West and it is a colorful, cheerful place comprised of two rooms, both decorated with art. We were given a friendly, energetic greeting by Phoebe, the lovely young woman you see in this photo. The feeling was that of being welcomed into someone’s personal home. In some respects, that what this place is. It’s clearly the labor of love, created by a couple who are its owners and staffed by their family members.

 

The food is simple, yet exceptional. I chose the big breakfast, called amusingly enough, "The Big Fart." My scone was the best melt-in-the-mouth scone I have ever tasted. I chose peach jam and was told by our server it was his favorite. Eggs and bacon were accompanied by home fried potatoes and the most perfect pancake was served on a side dish with a sprinkle of powdered sugar.

 

Alison Galvan’s passion for creating art combined with her husband’s long-standing desire to open a restaurant and after years of planning and child-rearing, gave rise to the Fart Café. The artwork on the walls was created by Alison who was busily engaged in getting food out of the kitchen and onto the tables. The story of how this came about is summarized on the back of their menu but is also told on the website. In a nutshell:

“Over 20 years ago when we were first married in the Philippines, one of our many goals was to have our own restaurant. We make a great team. We were and are the yin to each other’s yang. But our first dream, and number one priority at that time was to have a family. So, Noel worked at multiple restaurants getting a hands-on education, paying bills and squirrelling away money while I stayed home really giving my all at being a mum, homeschooling the kids and at the same time exploring and developing my budding art career. We were both in preparation mode, laying the foundations for what we dreamed and envisioned for our family’s future. Today, that future is now. With lessons learned and our kids having grown into amazing creative adults the timing is perfect.”

 

Fart Café is all about good food, creativity, and family and you feel that combination from the moment you enter. We were greeted by Phoebe and from the moment we entered, I thought she would make a great portrait subject with her attractive features, blue jean overalls, and red shirt and kerchief. It was difficult to get an opportunity, however, because she, like the rest of the family, were on the go serving customers. I got my moment at the end of our meal and popped the portrait photo question as she paused behind the counter. Phoebe said she was quite flattered and I told her about my Human Family project.

 

I asked her to stand near the table we had been at because it was near the front of the café and natural light spilled in from the front windows, mixing with the artificial ceiling lights. The cash counter and kitchen were behind her. A quick handful of photos were all I could manage because customers were waiting. We exchanged contact details and it was back to work for friendly Phoebe whose parents created this great little spot. If Phoebe has time to share a few more details about herself by email, I will add them to this story.

 

Phoebe was truly delighted to hear how much we had enjoyed our visit and encouraged us to return which we most certainly will when we feel like a bit of an outing and a wonderful, homey breakfast experience.

 

I discovered a couple of online sites with more information on the multitalented Phoebe who appeared in a very spooky movie "Cabin in the Woods."

www.starnow.ca/phoebegalvan

www.niagarafallsreview.ca/news-story/8188170-local-teen-o...

 

This is my 862nd submission to The Human Family Group on Flickr.

 

You can view more street portraits and stories by visiting The Human Family.

 

AN UPDATE:

I heard from Phoebe! Here is what she shared with us all:

"Hi Jeff,

 

Thank you for the photo, and for stopping in for a bite!

 

It was so lovely having you and your photography is beautiful -thanks again for the shot, I love it.

Your project is very cool and I am honoured to be a part of it.

 

A little synopsis about me and my family:

 

We are originally from BC. I danced as a child and was lucky enough to be accepted to Canada's National Ballet School. So I moved away from home at 10 years old to pursue my dream in Toronto. By my third year my family moved cross country to St Catharines, and I had decided to move back to St Catharines to focus on acting and modeling. By 17, I found myself modeling and acting in India. When I returned my family and I set our sites on our life long dream of owning a restaurant/art gallery. My Dad is the most incredible chef and my Mum, the best artist.

So, less than 6 months later, we found ourselves again moving our life, this time to our humble abode in Whitby. We now own The Food + Art Café, or as the city fondly knows us as, The Fart Café. The name can be blamed on myself. When I was a wee thing my parents asked me what we should call our restaurant; featuring Daddy's cooking and Mummy's art. I responded with "Well duh, Food + Art... We'll call it the Fart!". And the rest is now history. To date we have lineups out the door, and have even had The Jerry Seinfeld in! I am once again concentrating on my own acting dreams, and am an avid rock climber/slackliner in my spare time. I've found the man of my dreams, am traveling around the world, and am just trying to find my place in it all; so life is pretty darn good.

 

Hope that's all right.

 

Thanks again, it was such a pleasure,

 

Phoebe "

 

Thanks Phoebe. What a fascinating life. Thanks for making time to tell us more about your interesting background and busy life!

_F2A7670

 

OUTRAGEOUS !

 

Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

Ep. 57: EMERGENCY PODCAST SYSTEM — Kill Bill www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8VQ5h1Z5eA

 

"The U.S. Senate is on the brink of passing a massive corporate giveaway that will be yet another transfer of wealth from the American people to the wealthy. It was described by HuffPost's Zach Carter like this: "It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation. It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy." We all must act now to STOP THIS! Light up the switchboards on Capitol Hill! Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

 

*

 

HUFFINGTON POST HEADLINES: “Democrats Are Handing Donald Trump The Keys To The Country, The Senate coronavirus bill is shocking.”

 

This is what Biden is all about. And make no mistake this aid money will find its way into Republican political campaigns at the Local, State, and Federal level making it extremely difficult for Democrats to “take back” the Congress, Senate, White House, and Judiciary. It is an unprecedented, shocking, and obscene transfer of wealth and power from Working Americans to the Super Wealthy Ruling Elite. Sadly, it was enacted by a group of politicians made up largely of an age group that won’t be in office while all the effects are felt.

Any talk of an exemption the prohibits Donald Trump or his family from benefiting from the hundreds of billions, which could easily turn into over trillions of dollars once leveraged through the federal reserve is nonsense.

It is not impossible that the recent Bailout will enrich Trump, his family, or his properties. Portions or all of it may turn out to appear like Trump’s “golden parachute”.

They will use the money to play the stock market.

A portion of the hundreds of billions passed out by Trump and Mnuchin will be kicked back to the Republican Party as campaign donations. There is speculation that It is entirely possible that Charles Koch may get the entire amount.

Bailout proceeds will find their way to Casino operators, Luxury Cruise Lines, as well as the Oil, Gas, Fracking, and Nuclear Energy industries.

It is hard to imagine A COVID Bailout that would raise less government revenue in the form of taxes than that approved by today’s Democrats and Republicans. Today’s COVID bailout performs abysmally when it comes to paying itself back.

 

Quote:

“The emergency coronavirus legislation that the Senate agreed to on Tuesday can only be described as an outrage. It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation.

 

It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy.

 

Final text of the bill has not been released, but according to a legislative draft, the new law would establish a $4.5 trillion corporate bailout fund overseen by Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, with few substantive constraints. Some outlets are reporting this as a $500 billion fund, but $425 billion of that can be leveraged 10 times over by the Federal Reserve, resulting in a multi-trillion-dollar program.

 

The bill permits bailed out companies to lay off up to 10% of their workforce over the next six months, with no restrictions thereafter. Mnuchin would have authority to waive any upside for the public in its new investments, and the bill’s restrictions on stock buybacks at bailed-out firms are too temporary to be significant. Bailed out companies could even pay dividends to their shareholders.

 

Bailout money will flow to the shareholders of large corporations, otherwise known as rich people. The oversight terms that Democrats secured are purely cosmetic, replicating the toothless provisions of the 2008 bank bailout that enabled watchdogs to report abuse but not actually prevent or rectify it.

 

“If you give vast amounts of public money to a single person with no real accountability, you won’t like what happens next,” Damon Silvers, the deputy chair of the oversight panel for the bank bailout, wrote on Tuesday.

 

In exchange for this takeover, Democrats got four months of more generous unemployment benefits for the millions who will be laid off and a one-time check of $1,200 per adult, eliminating a Republican restriction that would have limited poor people to just $600 and phasing out payments for six-figure incomes. These are not bad provisions, but they pale in comparison to the handout offered to the rich.

 

“$1,200 isn’t enough,” the Economic Security Project, a liberal think tank, tweeted on Wednesday. By agreeing to the deal, Senate Democrats in effect accept a horrendous future in exchange for a somewhat less burdensome present.

 

“It is a panicked and reckless legislative response,” Sarah Miller, executive director of the American Economic Liberties Project, an anti-monopoly advocacy group, said in a statement on Wednesday. It’s one that “will repeat most of the mistakes made in the 2008-2010 bailouts” and “fundamentally transform the American economy,” she added.”

 

www.huffpost.com/entry/senate-democrats-donald-trump-coro...

 

*

 

“Stimulus Bill Becomes GIANT Giveaway To Corps & Middle Finger To Americans”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3LByoNxpSQ&fbclid=IwAR3EQuTG...

 

*

 

“The Senate’s $2 Trillion Bailout Falls Flat on Worker Protections

The coronavirus financial relief package is packed full of corporate giveaways and lacks basic safeguards for workers and their families.”

inthesetimes.com/article/22409/coronavirus-aid-relief-eco...

 

*

 

Mel Whobrey:

“@ The proposal give Mnuchin (and Trump) complete discretion to choose which industries and companies will receive $200 billion to $500 billion, and then hide the identity of the bailout recipients for six months.

@ There’s no requirement that companies maintain payroll or benefits

@ No requirements to reduce executive pay

@ Very limited restrictions on stock buybacks (that Mnuchin can waive)

@ No safety provisions to protect frontline workers

@ No paid sick leave

And it provides nothing for the tens of millions of American workers who have or will soon lose their jobs –

-no expansion of unemployment insurance

-no health insurance

And nothing for hospitals and hospital staffs that are or will soon be, inundated.

They are pushing back against this bill because it doesn’t protect average workers and families. Now is the time for action that helps the many, not the privileged few. We can’t allow those with greedy fingers to continue to snatch away for themselves – especially not now.”

 

*

 

“House Democrats Urged to Remove 'Insidious Attack' on Social Security Hidden Within Senate Coronavirus Bill

"The only way to escape this trap is to avoid stepping into it in the first place. That's why the House must remove the cut to Social Security's dedicated funding before this bill passes."”

“Employers can stop paying into Social Security? Let's do something: Tell House Democrats to remove this provision and protect Social Security. Social Security Works and RootsAction urge you to Call your Rep. at 202-224-3121 TODAY. #HandsOffSocialSecurity

Tell them:

1. Remove the cut to Social Security’s funding.

2. Increase Social Security benefits by $200/month.

The Senate bill would let corporations stop paying into Social Security for the rest of the year. But the House can still fix it.”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/26/house-democrats-urge...

&

Ann Gertz:

“Entitlement my ass! I paid for my Social Security since I was 16 years old! Our benefits aren’t some kind of charity or handout! But take a look at the Congressional benefits – free health are, outrageous retirement packages, 67 paid holidays, three weeks paid vacation, unlimited paid sick days; now THAT’S welfare. And Congress has the nerve to call my retirement an Entitlement? Re-post if you are sick of their crap, and ashamed of our so-called “leaders”! Hopefully everyone on Facebook will post this”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214941247828028&set...

 

*

 

Peter Newberry:

 

“You want Ventilators & Masks from the Federal Government’s Reserves to treat your citizens? Well, Governors have to treat me well, it’s a two-way street.”

 

President Trump, March 24, 2020

And for THIS attitude Democrats reward him with a $100s of billion slush fund for him and his cronies

 

*

 

Believe or not, the actual cause for the push back by Democrats on the COVID-19 Bailout may be due to Democrats not wanting to be “out progressived” by none other than Trump! NOT because they wanted to secure additional benefit for Americans in the 99%:

Tim Duy:

“Suspect this sudden pressure to reopen the economy before we control the virus is a reaction to the realization that the economy as structured cannot survive a month and the necessary restructuring will be in the direction of everything the GOP has fought against for decades”

www.facebook.com/truthout/photos/a.324058561093/101572856...

 

Jimmy Dore:

“Pelosi is Blocking Direct Cash Payments to Citizens. WTF?”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKtB9f2ezzg&fbclid=IwAR2Pnqym...

&

“Corporate News Hides Ugly Truth Of Stimulus Bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXPjNLIJ3W4&feature=share&...

 

*

 

“Inverted totalitarianism on display: Servers of the oligarchy consolidating

assets and telling you it's for you. Clearly showing you they have zero

interest in the public. Time to wake up and recognise capitalism is a massive

failure and this is just one big party.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus

”Live: Senate to vote on $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus&feature=share&...

 

*

 

““My concern is that [Boeing] might be leveraging this crisis to shore up their own bottom line,” Dan Grazier—POGO's Jack Shanahan Military Fellow—told the Associated Press.

The Senate $2 trillion emergency spending bill provides airline companies with $25 billion in direct grants provided by taxpayers. Airlines would also be able to get $25 billion in loans from this legislation.

The White House and Senate leaders agreed early Wednesday on a $2 trillion economic rescue package, the largest in the country's history. The bill comes in response to the viral pandemic that has...”

“Airlines, others to benefit from $2 trillion rescue bill”

apnews.com/8b157dd42b2139b3e276b534847e80f6?fbclid=IwAR3Q...

 

*

 

Martha Stewart cartoon:

“I would really like to see the Trump Family’s recent stock trading history right about now,…”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=4117665818247233&set=...

 

*

 

“3.3 Million File For Unemployment Claims, Shattering Records”

www.npr.org/2020/03/26/821580191/unemployment-claims-expe...

 

*

 

“16 Wisconsin companies accused of price gouging”

Ace Hardware in Delavan, for Clorox bleach and toilet paper

Asian International Market in Milwaukee, for rice

C&S Supermarket in Milwaukee, for rice

Cermak in Milwaukee, for pinto beans

Dollar Tree in Marinette, for toilet paper

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for rice, bleach and water

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for limes

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for bleach

Grainger, online, for surgical masks

Marketplace Foods in St. Croix Falls, for toilet paper

Matrangas in Racine, for bottled water

Menards in Burlington, for Lysol wipes

Menards in West Milwaukee, for hand cleaner

N95Sales.com, online/Oshkosh, for N95 masks

Pacific Produce in Oak Creek, for rice

Point Market in Stevens Point, for rice

Restaurant Depot in Milwaukee, for toilet paper and cookies

Walgreens in Cudahy, for toilet paper

Walgreens in Waukesha, for Lysol spray

Walmart in Milwaukee, for toilet paper

Walmart in Rhinelander, for milk

 

www.nbc15.com/content/news/16-Wisconsin-companies-accused...

 

*

 

“CORONAVIRUS TREATMENT DEVELOPED BY GILEAD SCIENCES GRANTED “RARE DISEASE” STATUS, POTENTIALLY LIMITING AFFORDABILITY”

theintercept.com/2020/03/23/gilead-sciences-coronavirus-t...

 

*

 

'This Is a Massive Scandal': Trump FDA Grants Drug Company Exclusive Claim on Promising Coronavirus Drug

www.organicconsumers.org/news/massive-scandal-trump-fda-g...

 

*

 

“Joe Scarborough Wants Trump Bailed Out So He Won't Get Revenge On America”

crooksandliars.com/2020/03/joe-scarborough-wants-trump-ba...

 

*

 

“4 Senators: Graham (R-S.C.), Sasse (R-Neb.), Rick Scott (R-Fl.) and Tim Scott (R-S.C.) thought the coronavirus stimulus bill offered too much assistance for people who will end up unemployed due to Covid-19. They wanted to reduce unemployment benefits in the bill, citing concerns that it would create lazy people; However, working class hero, Bernie Sanders(I-Vt.), stood up to them and was willing to also hold the bill until stronger conditions were imposed on the $500 Billion corporate welfare fund. In the end the Republican group failed to get Trump to back their cause.”

“The Senate Passed A Massive Coronavirus Aid Package That Would Give Most Americans A $1,200 Check”

“The $2 trillion economic recovery bill still needs to pass the House. Americans making less than $99,000 per year will get some amount of payment under the legislation.”

www.buzzfeednews.com/article/paulmcleod/senate-coronaviru...

 

*

 

They took our tax money now they want to take our lives (in a new way) and Democrats won't fight for us. 99% of Americans can only die to make and even that as a political statement has very little next to no impact. COVID-19 is only a “problem” for the “little people.”

“Billionaires Want People Back to Work. Employees Aren’t So Sure”

www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-25/billionaires-w...

 

*

 

“Watch: Reporter spars with Senate GOP as they complain about unemployed people getting too much money”

www.alternet.org/2020/03/watch-reporter-spars-with-senate...

 

*

 

“Massive social distancing, with its accompanying job losses, stock dives and huge bailouts to corporations, raises the threat of a depression. But it doesn’t have to be this way. History offers us another alternative in such situations: a debt jubilee. This slate-cleaning, balance-restoring step recognizes the fundamental truth that when debts grow too large to be paid without reducing debtors to poverty, the way to hold society together and restore balance is simply to cancel the bad debts.”

“A Debt Jubilee is the Only Way to Avoid a Depression”

www.counterpunch.org/2020/03/23/a-debt-jubilee-is-the-onl...

 

*

 

“The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.

The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.”

“Social-Democratic Denmark Shows How to Respond to Coronavirus”

jacobinmag.com/2020/03/coronavirus-denmark-social-democra...

 

*

 

“Sen. Bernie Sanders is raising the alarm over the Senate economic stimulus bill being drawn up to combat the domestic effects of the global coronavirus pandemic, warning that the legislation is being unduly influenced by lobbyists and business interests—not the American people." #Leadership #BernieSanders

“Sanders Calls for 'Unprecedented Legislative Response' to Coronavirus Crisis—Not Corporate Bailouts

"Now is not the time to allow large corporations to take advantage of this horrific crisis by ripping off U.S. taxpayers and profiteering off of the pandemic."”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/22/sanders-calls-unprec...

 

*

 

Harley R. Pageot:

“Did I see you Americans are getting a one-time $1,200 check to cover COVID unemployment? Because Canada just announced $2,000/month for the next four months.”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10159445915121521&set...

 

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At its current rate, the United States will have over 6 million cases one month from today.

“To Confront Coronavirus, We Need an Emergency Wealth Tax”

truthout.org/articles/to-confront-coronavirus-we-need-an-...

 

*

 

Note the bruises on Biden’s face:

“Special thanks to Massachusetts Governor Charlie Parker? Are you kidding me?

"The former vice president...went on to praise a number of Republican governors, including 'Gov. Charlie Parker in Massachusetts.' He was presumably referring to Republican governor Charlie Baker, not to jazz legend Charlie Parker."”

“Biden Gaffes His Way Through Coronavirus Proof-of-Life Video

Praises journalists for 'putting it all on the line for all of us'”

freebeacon.com/satire/biden-proof-of-life/?fbclid=IwAR1Pc...

   

_F2A1805

 

OUTRAGEOUS !

 

Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

Ep. 57: EMERGENCY PODCAST SYSTEM — Kill Bill www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8VQ5h1Z5eA

 

"The U.S. Senate is on the brink of passing a massive corporate giveaway that will be yet another transfer of wealth from the American people to the wealthy. It was described by HuffPost's Zach Carter like this: "It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation. It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy." We all must act now to STOP THIS! Light up the switchboards on Capitol Hill! Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

 

*

 

HUFFINGTON POST HEADLINES: “Democrats Are Handing Donald Trump The Keys To The Country, The Senate coronavirus bill is shocking.”

 

This is what Biden is all about. And make no mistake this aid money will find its way into Republican political campaigns at the Local, State, and Federal level making it extremely difficult for Democrats to “take back” the Congress, Senate, White House, and Judiciary. It is an unprecedented, shocking, and obscene transfer of wealth and power from Working Americans to the Super Wealthy Ruling Elite. Sadly, it was enacted by a group of politicians made up largely of an age group that won’t be in office while all the effects are felt.

Any talk of an exemption the prohibits Donald Trump or his family from benefiting from the hundreds of billions, which could easily turn into over trillions of dollars once leveraged through the federal reserve is nonsense.

It is not impossible that the recent Bailout will enrich Trump, his family, or his properties. Portions or all of it may turn out to appear like Trump’s “golden parachute”.

They will use the money to play the stock market.

A portion of the hundreds of billions passed out by Trump and Mnuchin will be kicked back to the Republican Party as campaign donations. There is speculation that It is entirely possible that Charles Koch may get the entire amount.

Bailout proceeds will find their way to Casino operators, Luxury Cruise Lines, as well as the Oil, Gas, Fracking, and Nuclear Energy industries.

It is hard to imagine A COVID Bailout that would raise less government revenue in the form of taxes than that approved by today’s Democrats and Republicans. Today’s COVID bailout performs abysmally when it comes to paying itself back.

 

Quote:

“The emergency coronavirus legislation that the Senate agreed to on Tuesday can only be described as an outrage. It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation.

 

It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy.

 

Final text of the bill has not been released, but according to a legislative draft, the new law would establish a $4.5 trillion corporate bailout fund overseen by Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, with few substantive constraints. Some outlets are reporting this as a $500 billion fund, but $425 billion of that can be leveraged 10 times over by the Federal Reserve, resulting in a multi-trillion-dollar program.

 

The bill permits bailed out companies to lay off up to 10% of their workforce over the next six months, with no restrictions thereafter. Mnuchin would have authority to waive any upside for the public in its new investments, and the bill’s restrictions on stock buybacks at bailed-out firms are too temporary to be significant. Bailed out companies could even pay dividends to their shareholders.

 

Bailout money will flow to the shareholders of large corporations, otherwise known as rich people. The oversight terms that Democrats secured are purely cosmetic, replicating the toothless provisions of the 2008 bank bailout that enabled watchdogs to report abuse but not actually prevent or rectify it.

 

“If you give vast amounts of public money to a single person with no real accountability, you won’t like what happens next,” Damon Silvers, the deputy chair of the oversight panel for the bank bailout, wrote on Tuesday.

 

In exchange for this takeover, Democrats got four months of more generous unemployment benefits for the millions who will be laid off and a one-time check of $1,200 per adult, eliminating a Republican restriction that would have limited poor people to just $600 and phasing out payments for six-figure incomes. These are not bad provisions, but they pale in comparison to the handout offered to the rich.

 

“$1,200 isn’t enough,” the Economic Security Project, a liberal think tank, tweeted on Wednesday. By agreeing to the deal, Senate Democrats in effect accept a horrendous future in exchange for a somewhat less burdensome present.

 

“It is a panicked and reckless legislative response,” Sarah Miller, executive director of the American Economic Liberties Project, an anti-monopoly advocacy group, said in a statement on Wednesday. It’s one that “will repeat most of the mistakes made in the 2008-2010 bailouts” and “fundamentally transform the American economy,” she added.”

 

www.huffpost.com/entry/senate-democrats-donald-trump-coro...

 

*

 

“Stimulus Bill Becomes GIANT Giveaway To Corps & Middle Finger To Americans”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3LByoNxpSQ&fbclid=IwAR3EQuTG...

 

*

 

“The Senate’s $2 Trillion Bailout Falls Flat on Worker Protections

The coronavirus financial relief package is packed full of corporate giveaways and lacks basic safeguards for workers and their families.”

inthesetimes.com/article/22409/coronavirus-aid-relief-eco...

 

*

 

Mel Whobrey:

“@ The proposal give Mnuchin (and Trump) complete discretion to choose which industries and companies will receive $200 billion to $500 billion, and then hide the identity of the bailout recipients for six months.

@ There’s no requirement that companies maintain payroll or benefits

@ No requirements to reduce executive pay

@ Very limited restrictions on stock buybacks (that Mnuchin can waive)

@ No safety provisions to protect frontline workers

@ No paid sick leave

And it provides nothing for the tens of millions of American workers who have or will soon lose their jobs –

-no expansion of unemployment insurance

-no health insurance

And nothing for hospitals and hospital staffs that are or will soon be, inundated.

They are pushing back against this bill because it doesn’t protect average workers and families. Now is the time for action that helps the many, not the privileged few. We can’t allow those with greedy fingers to continue to snatch away for themselves – especially not now.”

 

*

 

“House Democrats Urged to Remove 'Insidious Attack' on Social Security Hidden Within Senate Coronavirus Bill

"The only way to escape this trap is to avoid stepping into it in the first place. That's why the House must remove the cut to Social Security's dedicated funding before this bill passes."”

“Employers can stop paying into Social Security? Let's do something: Tell House Democrats to remove this provision and protect Social Security. Social Security Works and RootsAction urge you to Call your Rep. at 202-224-3121 TODAY. #HandsOffSocialSecurity

Tell them:

1. Remove the cut to Social Security’s funding.

2. Increase Social Security benefits by $200/month.

The Senate bill would let corporations stop paying into Social Security for the rest of the year. But the House can still fix it.”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/26/house-democrats-urge...

&

Ann Gertz:

“Entitlement my ass! I paid for my Social Security since I was 16 years old! Our benefits aren’t some kind of charity or handout! But take a look at the Congressional benefits – free health are, outrageous retirement packages, 67 paid holidays, three weeks paid vacation, unlimited paid sick days; now THAT’S welfare. And Congress has the nerve to call my retirement an Entitlement? Re-post if you are sick of their crap, and ashamed of our so-called “leaders”! Hopefully everyone on Facebook will post this”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214941247828028&set...

 

*

 

Peter Newberry:

 

“You want Ventilators & Masks from the Federal Government’s Reserves to treat your citizens? Well, Governors have to treat me well, it’s a two-way street.”

 

President Trump, March 24, 2020

And for THIS attitude Democrats reward him with a $100s of billion slush fund for him and his cronies

 

*

 

Believe or not, the actual cause for the push back by Democrats on the COVID-19 Bailout may be due to Democrats not wanting to be “out progressived” by none other than Trump! NOT because they wanted to secure additional benefit for Americans in the 99%:

Tim Duy:

“Suspect this sudden pressure to reopen the economy before we control the virus is a reaction to the realization that the economy as structured cannot survive a month and the necessary restructuring will be in the direction of everything the GOP has fought against for decades”

www.facebook.com/truthout/photos/a.324058561093/101572856...

 

Jimmy Dore:

“Pelosi is Blocking Direct Cash Payments to Citizens. WTF?”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKtB9f2ezzg&fbclid=IwAR2Pnqym...

&

“Corporate News Hides Ugly Truth Of Stimulus Bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXPjNLIJ3W4&feature=share&...

 

*

 

“Inverted totalitarianism on display: Servers of the oligarchy consolidating

assets and telling you it's for you. Clearly showing you they have zero

interest in the public. Time to wake up and recognise capitalism is a massive

failure and this is just one big party.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus

”Live: Senate to vote on $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus&feature=share&...

 

*

 

““My concern is that [Boeing] might be leveraging this crisis to shore up their own bottom line,” Dan Grazier—POGO's Jack Shanahan Military Fellow—told the Associated Press.

The Senate $2 trillion emergency spending bill provides airline companies with $25 billion in direct grants provided by taxpayers. Airlines would also be able to get $25 billion in loans from this legislation.

The White House and Senate leaders agreed early Wednesday on a $2 trillion economic rescue package, the largest in the country's history. The bill comes in response to the viral pandemic that has...”

“Airlines, others to benefit from $2 trillion rescue bill”

apnews.com/8b157dd42b2139b3e276b534847e80f6?fbclid=IwAR3Q...

 

*

 

Martha Stewart cartoon:

“I would really like to see the Trump Family’s recent stock trading history right about now,…”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=4117665818247233&set=...

 

*

 

“3.3 Million File For Unemployment Claims, Shattering Records”

www.npr.org/2020/03/26/821580191/unemployment-claims-expe...

 

*

 

“16 Wisconsin companies accused of price gouging”

Ace Hardware in Delavan, for Clorox bleach and toilet paper

Asian International Market in Milwaukee, for rice

C&S Supermarket in Milwaukee, for rice

Cermak in Milwaukee, for pinto beans

Dollar Tree in Marinette, for toilet paper

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for rice, bleach and water

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for limes

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for bleach

Grainger, online, for surgical masks

Marketplace Foods in St. Croix Falls, for toilet paper

Matrangas in Racine, for bottled water

Menards in Burlington, for Lysol wipes

Menards in West Milwaukee, for hand cleaner

N95Sales.com, online/Oshkosh, for N95 masks

Pacific Produce in Oak Creek, for rice

Point Market in Stevens Point, for rice

Restaurant Depot in Milwaukee, for toilet paper and cookies

Walgreens in Cudahy, for toilet paper

Walgreens in Waukesha, for Lysol spray

Walmart in Milwaukee, for toilet paper

Walmart in Rhinelander, for milk

 

www.nbc15.com/content/news/16-Wisconsin-companies-accused...

 

*

 

“CORONAVIRUS TREATMENT DEVELOPED BY GILEAD SCIENCES GRANTED “RARE DISEASE” STATUS, POTENTIALLY LIMITING AFFORDABILITY”

theintercept.com/2020/03/23/gilead-sciences-coronavirus-t...

 

*

 

'This Is a Massive Scandal': Trump FDA Grants Drug Company Exclusive Claim on Promising Coronavirus Drug

www.organicconsumers.org/news/massive-scandal-trump-fda-g...

 

*

 

“Joe Scarborough Wants Trump Bailed Out So He Won't Get Revenge On America”

crooksandliars.com/2020/03/joe-scarborough-wants-trump-ba...

 

*

 

“4 Senators: Graham (R-S.C.), Sasse (R-Neb.), Rick Scott (R-Fl.) and Tim Scott (R-S.C.) thought the coronavirus stimulus bill offered too much assistance for people who will end up unemployed due to Covid-19. They wanted to reduce unemployment benefits in the bill, citing concerns that it would create lazy people; However, working class hero, Bernie Sanders(I-Vt.), stood up to them and was willing to also hold the bill until stronger conditions were imposed on the $500 Billion corporate welfare fund. In the end the Republican group failed to get Trump to back their cause.”

“The Senate Passed A Massive Coronavirus Aid Package That Would Give Most Americans A $1,200 Check”

“The $2 trillion economic recovery bill still needs to pass the House. Americans making less than $99,000 per year will get some amount of payment under the legislation.”

www.buzzfeednews.com/article/paulmcleod/senate-coronaviru...

 

*

 

They took our tax money now they want to take our lives (in a new way) and Democrats won't fight for us. 99% of Americans can only die to make and even that as a political statement has very little next to no impact. COVID-19 is only a “problem” for the “little people.”

“Billionaires Want People Back to Work. Employees Aren’t So Sure”

www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-25/billionaires-w...

 

*

 

“Watch: Reporter spars with Senate GOP as they complain about unemployed people getting too much money”

www.alternet.org/2020/03/watch-reporter-spars-with-senate...

 

*

 

“Massive social distancing, with its accompanying job losses, stock dives and huge bailouts to corporations, raises the threat of a depression. But it doesn’t have to be this way. History offers us another alternative in such situations: a debt jubilee. This slate-cleaning, balance-restoring step recognizes the fundamental truth that when debts grow too large to be paid without reducing debtors to poverty, the way to hold society together and restore balance is simply to cancel the bad debts.”

“A Debt Jubilee is the Only Way to Avoid a Depression”

www.counterpunch.org/2020/03/23/a-debt-jubilee-is-the-onl...

 

*

 

“The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.

The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.”

“Social-Democratic Denmark Shows How to Respond to Coronavirus”

jacobinmag.com/2020/03/coronavirus-denmark-social-democra...

 

*

 

“Sen. Bernie Sanders is raising the alarm over the Senate economic stimulus bill being drawn up to combat the domestic effects of the global coronavirus pandemic, warning that the legislation is being unduly influenced by lobbyists and business interests—not the American people." #Leadership #BernieSanders

“Sanders Calls for 'Unprecedented Legislative Response' to Coronavirus Crisis—Not Corporate Bailouts

"Now is not the time to allow large corporations to take advantage of this horrific crisis by ripping off U.S. taxpayers and profiteering off of the pandemic."”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/22/sanders-calls-unprec...

 

*

 

Harley R. Pageot:

“Did I see you Americans are getting a one-time $1,200 check to cover COVID unemployment? Because Canada just announced $2,000/month for the next four months.”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10159445915121521&set...

 

*

 

At its current rate, the United States will have over 6 million cases one month from today.

“To Confront Coronavirus, We Need an Emergency Wealth Tax”

truthout.org/articles/to-confront-coronavirus-we-need-an-...

 

*

 

Note the bruises on Biden’s face:

“Special thanks to Massachusetts Governor Charlie Parker? Are you kidding me?

"The former vice president...went on to praise a number of Republican governors, including 'Gov. Charlie Parker in Massachusetts.' He was presumably referring to Republican governor Charlie Baker, not to jazz legend Charlie Parker."”

“Biden Gaffes His Way Through Coronavirus Proof-of-Life Video

Praises journalists for 'putting it all on the line for all of us'”

freebeacon.com/satire/biden-proof-of-life/?fbclid=IwAR1Pc...

  

This Sunday afternoon I was at my usual watering hole (The Pfister Hotel in Milwaukee), when I encountered one of the servers (Shelby) who I hadn't seen in some time. After exchanging pleasantries, she says to me,

"BTW, Laurette, a few weeks ago a fellow asks me, 'Who is that lady in red who I see in here on occasion?' That's Laurette, I say. Well, he says 'She is so nice.""

 

That really made my day, as you can imagine. An unsolicited comment, from out of the blue, is so gratifying.

 

So, if I were offer advice to any of you girls on how to achieve success when out-and-about, the first thing I would say is "Be a nice person."

So, in a bid to build a community of writers, exchange ideas and such, Marley Mac has made a discord server. It's very small, only five members and a bot, but I feel it could really be something if we got more members. So, on to the sales bit.

 

Are you a writer?

Do you enjoy reading others work and giving feedback?

Are you in desperate need of any human interaction?

Then this could well be the place for you!

 

Here's a link: discord.gg/hs3snRQ

 

It'll never expire, so you can join when you like. Hope to see some of you there :D

VioletsCompo

 

OUTRAGEOUS !

 

Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

Ep. 57: EMERGENCY PODCAST SYSTEM — Kill Bill www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8VQ5h1Z5eA

 

"The U.S. Senate is on the brink of passing a massive corporate giveaway that will be yet another transfer of wealth from the American people to the wealthy. It was described by HuffPost's Zach Carter like this: "It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation. It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy." We all must act now to STOP THIS! Light up the switchboards on Capitol Hill! Call your U.S. Senators: 202-225-3121 Call your U.S. Rep: 202-224-3121

 

*

 

HUFFINGTON POST HEADLINES: “Democrats Are Handing Donald Trump The Keys To The Country, The Senate coronavirus bill is shocking.”

 

This is what Biden is all about. And make no mistake this aid money will find its way into Republican political campaigns at the Local, State, and Federal level making it extremely difficult for Democrats to “take back” the Congress, Senate, White House, and Judiciary. It is an unprecedented, shocking, and obscene transfer of wealth and power from Working Americans to the Super Wealthy Ruling Elite. Sadly, it was enacted by a group of politicians made up largely of an age group that won’t be in office while all the effects are felt.

Any talk of an exemption the prohibits Donald Trump or his family from benefiting from the hundreds of billions, which could easily turn into over trillions of dollars once leveraged through the federal reserve is nonsense.

It is not impossible that the recent Bailout will enrich Trump, his family, or his properties. Portions or all of it may turn out to appear like Trump’s “golden parachute”.

They will use the money to play the stock market.

A portion of the hundreds of billions passed out by Trump and Mnuchin will be kicked back to the Republican Party as campaign donations. There is speculation that It is entirely possible that Charles Koch may get the entire amount.

Bailout proceeds will find their way to Casino operators, Luxury Cruise Lines, as well as the Oil, Gas, Fracking, and Nuclear Energy industries.

It is hard to imagine A COVID Bailout that would raise less government revenue in the form of taxes than that approved by today’s Democrats and Republicans. Today’s COVID bailout performs abysmally when it comes to paying itself back.

 

Quote:

“The emergency coronavirus legislation that the Senate agreed to on Tuesday can only be described as an outrage. It is not an economic rescue package, but a sentence of unprecedented economic inequality and corporate control over our politics that will resonate for a generation.

 

It represents a transfer of wealth and power to the super rich from the rest of us, with the support of both political parties ― a damning statement about the condition of American democracy.

 

Final text of the bill has not been released, but according to a legislative draft, the new law would establish a $4.5 trillion corporate bailout fund overseen by Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, with few substantive constraints. Some outlets are reporting this as a $500 billion fund, but $425 billion of that can be leveraged 10 times over by the Federal Reserve, resulting in a multi-trillion-dollar program.

 

The bill permits bailed out companies to lay off up to 10% of their workforce over the next six months, with no restrictions thereafter. Mnuchin would have authority to waive any upside for the public in its new investments, and the bill’s restrictions on stock buybacks at bailed-out firms are too temporary to be significant. Bailed out companies could even pay dividends to their shareholders.

 

Bailout money will flow to the shareholders of large corporations, otherwise known as rich people. The oversight terms that Democrats secured are purely cosmetic, replicating the toothless provisions of the 2008 bank bailout that enabled watchdogs to report abuse but not actually prevent or rectify it.

 

“If you give vast amounts of public money to a single person with no real accountability, you won’t like what happens next,” Damon Silvers, the deputy chair of the oversight panel for the bank bailout, wrote on Tuesday.

 

In exchange for this takeover, Democrats got four months of more generous unemployment benefits for the millions who will be laid off and a one-time check of $1,200 per adult, eliminating a Republican restriction that would have limited poor people to just $600 and phasing out payments for six-figure incomes. These are not bad provisions, but they pale in comparison to the handout offered to the rich.

 

“$1,200 isn’t enough,” the Economic Security Project, a liberal think tank, tweeted on Wednesday. By agreeing to the deal, Senate Democrats in effect accept a horrendous future in exchange for a somewhat less burdensome present.

 

“It is a panicked and reckless legislative response,” Sarah Miller, executive director of the American Economic Liberties Project, an anti-monopoly advocacy group, said in a statement on Wednesday. It’s one that “will repeat most of the mistakes made in the 2008-2010 bailouts” and “fundamentally transform the American economy,” she added.”

 

www.huffpost.com/entry/senate-democrats-donald-trump-coro...

 

*

 

“Stimulus Bill Becomes GIANT Giveaway To Corps & Middle Finger To Americans”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3LByoNxpSQ&fbclid=IwAR3EQuTG...

 

*

 

“The Senate’s $2 Trillion Bailout Falls Flat on Worker Protections

The coronavirus financial relief package is packed full of corporate giveaways and lacks basic safeguards for workers and their families.”

inthesetimes.com/article/22409/coronavirus-aid-relief-eco...

 

*

 

Mel Whobrey:

“@ The proposal give Mnuchin (and Trump) complete discretion to choose which industries and companies will receive $200 billion to $500 billion, and then hide the identity of the bailout recipients for six months.

@ There’s no requirement that companies maintain payroll or benefits

@ No requirements to reduce executive pay

@ Very limited restrictions on stock buybacks (that Mnuchin can waive)

@ No safety provisions to protect frontline workers

@ No paid sick leave

And it provides nothing for the tens of millions of American workers who have or will soon lose their jobs –

-no expansion of unemployment insurance

-no health insurance

And nothing for hospitals and hospital staffs that are or will soon be, inundated.

They are pushing back against this bill because it doesn’t protect average workers and families. Now is the time for action that helps the many, not the privileged few. We can’t allow those with greedy fingers to continue to snatch away for themselves – especially not now.”

 

*

 

“House Democrats Urged to Remove 'Insidious Attack' on Social Security Hidden Within Senate Coronavirus Bill

"The only way to escape this trap is to avoid stepping into it in the first place. That's why the House must remove the cut to Social Security's dedicated funding before this bill passes."”

“Employers can stop paying into Social Security? Let's do something: Tell House Democrats to remove this provision and protect Social Security. Social Security Works and RootsAction urge you to Call your Rep. at 202-224-3121 TODAY. #HandsOffSocialSecurity

Tell them:

1. Remove the cut to Social Security’s funding.

2. Increase Social Security benefits by $200/month.

The Senate bill would let corporations stop paying into Social Security for the rest of the year. But the House can still fix it.”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/26/house-democrats-urge...

&

Ann Gertz:

“Entitlement my ass! I paid for my Social Security since I was 16 years old! Our benefits aren’t some kind of charity or handout! But take a look at the Congressional benefits – free health are, outrageous retirement packages, 67 paid holidays, three weeks paid vacation, unlimited paid sick days; now THAT’S welfare. And Congress has the nerve to call my retirement an Entitlement? Re-post if you are sick of their crap, and ashamed of our so-called “leaders”! Hopefully everyone on Facebook will post this”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214941247828028&set...

 

*

 

Peter Newberry:

 

“You want Ventilators & Masks from the Federal Government’s Reserves to treat your citizens? Well, Governors have to treat me well, it’s a two-way street.”

 

President Trump, March 24, 2020

And for THIS attitude Democrats reward him with a $100s of billion slush fund for him and his cronies

 

*

 

Believe or not, the actual cause for the push back by Democrats on the COVID-19 Bailout may be due to Democrats not wanting to be “out progressived” by none other than Trump! NOT because they wanted to secure additional benefit for Americans in the 99%:

Tim Duy:

“Suspect this sudden pressure to reopen the economy before we control the virus is a reaction to the realization that the economy as structured cannot survive a month and the necessary restructuring will be in the direction of everything the GOP has fought against for decades”

www.facebook.com/truthout/photos/a.324058561093/101572856...

 

Jimmy Dore:

“Pelosi is Blocking Direct Cash Payments to Citizens. WTF?”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKtB9f2ezzg&fbclid=IwAR2Pnqym...

&

“Corporate News Hides Ugly Truth Of Stimulus Bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXPjNLIJ3W4&feature=share&...

 

*

 

“Inverted totalitarianism on display: Servers of the oligarchy consolidating

assets and telling you it's for you. Clearly showing you they have zero

interest in the public. Time to wake up and recognise capitalism is a massive

failure and this is just one big party.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus

”Live: Senate to vote on $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill”

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgjFjcFSdus&feature=share&...

 

*

 

““My concern is that [Boeing] might be leveraging this crisis to shore up their own bottom line,” Dan Grazier—POGO's Jack Shanahan Military Fellow—told the Associated Press.

The Senate $2 trillion emergency spending bill provides airline companies with $25 billion in direct grants provided by taxpayers. Airlines would also be able to get $25 billion in loans from this legislation.

The White House and Senate leaders agreed early Wednesday on a $2 trillion economic rescue package, the largest in the country's history. The bill comes in response to the viral pandemic that has...”

“Airlines, others to benefit from $2 trillion rescue bill”

apnews.com/8b157dd42b2139b3e276b534847e80f6?fbclid=IwAR3Q...

 

*

 

Martha Stewart cartoon:

“I would really like to see the Trump Family’s recent stock trading history right about now,…”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=4117665818247233&set=...

 

*

 

“3.3 Million File For Unemployment Claims, Shattering Records”

www.npr.org/2020/03/26/821580191/unemployment-claims-expe...

 

*

 

“16 Wisconsin companies accused of price gouging”

Ace Hardware in Delavan, for Clorox bleach and toilet paper

Asian International Market in Milwaukee, for rice

C&S Supermarket in Milwaukee, for rice

Cermak in Milwaukee, for pinto beans

Dollar Tree in Marinette, for toilet paper

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for rice, bleach and water

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for limes

El Rey Foodmart in Milwaukee, for bleach

Grainger, online, for surgical masks

Marketplace Foods in St. Croix Falls, for toilet paper

Matrangas in Racine, for bottled water

Menards in Burlington, for Lysol wipes

Menards in West Milwaukee, for hand cleaner

N95Sales.com, online/Oshkosh, for N95 masks

Pacific Produce in Oak Creek, for rice

Point Market in Stevens Point, for rice

Restaurant Depot in Milwaukee, for toilet paper and cookies

Walgreens in Cudahy, for toilet paper

Walgreens in Waukesha, for Lysol spray

Walmart in Milwaukee, for toilet paper

Walmart in Rhinelander, for milk

 

www.nbc15.com/content/news/16-Wisconsin-companies-accused...

 

*

 

“CORONAVIRUS TREATMENT DEVELOPED BY GILEAD SCIENCES GRANTED “RARE DISEASE” STATUS, POTENTIALLY LIMITING AFFORDABILITY”

theintercept.com/2020/03/23/gilead-sciences-coronavirus-t...

 

*

 

'This Is a Massive Scandal': Trump FDA Grants Drug Company Exclusive Claim on Promising Coronavirus Drug

www.organicconsumers.org/news/massive-scandal-trump-fda-g...

 

*

 

“Joe Scarborough Wants Trump Bailed Out So He Won't Get Revenge On America”

crooksandliars.com/2020/03/joe-scarborough-wants-trump-ba...

 

*

 

“4 Senators: Graham (R-S.C.), Sasse (R-Neb.), Rick Scott (R-Fl.) and Tim Scott (R-S.C.) thought the coronavirus stimulus bill offered too much assistance for people who will end up unemployed due to Covid-19. They wanted to reduce unemployment benefits in the bill, citing concerns that it would create lazy people; However, working class hero, Bernie Sanders(I-Vt.), stood up to them and was willing to also hold the bill until stronger conditions were imposed on the $500 Billion corporate welfare fund. In the end the Republican group failed to get Trump to back their cause.”

“The Senate Passed A Massive Coronavirus Aid Package That Would Give Most Americans A $1,200 Check”

“The $2 trillion economic recovery bill still needs to pass the House. Americans making less than $99,000 per year will get some amount of payment under the legislation.”

www.buzzfeednews.com/article/paulmcleod/senate-coronaviru...

 

*

 

They took our tax money now they want to take our lives (in a new way) and Democrats won't fight for us. 99% of Americans can only die to make and even that as a political statement has very little next to no impact. COVID-19 is only a “problem” for the “little people.”

“Billionaires Want People Back to Work. Employees Aren’t So Sure”

www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-25/billionaires-w...

 

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“Watch: Reporter spars with Senate GOP as they complain about unemployed people getting too much money”

www.alternet.org/2020/03/watch-reporter-spars-with-senate...

 

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“Massive social distancing, with its accompanying job losses, stock dives and huge bailouts to corporations, raises the threat of a depression. But it doesn’t have to be this way. History offers us another alternative in such situations: a debt jubilee. This slate-cleaning, balance-restoring step recognizes the fundamental truth that when debts grow too large to be paid without reducing debtors to poverty, the way to hold society together and restore balance is simply to cancel the bad debts.”

“A Debt Jubilee is the Only Way to Avoid a Depression”

www.counterpunch.org/2020/03/23/a-debt-jubilee-is-the-onl...

 

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“The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.

The US and UK responses to coronavirus have failed miserably. But Denmark has moved swiftly to help workers by protecting wages and preventing layoffs — showing yet again, in the midst of a pandemic, that we’d all be better off living in a social democracy.”

“Social-Democratic Denmark Shows How to Respond to Coronavirus”

jacobinmag.com/2020/03/coronavirus-denmark-social-democra...

 

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“Sen. Bernie Sanders is raising the alarm over the Senate economic stimulus bill being drawn up to combat the domestic effects of the global coronavirus pandemic, warning that the legislation is being unduly influenced by lobbyists and business interests—not the American people." #Leadership #BernieSanders

“Sanders Calls for 'Unprecedented Legislative Response' to Coronavirus Crisis—Not Corporate Bailouts

"Now is not the time to allow large corporations to take advantage of this horrific crisis by ripping off U.S. taxpayers and profiteering off of the pandemic."”

www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/22/sanders-calls-unprec...

 

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Harley R. Pageot:

“Did I see you Americans are getting a one-time $1,200 check to cover COVID unemployment? Because Canada just announced $2,000/month for the next four months.”

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10159445915121521&set...

 

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At its current rate, the United States will have over 6 million cases one month from today.

“To Confront Coronavirus, We Need an Emergency Wealth Tax”

truthout.org/articles/to-confront-coronavirus-we-need-an-...

 

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Note the bruises on Biden’s face:

“Special thanks to Massachusetts Governor Charlie Parker? Are you kidding me?

"The former vice president...went on to praise a number of Republican governors, including 'Gov. Charlie Parker in Massachusetts.' He was presumably referring to Republican governor Charlie Baker, not to jazz legend Charlie Parker."”

“Biden Gaffes His Way Through Coronavirus Proof-of-Life Video

Praises journalists for 'putting it all on the line for all of us'”

freebeacon.com/satire/biden-proof-of-life/?fbclid=IwAR1Pc...

  

THE NEW GENERATION OF OPTIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES OF UNLIMITED RESOLVING POWER.

 

The World's First View of SAKURAI's Precise Subatomic Spectroscopy and The Comparisons of These Antimatter Elements Against Their Hydrogen/Helium Counterparts.

  

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its precise value is 299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 3.00×108 m/s), since the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time. According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all matter and hence information in the universe can travel. It is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as electrons, light, and gravitational waves, travel in a vacuum. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.

 

The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c; similarly, the speed of radio waves in wire cables is slower than c. To slow the speed of light even further, especially for image capture, shown, SAKURAI has redefined the way electrons and light may travel by the use of a medium called S1A3 (see also SAKURAI S1A3) and a process called Initial Boundary Reduction (reducing the electron orbital diameter). The ratio between c and the speed v at which light travels in a material is called the refractive index n of the material (n = c / v). For example, for visible light the refractive index of glass is typically around 1.5, meaning that light in glass travels at c / 1.5 ≈ 200000 km/s; the refractive index of air for visible light is about 1.0003, so the speed of light in air is about 299700 km/s (about 90 km/s slower than c). In a medium such as with S1A3, the velocity of an electron can now be reduced to c / 99.2 without having any boundary effects such as atomic instability or driving reactions such as nuclear fission and / or fusion. For this to happen, a containment field was provided using CERN Alpha facility and provided for an environment that may be described similar to that of the core of the Sun, but sustained for only short periods.

 

Further, cryogenics attachment and stochastic cooling provided for low temperatures and high performance / results.

 

For many practical purposes, electrons, light, and other electromagnetic waves will appear to propagate instantaneously, but for long distances and very sensitive measurements, their finite speed has noticeable effects. In communicating with distant space probes, it can take minutes to hours for a message to get from Earth to the spacecraft, or vice versa. The light seen from stars left them many years ago, allowing the study of the history of the universe by looking at distant objects. The finite speed of light also limits the theoretical maximum speed of computers, since information must be sent within the computer from chip to chip. The speed of light can be used with time of flight measurements to measure large distances to high precision. Likewise, and currently, short distances, such as with the the orbital of an electron, are also made with precision, With this technological breakthrough and method and with still further refinements using the Antiproton Decelerator and dense electron gas orbital vacuum, we at SAKURAI produced this image.

 

Ole Rømer first demonstrated in 1676 that light travels at a finite speed (as opposed to instantaneously) by studying the apparent motion of Jupiter's moon Io. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell proposed that light was an electromagnetic wave, and therefore traveled at the speed c appearing in his theory of electromagnetism. In 1905, Albert Einstein postulated that the speed of light c with respect to any inertial frame is a constant and is independent of the motion of the light source. He explored the consequences of that postulate by deriving the special theory of relativity and in doing so showed that the parameter c had relevance outside of the context of light and electromagnetism.

 

After centuries of increasingly precise measurements, in 1975 the speed of light was known to be 299792458 m/s with a measurement uncertainty of 4 parts per billion. In 1983, the metre was redefined in the International System of Units (SI) as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299792458 of a second. As a result, the numerical value of c in metres per second is now fixed exactly by the definition of the metre.

 

The next significant step forward

In 1931 the physicist Paul Dirac proposed that every particle of matter should have an antimatter counterpart. But shortly after the big bang, most of the antimatter disappeared, leaving behind the tiny portion of matter that constitutes the universe we live in today. What happened to swing the balance away from antimatter is one of the greatest puzzles in physics.

 

Astronomers search for antimatter in space, but was hard to come by on Earth. In order to study it, physicists had to make it themselves. And because antimatter annihilates in a flash of energy when it interacts with regular matter, storing it presented a challenge.

 

Creating Antihydrogen and Antihelium

 

The antimatter counterpart to the simplest atoms, hydrogen and helium, is a neutral antihydrogen and antihelium atom, which consists of a positively charged positron orbiting a negatively charged antiproton and double that for helium.

 

In 1995, physicists of the CERN and associate specialists at SAKURAI announced that they had successfully created the first atoms of antihydrogen and antihelium. The antiparticles were highly energetic; each one travelled at nearly the speed of light over a path of 10 metres and then annihilated with ordinary matter after about forty billionths of a second. While creating the antihydrogen / helium was a major achievement, the atoms were too energetic —too “hot”— and did not lend themselves to easy study.

 

In order to understand antimatter atoms, CERN / SAKURAI physicists needed more time to interact with them. So they developed techniques to capture and trap anti hydrogen / helium for longer periods. The Antiproton Decelerator established at CERN in the late 1990s began providing slower moving, lower-energy antiprotons for antimatter experiments such as ATHENA, ATRAP and ALPHA.

 

In these experiments, electric and magnetic fields hold the antiprotons separate from positrons in a near-perfect vacuum that keeps them away from regular matter. The antiprotons pass through a dense electron gas, which slows them down further.

 

When the energy is low enough, ALPHA physicists use the electric potential to nudge the antiprotons into a cloud of positrons suspended within the vacuum. The two types of charged antiparticles combine into low-energy antihydrogen atoms. Since antihydrogen atoms don’t have an electric charge, the electric field can no longer hold them in place. So instead, two superconducting magnets generate a strong magnetic field that takes advantage of the antihydrogen’s magnetic properties. If the antihydrogen atoms have a low enough energy, they can stay in this magnetic “bottle” for a long time.

 

Currently the only way to know whether antimatter was actually trapped is to let it annihilate with regular matter. When the magnets are switched off, the antihydrogen atoms escape their trap and quickly annihilate with the sides of the trap. Silicon detectors pick up the energetic flare to pinpoint the antiatom’s position. Only then can the physicists be sure that they had trapped antihydrogen / helium.

 

Trapping Antimatter at CERN / SAKURAI

 

In MAY 2007, ALPHA reported that it had succeeded in trapping antimatter atoms for over 16 minutes. On the scale of atomic lifetimes, this was a very long time — long enough to begin to study their properties in detail. By precise comparisons of hydrogen / helium and anti hydrogen / helium, several experimental groups hope to study the properties of anti hydrogen / helium and see if it has the same spectral lines as hydrogen / helium. One group, AEGIS, will even attempt to measure g, the gravitational acceleration constant, as experienced by anti hydrogen / helium atoms. Side-by-side SAKURAI imaging comparisons / results, once-and- for-all, have shown EXACT LIKENESS OF ANTIMATTER AND MATTER EVENTS. DISCREPANCIES WERE THAT THEY WOULD AND MUST HAVE BEEN TAKEN PLACE IN THE SAME LOCATION AT THE SAME TIME EXPERIENCE. QUANTUM FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF TIME AND SPACE PREDICATE THIS. HERE THE PREDECESSOR HAD A BIT MORE TIME IN COMPARISON.

  

The longer these experiments can trap antihydrogren, the more accurately they can measure it, and physicist will be closer to demystifying antimatter.

 

Accelerating Quantum Science for The World of Tomorrow - SAKURAI -

  

This content is archived on the CERN Document Server

Current updates related to engineering and repairs ongoing on electrical installations at CERN

 

2 May 2016 – The LHC went into standby on Friday last week following an electrical perturbation at point 8, caused by a small animal

Vibration tests for High-Luminosity LHC project begin

 

17 Dec 2015 – In preparation for civil engineering work for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, vibration measurements have been carried out near the LHC

Engineers refine protection system for LHC magnets

 

3 Sep 2015 – During this week's planned technical stop, engineers modify the electrical system that protects magnet components from high current

A superconducting shield for astronauts

 

5 Aug 2015 – Magnetic shielding technology developed at CERN could protect astronauts from cosmic radiation in space

First technical stop for the LHC

 

11 Jun 2015 – The first planned technical stop of the LHC started Monday, with five days of maintenance work scheduled for the accelerator and its experiments.

  

Engineering

Cryogenics: Low temperatures, high performance

Pulling together: Superconducting electromagnets

Powering CERN

A vacuum as empty as interstellar space

Radiofrequency cavities

Stochastic cooling

Superconductivity

Storing antimatter

Restarting the LHC: Why 13 Tev?

About CERN

How a detector works

Computing

Experiments

© Copyright CERN / SAKURAI 2016

  

INTRODUCTION and The Bohr Model

The most important properties of atomic and molecular structure may be exemplified using a simplified picture of an atom that is called the Bohr Model. This model was proposed by Niels Bohr in 1915; it is not completely correct, but it has many features that are approximately correct and it is sufficient for much of our discussion. The correct theory of the atom is called quantum mechanics; the Bohr Model is an approximation to quantum mechanics that has the virtue of being much simpler.

 

A Planetary Model of the Atom

The Bohr Model is probably familar as the "planetary model" of the atom illustrated in the adjacent figure that, for example, is used as a symbol for atomic energy (a bit of a misnomer, since the energy in "atomic energy" is actually the energy of the nucleus, rather than the entire atom). In the Bohr Model the neutrons and protons (symbolized by red and blue balls in the adjacent image) occupy a dense central region called the nucleus, and the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets orbiting the Sun (but the orbits are not confined to a plane as is approximately true in the Solar System). The adjacent image is not to scale since in the realistic case the radius of the nucleus is about 100,000 times smaller than the radius of the entire atom, and as far as we can tell electrons are point particles without a physical extent.

 

This similarity between a planetary model and the Bohr Model of the atom ultimately arises because the attractive gravitational force in a solar system and the attractive Coulomb (electrical) force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons in an atom are mathematically of the same form. (The form is the same, but the intrinsic strength of the Coulomb interaction is much larger than that of the gravitational interaction; in addition, there are positive and negative electrical charges so the Coulomb interaction can be either attractive or repulsive, but gravitation is always attractive in our present Universe.)

 

The Orbits Are Quantized

The basic feature of quantum mechanics that is incorporated in the Bohr Model and that is completely different from the analogous planetary model is that the energy of the particles in the Bohr atom is restricted to certain discrete values. One says that the energy is quantized. This means that only certain orbits with certain radii are allowed; orbits in between simply don't exist.

 

Take, for example such, quantized energy levels for the hydrogen atom; these levels are labeled by an integer n that is called a quantum number. The lowest energy state is generally termed the ground state. The states with successively more energy than the ground state are called the first excited state, the second excited state, and so on. Beyond an energy called the ionization potential the single electron of the hydrogen atom is no longer bound to the atom. Then the energy levels form a continuum. In the case of hydrogen, this continuum starts at 13.6 eV above the ground state ("eV" stands for "electron-Volt", a common unit of energy in atomic physics).

  

Although this behavior may seem strange to our minds that are trained from birth by watching phenomena in the macroscopic world, this is the way things behave in the strange world of the quantum that holds sway at the atomic level.

 

One of the implications of these quantized energy states is that only certain photon energies are allowed when electrons jump down from higher levels to lower levels, producing the hydrogen spectrum. The Bohr model successfully predicted the energies for the hydrogen atom, but had significant failures that were corrected by solving the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom

 

Atomic Excitation and De-excitation

Atoms can make transitions between the orbits allowed by quantum mechanics by absorbing or emitting exactly the energy difference between the orbits. SAKURAI captures for the first time the spectrum of an atomic excitation state caused by absorption of a photon and an atomic de-excitation caused by emission of a photon.

 

Excitation by absorption of light and de-excitation by emission of light

In each case the wavelength of the emitted or absorbed light is exactly such that the photon carries the energy difference between the two orbits. This energy may be calculated by dividing the product of the Planck constant and the speed of light hc by the wavelength of the light. Thus, an atom can absorb or emit only certain discrete wavelengths (or equivalently, frequencies or energies.

 

The speed of light electron orbital system disperse multiple weights of mass simultaneously including zero point, thus producing a full spectrum of colors at all points and levels and also emitting multiple point energies of mass ranges simultaneously in multiple boundary locations and multiple vectors....and the science is continuing.

 

-SAKURAI

  

Introduction Part 2 -The Basics of Quantum Mechanics/Waves and Modes

 

Many misconceptions about quantum mechanics may be avoided if some concepts of field theory and quantum field theory like "normal mode" and "occupation" are introduced right from the start. They are needed for understanding the deepest and most interesting ideas of quantum mechanics anyway. Questions about this approach are welcome on the talk page.

  

Waves and modes

A wave is a propagating disturbance in a continuous medium or a physical field. By adding waves or multiplying their amplitudes by a scale factor, superpositions of waves are formed. Waves must satisfy the superposition principle which states that they can go through each other without disturbing each other. It looks like there were two superimposed realities each carrying only one wave and not knowing of each other (that's what is assumed if one uses the superposition principle mathematically in the wave equations).

 

Examples are acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves (light), but also electronic orbitals, as explained below.

A standing wave is considered a one-dimensional concept by many students, because of the examples (waves on a spring or on a string) usually provided. In reality, a standing wave is a synchronous oscillation of all parts of an extended object at a definite frequency, in which the oscillation profile (in particular the nodes and the points of maximal oscillation amplitude) doesn't change. This is also called a normal mode of oscillation. The profile can be made visible in Chladni's figures and in vibrational holography. In unconfined systems, i.e. systems without reflecting walls or attractive potentials, traveling waves may also be chosen as normal modes of oscillation (see boundary conditions).

 

A phase shift of a normal mode of oscillation is a time shift scaled as an angle in terms of the oscillation period, e.g. phase shifts by 90° and 180° (or π / 2 {\displaystyle \pi /2} \pi /2 and π {\displaystyle \pi } \pi ) are time shifts by the fourth and half of the oscillation period, respectively. This operation is introduced as another operation allowed in forming superpositions of waves (mathematically, it is covered by the phase factors of complex numbers scaling the waves).

  

Helmholtz ran an experiment which clearly showed the physical reality of resonances in a box. (He predicted and detected the eigenfrequencies.

 

SAKURAI's experiments with standing and propagating waves. Electromagnetic and electronic modes

 

Planck was the first to suggest that the electromagnetic modes are not excited continuously but discretely by energy quanta h ν proportional to the frequency. By this assumption, he could explain why the high-frequency modes remain unexcited in a thermal light source: The thermal exchange energy k B T is just too small to provide an energy quantum h ν if ν is too large. Classical physics predicts that all modes of oscillation (2 degrees of freedom each) — regardless of their frequency — carry the average energy k B T, which amounts to an infinite total energy (called ultraviolet catastrophe). This idea of energy quanta was the historical basis for the concept of occupations of modes, designated as light quanta by Einstein, also denoted as photons since the introduction of this term in 1926 by Gilbert N. Lewis.

 

An electron beam (accelerated in a cathode ray tube similar to TV) is diffracted in a crystal and diffraction patterns analogous to the diffraction of monochromatic light by a diffraction grating or of X-rays on crystals are observed on the screen. This observation proved de Broglie's idea that not only light, but also electrons propagate and get diffracted like waves. In the attracting potential of the nucleus, this wave is confined like the acoustic wave in a guitar corpus. That's why in both cases a standing wave (= a normal mode of oscillation) forms. An electron is an occupation of such a mode.

 

An electronic orbital is a normal mode of oscillation of the electronic quantum field, very similar to a light mode in an optical cavity being a normal mode of oscillation of the electromagnetic field. The electron is said to be an occupation of an orbital. This is the main new idea in quantum mechanics, and it is forced upon us by observations of the states of electrons in multielectron atoms. Certain fields like the electronic quantum field are observed to allow its normal modes of oscillation to be excited only once at a given time, they are called fermionic. If you have more occupations to place in this quantum field, you must choose other modes (the spin degree of freedom is included in the modes), as is the case in a carbon atom, for example. Usually, the lower-energy (= lower-frequency) modes are favoured. If they are already occupied, higher-energy modes must be chosen. In the case of light, the idea that a photon is an occupation of an electromagnetic mode was found much earlier by Planck and Einstein, see below.

 

Processes and particles

All processes in nature can be reduced to the isolated time evolution of modes and to (superpositions of) reshufflings of occupations, as described in the Feynman diagrams (since the isolated time evolution of decoupled modes is trivial, it is sometimes eliminated by a mathematical redefinition which in turn creates a time dependence in the reshuffling operations; this is called Dirac's interaction picture, in which all processes are reduced to (redefined) reshufflings of occupations). For example in an emission of a photon by an electron changing its state, the occupation of one electronic mode is moved to another electronic mode of lower frequency and an occupation of an electromagnetic mode (whose frequency is the difference between the frequencies of the mentioned electronic modes) is created.

 

Electrons and photons become very similar in quantum theory, but one main difference remains: electronic modes cannot be excited/occupied more than once (= Pauli exclusion principle) while photonic/electromagnetic modes can and even prefer to do so (= stimulated emission).

 

This property of electronic modes and photonic modes is called fermionic and bosonic, respectively. Two photons are indistinguishable and two electrons are also indistinguishable, because in both cases, they are only occupations of modes: all that matters is which modes are occupied. The order of the occupations is irrelevant except for the fact that in odd permutations of fermionic occupations, a negative sign is introduced in the amplitude.

 

Of course, there are other differences between electrons and photons:

 

The electron carries an electric charge and a rest mass while the photon doesn't.

In physical processes (see the Feynman diagrams), a single photon may be created while an electron may not be created without at the same time removing some other fermionic particle or creating some fermionic antiparticle. This is due to the conservation of charge

  

Mode numbers, Observables and eigenmodes

 

The system of modes to describe the waves can be chosen at will. Any arbitrary wave can be decomposed into contributions from each mode in the chosen system. For the mathematically inclined: The situation is analogous to a vector being decomposed into components in a chosen coordinate system. Decoupled modes or, as an approximation, weakly coupled modes are particlularly convenient if you want to describe the evolution of the system in time, because each mode evolves independently of the others and you can just add up the time evolutions. In many situations, it is sufficient to consider less complicated weakly coupled modes and describe the weak coupling as a perturbation.

 

In every system of modes, you must choose some (continuous or discrete) numbering (called "quantum numbers") for the modes in the system. In Chladni's figures, you can just count the number of nodal lines of the standing waves in the different space directions in order to get a numbering, as long as it is unique. For decoupled modes, the energy or, equivalently, the frequency might be a good idea, but usually you need further numbers to distinguish different modes having the same energy/frequency (this is the situation referred to as degenerate energy levels). Usually these additional numbers refer to the symmetry of the modes. Plane waves, for example — they are decoupled in spatially homogeneous situations — can be characterized by the fact that the only result of shifting (translating) them spatially is a phase shift in their oscillation. Obviously, the phase shifts corresponding to unit translations in the three space directions provide a good numbering for these modes. They are called the wavevector or, equivalently, the momentum of the mode. Spherical waves with an angular dependence according to the spherical harmonics functions (see the pictures) — they are decoupled in spherically symmetric situations — are similarly characterized by the fact that the only result of rotating them around the z-axis is a phase shift in their oscillation. Obviously, the phase shift corresponding to a rotation by a unit angle is part of a good numbering for these modes; it is called the magnetic quantum number m (it must be an integer, because a rotation by 360° mustn't have any effect) or, equivalently, the z-component of the orbital angular momentum. If you consider sharp wavepackets as a system of modes, the position of the wavepacket is a good numbering for the system. In crystallography, the modes are usually numbered by their transformation behaviour (called group representation) in symmetry operations of the crystal, see also symmetry group, crystal system.

 

The mode numbers thus often refer to physical quantities, called observables characterizing the modes. For each mode number, you can introduce a mathematical operation, called operator, that just multiplies a given mode by the mode number value of this mode. This is possible as long as you have chosen a mode system that actually uses and is characterized by the mode number of the operator. Such a system is called a system of eigenmodes, or eigenstates: Sharp wavepackets are no eigenmodes of the momentum operator, they are eigenmodes of the position operator. Spherical harmonics are eigenmodes of the magnetic quantum number, decoupled modes are eigenvalues of the energy operator etc. If you have a superposition of several modes, you just operate the operator on each contribution and add up the results. If you chose a different modes system that doesn't use the mode number corresponding to the operator, you just decompose the given modes into eigenmodes and again add up the results of the operator operating on the contributions. So if you have a superposition of several eigenmodes, say, a superposition of modes with different frequencies, then you have contributions of different values of the observable, in this case the energy. The superposition is then said to have an indefinite value for the observable, for example in the tone of a piano note, there is a superposition of the fundamental frequency and the higher harmonics being multiples of the fundamental frequency. The contributions in the superposition are usually not equally large, e.g. in the piano note the very high harmonics don't contribute much. Quantitatively, this is characterized by the amplitudes of the individual contributions. If there are only contributions of a single mode number value, the superposition is said to have a definite or sharp value.

  

The Basics of Wave-Particle Duality.

If you do a position measurement, the result is the occupation of a very sharp wavepacket being an eigenmode of the position operator. These sharp wavepackets look like pointlike objects, they are strongly coupled to each other, which means that they spread soon.

 

Measurements

 

In measurements of such a mode number in a given situation, the result is an eigenmode of the mode number, the eigenmode being chosen at random from the contributions in the given superposition. All the other contributions are supposedly eradicated in the measurement — this is called the wave function collapse and some features of this process are questionable and disputed. The probability of a certain eigenmode to be chosen is equal to the absolute square of the amplitude, this is called Born's probability law. This is the reason why the amplitudes of modes in a superposition are called "probability amplitudes" in quantum mechanics. The mode number value of the resulting eigenmode is the result of the measurement of the observable. Of course, if you have a sharp value for the observable before the measurement, nothing is changed by the measurement and the result is certain. This picture is called the Copenhagen interpretation. A different explanation of the measurement process is given by Everett's many-worlds theory; it doesn't involve any wave function collapse. Instead, a superposition of combinations of a mode of the measured system and a mode of the measuring apparatus (an entangled state) is formed, and the further time evolutions of these superposition components are independent of each other (this is called "many worlds").

 

As an example: a sharp wavepacket is an eigenmode of the position observable. Thus the result of measurements of the position of such a wavepacket is certain. On the other hand, if you decompose such a wavepacket into contributions of plane waves, i.e. eigenmodes of the wavevector or momentum observable, you get all kinds of contributions of modes with many different momenta, and the result of momentum measurements will be accordingly. Intuitively, this can be understood by taking a closer look at a sharp or very narrow wavepacket: Since there are only a few spatial oscillations in the wavepacket, only a very imprecise value for the wavevector can be read off (for the mathematically inclined reader: this is a common behaviour of Fourier transforms, the amplitudes of the superposition in the momentum mode system being the Fourier transform of the amplitudes of the superposition in the position mode system). So in such a state of definite position, the momentum is very indefinite. The same is true the other way round: The more definite the momentum is in your chosen superposition, the less sharp the position will be, and it is called Heisenberg's uncertainty relation.

 

Two different mode numbers (and the corresponding operators and observables) that both occur as characteristic features in the same mode system, e.g. the number of nodal lines in one of Chladni's figures in x direction and the number of nodal lines in y-direction or the different position components in a position eigenmode system, are said to commute or be compatible with each other (mathematically, this means that the order of the product of the two corresponding operators doesn't matter, they may be commuted). The position and the momentum are non-commuting mode numbers, because you cannot attribute a definite momentum to a position eigenmode, as stated above. So there is no mode system where both the position and the momentum (referring to the same space direction) are used as mode numbers.

  

The Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation etc.

As in the case of acoustics, where the direction of vibration, called polarization, the speed of sound and the wave impedance of the media, in which the sound propagates, are important for calculating the frequency and appearance of modes as seen in Chladni's figures, the same is true for electronic or photonic/electromagnetic modes: In order to calculate the modes (and their frequencies or time evolution) exposed to potentials that attract or repulse the waves or, equivalently, exposed to a change in refractive index and wave impedance, or exposed to magnetic fields, there are several equations depending on the polarization features of the modes:

  

Electronic modes (their polarization features are described by Spin 1/2) are calculated by the Dirac equation, or, to a very good approximation in cases where the theory of relativity is irrelevant, by the Schrödinger equation]] and the Pauli equation.

Photonic/electromagnetic modes (polarization: Spin 1) are calculated by Maxwell's equations (You see, 19th century already found the first quantum-mechanical equation! That's why it's so much easier to step from electromagnetic theory to quantum mechanics than from point mechanics).

Modes of Spin 0 would be calculated by the Klein-Gordon equation.

  

Consequences

 

It is much easier and much more physical to imagine the electron in the atom to be not some tiny point jumping from place to place or orbiting around (there are no orbits, there are orbitals), but to imagine the electron being an occupation of an extended orbital and an orbital being a vibrating wave confined to the neighbourhood of the nucleus by its attracting force. That's why Chladni's figures of acoustics and the normal modes of electromagnetic waves in a resonator are such a good analogy for the orbital pictures in quantum physics. Quantum mechanics is a lot less weird if you see this analogy. The step from electromagnetic theory (or acoustics) to quantum theory is much easier than the step from point mechanics to quantum theory, because in electromagnetics you already deal with waves and modes of oscillation and solve eigenvalue equations in order to find the modes. You just have to treat a single electron like a wave, just in the same way as light is treated in classical electromagnetics.

 

In this picture, the only difference between classical physics and quantum physics is that in classical physics you can excite the modes of oscillation to a continuous degree, called the classical amplitude, while in quantum physics, the modes are "occupied" discretely. — Fermionic modes can be occupied only once at a given time, while Bosonic modes can be occupied several times at once. Particles are just occupations of modes, no more, no less. As there are superpositions of modes in classical physics, you get in quantum mechanics quantum superpositions of occupations of modes and the scaling and phase-shifting factors are called (quantum) amplitudes. In a Carbon atom, for example, you have a combination of occupations of 6 electronic modes of low energy (i.e. frequency). Entangled states are just superpositions of combinations of occupations of modes. Even the states of quantum fields can be completely described in this way (except for hypothetical topological defects).

 

As you can choose different kinds of modes in acoustics and electromagnetics, for example plane waves, spherical harmonics or small wave packets, you can do so in quantum mechanics. The modes chosen will not always be decoupled, for example if you choose plane waves as the system of acoustic modes in the resonance corpus of a guitar, you will get reflexions on the walls of modes into different modes, i.e. you have coupled oscillators and you have to solve a coupled system of linear equations in order to describe the system. The same is done in quantum mechanics: different systems of eigenfunctions are just a new name for the same concept. Energy eigenfunctions are decoupled modes, while eigenfunctions of the position operator (delta-like wavepackets) or eigenfunctions of the angular momentum operator in a non-spherically symmetric system are usually strongly coupled.

 

What happens in a measurement depends on the interpretation: In the Copenhagen interpretation you need to postulate a collapse of the wavefunction to some eigenmode of the measurement operator, while in Everett's Many-worlds theory an entangled state, i.e. a superposition of occupations of modes of the observed system and the observing measurement apparatus, is formed. - SAKURAI

 

My son has become fascinated with bitcoins, and so I had to get him a tangible one for Xmas. The public key is imprinted visibly on the tamper-evident holographic film, and the private key lies underneath. (Casascius)

 

I too was fascinated by digital cash back in college, and more specifically by the asymmetric mathematical transforms underlying public-key crypto and digital blind signatures.

 

I remembered a technical paper I wrote, but could not find it. A desktop search revealed an essay that I completely forgot, something that I had recovered from my archives of floppy discs (while I still could).

 

It is an article I wrote for the school newspaper in 1994. Ironically, Microsoft Word could not open this ancient Microsoft Word file format, but the free text editors could.

 

What a fun time capsule, below, with some choice naivetés…

 

I am trying to reconstruct what I was thinking, and wondering if it makes any sense. I think I was arguing that a bulletproof framework for digital cash (and what better testing ground) could be used to secure a digital container for executable code on a rental basis. So the expression of an idea — the specific code, or runtime service — is locked in a secure container. The idea would be to prevent copying instead of punishing after the fact. Micro-currency and micro-code seem like similar exercises in regulating the single use of an issued number.

 

Now that the Bitcoin experiment is underway, do you know of anyone writing about it as an alternative framework for intellectual property?

  

IP and Digital Cash

@NORMAL:

Digital Cash and the “Intellectual Property” Oxymoron

By Steve Jurvetson

 

Many of us will soon be working in the information services or technology industries which are currently tangled in a bramble patch of intellectual property law. As the law struggles to find coherency and an internally-consistent logic for intellectual property (IP) protection, digital encryption technologies may provide a better solution — from the perspective of reducing litigation, exploiting the inherent benefits of an information-based business model, and preserving a free economy of ideas.

Bullet-proof digital cash technology, which is now emerging, can provide a protected “cryptographic container” for intellectual expressions, thereby preserving traditional notions of intellectual property that protect specific instantiations of an idea rather than the idea itself. For example, it seems reasonable that Intuit should be able to protect against the widespread duplication of their Quicken software (the expression of an idea), but they should not be able to patent the underlying idea of single-entry bookkeeping. There are strong economic incentives for digital cash to develop and for those techniques to be adapted for IP protection — to create a protected container or expression of an idea. The rapid march of information technology has strained the evolution of IP law, but rather than patching the law, information technology itself may provide a more coherent solution.

 

Information Wants To Be Free

Currently, IP law is enigmatic because it is expanding to a domain for which it was not initially intended. In developing the U.S. Constitution, Thomas Jefferson argued that ideas should freely transverse the globe, and that ideas were fundamentally different from material goods. He concluded that “Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of property.” The issues surrounding IP come into sharp focus as we shift to being more of an information-based economy.

The use of e-mail and local TV footage helps disseminate information around the globe and can be a force for democracy — as seen in the TV footage from Chechen, the use of modems in Prague during the Velvet Revolution, and the e-mail and TV from Tianammen Square. Even Gorbachev used a video camera to show what was happening after he was kidnapped. What appears to be an inherent force for democracy runs into problems when it becomes the subject of property.

As higher-level programming languages become more like natural languages, it will become increasingly difficult to distinguish the idea from the code. Language precedes thought, as Jean-Louis Gassée is fond of saying, and our language is the framework for the formulation and expression of our ideas. Restricting software will increasingly be indistinguishable from restricting freedom of speech.

An economy of ideas and human attention depends on the continuous and free exchange of ideas. Because of the associative nature of memory processes, no idea is detached from others. This begs the question, is intellectual property an oxymoron?

 

Intellectual Property Law is a Patch

John Perry Barlow, former Grateful Dead lyricist and co-founder (with Mitch Kapor) of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, argues that “Intellectual property law cannot be patched, retrofitted or expanded to contain digitized expression... Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high-tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology. Technology advances in lunging jerks. Real-world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will lag further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch may prove impossible to overcome.”

From its origins in the Industrial Revolution where the invention of tools took on a new importance, patent and copyright law has protected the physical conveyance of an idea, and not the idea itself. The physical expression is like a container for an idea. But with the emerging information superhighway, the “container” is becoming more ethereal, and it is disappearing altogether. Whether it’s e-mail today, or the future goods of the Information Age, the “expressions” of ideas will be voltage conditions darting around the net, very much like thoughts. The fleeting copy of an image in RAM is not very different that the fleeting image on the retina.

The digitization of all forms of information — from books to songs to images to multimedia — detaches information from the physical plane where IP law has always found definition and precedent. Patents cannot be granted for abstract ideas or algorithms, yet courts have recently upheld the patentability of software as long as it is operating a physical machine or causing a physical result. Copyright law is even more of a patch. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 requires that works be fixed in a durable medium, and where an idea and its expression are inseparable, the merger doctrine dictates that the expression cannot be copyrighted. E-mail is not currently copyrightable because it is not a reduction to tangible form. So of course, there is a proposal to amend these copyright provisions. In recent rulings, Lotus won its case that Borland’s Quattro Pro spreadsheet copied elements of Lotus 123’s look and feel, yet Apple lost a similar case versus Microsoft and HP. As Professor Bagley points out in her new text, “It is difficult to reconcile under the total concept and feel test the results in the Apple and Lotus cases.” Given the inconsistencies and economic significance of these issues, it is no surprise that swarms of lawyers are studying to practice in the IP arena.

Back in the early days of Microsoft, Bill Gates wrote an inflammatory “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in which he alleged that “most of you steal your software ... and should be kicked out of any club meeting you show up at.” He presented the economic argument that piracy prevents proper profit streams and “prevents good software from being written.” Now we have Windows.

But seriously, if we continue to believe that the value of information is based on scarcity, as it is with physical objects, we will continue to patch laws that are contrary to the nature of information, which in many cases increases in value with distribution. Small, fast moving companies (like Netscape and Id) protect their ideas by getting to the marketplace quicker than their larger competitors who base their protection on fear and litigation.

The patent office is woefully understaffed and unable to judge the nuances of software. Comptons was initially granted a patent that covered virtually all multimedia technology. When they tried to collect royalties, Microsoft pushed the Patent Office to overturn the patent. In 1992, Software Advertising Corp received a patent for “displaying and integrating commercial advertisements with computer software.” That’s like patenting the concept of a radio commercial. In 1993, a DEC engineer received a patent on just two lines of machine code commonly used in object-oriented programming. CompuServe announced this month that they plan to collect royalties on the widely used GIF file format for images.

The Patent Office has issued well over 12,000 software patents, and a programmer can unknowingly be in violation of any them. Microsoft had to pay $120MM to STAC in February 1994 for violating their patent on data compression. The penalties can be costly, but so can a patent search. Many of the software patents don’t have the words “computer,” “software,” “program,” or “algorithm” in their abstracts. “Software patents turn every decision you make while writing a program into a legal risk,” says Richard Stallman, founder of the League for Programming Freedom. “They make writing a large program like crossing a minefield. Each step has a small chance of stepping on a patent and blowing you up.” The very notion of seventeen years of patent protection in the fast moving software industry seems absurd. MS-DOS did not exist seventeen years ago.

IP law faces the additional wrinkle of jurisdictional issues. Where has an Internet crime taken place? In the country or state in which the computer server resides? Many nations do not have the same intellectual property laws as the U.S. Even within the U.S., the law can be tough to enforce; for example, a group of music publishers sued CompuServe for the digital distribution of copyrighted music. A complication is that CompuServe has no knowledge of the activity since it occurs in the flood of bits transferring between its subscribers

The tension seen in making digital copies revolves around the issue of property. But unlike the theft of material goods, copying does not deprive the owner of their possessions. With digital piracy, it is less a clear ethical issue of theft, and more an abstract notion that you are undermining the business model of an artist or software developer. The distinction between ethics and laws often revolves around their enforceability. Before copy machines, it was hard to make a book, and so it was obvious and visible if someone was copying your work. In the digital age, copying is lightning fast and difficult to detect. Given ethical ambiguity, convenience, and anonymity, it is no wonder we see a cultural shift with regard to digital ethics.

 

Piracy, Plagiarism and Pilfering

We copy music. We are seldom diligent with our footnotes. We wonder where we’ve seen Strat-man’s PIE and the four slices before. We forward e-mail that may contain text from a copyrighted news publication. The SCBA estimates that 51% of satellite dishes have illegal descramblers. John Perry Barlow estimates that 90% of personal hard drives have some pirated software on them.

Or as last month’s Red Herring editorial points out, “this atmosphere of electronic piracy seems to have in turn spawned a freer attitude than ever toward good old-fashioned plagiarism.” Articles from major publications and WSJ columns appear and circulate widely on the Internet. Computer Pictures magazine replicated a complete article on multimedia databases from New Media magazine, and then publicly apologized.

Music and voice samples are an increasingly common art form, from 2 Live Crew to Negativland to local bands like Voice Farm and Consolidated. Peter Gabriel embraces the shift to repositioned content; “Traditionally, the artist has been the final arbiter of his work. He delivered it and it stood on its own. In the interactive world, artists will also be the suppliers of information and collage material, which people can either accept as is, or manipulate to create their own art. It’s part of the shift from skill-based work to decision-making and editing work.”

But many traditionalists resist the change. Museums are hesitant to embrace digital art because it is impossible to distinguish the original from a copy; according to a curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, “The art world is scared to death of this stuff.” The Digital Audio Tape debate also illustrated the paranoia; the music industry first insisted that these DAT recorders had to purposely introduce static into the digital copies they made, and then they settled for an embedded code that limited the number of successive copies that could be made from the a master source.

For a healthier reaction, look at the phenomenally successful business models of Mosaic/Netscape and Id Software, the twisted creator of Doom. Just as McAfee built a business on shareware, Netscape and Id encourage widespread free distribution of their product. But once you want support from Netscape, or the higher levels of the Doom game, then you have to pay. For industries with strong demand-side economies of scale, such as Netscape web browsers or Safe-TCL intelligent agents, the creators have exploited the economies of information distribution. Software products are especially susceptible to increasing returns with scale, as are networking products and most of the information technology industries.

Yet, the Software Publishers Association reports that 1993 worldwide losses to piracy of business application software totaled $7.45 billion. They also estimated that 89% of software units in Korea were counterfeit. And China has 29 factories, some state-owned, that press 75 million pirated CDs per year, largely for export. GATT will impose the U.S. notions of intellectual property on a world that sees the issue very differently.

Clearly there are strong economic incentives to protect intellectual property, and reasonable arguments can be made for software patents and digital copyright, but the complexities of legal enforcement will be outrun and potentially obviated by the relatively rapid developments of another technology, digital cash and cryptography.

 

Digital Cash and the IP Lock

Digital cash is in some ways an extreme example of digital “property” -- since it cannot be copied, it is possessed by one entity at a time, and it is static and non-perishable. If the techniques for protecting against pilferage and piracy work in the domain of cash, then they can be used to “protect” other properties by being embedded in them. If I wanted to copy-protect an “original” work of digital art, digital cash techniques be used as the “container” to protect intellectual property in the old style. A bullet-proof digital cash scheme would inevitably be adapted by those who stand to gain from the current system. Such as Bill Gates.

Several companies are developing technologies for electronic commerce. On January 12, several High-Tech Club members attended the Cybermania conference on electronic commerce with the CEOs of Intuit, CyberCash, Enter TV and The Lightspan Partnership. According to Scott Cook, CEO of Intuit, the motivations for digital cash are anonymity and efficient small-transaction Internet commerce. Anonymity preserves our privacy in the age of increasingly intrusive “database marketing” based on credit card purchase patterns and other personal information. Of course, it also has tax-evasion implications. For Internet commerce, cash is more efficient and easier to use than a credit card for small transactions.

“A lot of people will spend nickels on the Internet,” says Dan Lynch of CyberCash. Banks will soon exchange your current cash for cyber-tokens, or a “bag of bits” which you can spend freely on the Internet. A competitor based in the Netherlands called DigiCash has a Web page with numerous articles on electronic money and fully functional demo of their technology. You can get some free cash from them and spend it at some of their allied vendors.

Digital cash is a compelling technology. Wired magazine calls it the “killer application for electronic networks which will change the global economy.” Handling and fraud costs for the paper money system are growing as digital color copiers and ATMs proliferate. Donald Gleason, President of the Smart Card Enterprise unit of Electronic Payment Services argues that “Cash is a nightmare. It costs money handlers in the U.S. alone approximately $60 billion a year to move the stuff... Bills and coinage will increasingly be replaced by some sort of electronic equivalent.” Even a Citibank VP, Sholom Rosen, agrees that “There are going to be winners and losers, but everybody is going to play.”

The digital cash schemes use a blind digital signature and a central repository to protect against piracy and privacy violations. On the privacy issue, the techniques used have been mathematically proven to be protected against privacy violations. The bank cannot trace how the cash is being used or who is using it. Embedded in these schemes are powerful digital cryptography techniques which have recently been spread in the commercial domain (RSA Data Security is a leader in this field and will be speaking to the High Tech Club on January 19).

To protect against piracy requires some extra work. As soon as I have a digital $5 bill on my Mac hard drive, I will want to make a copy, and I can. (Many companies have busted their picks trying to copy protect files from hackers. It will never work.). The difference is that I can only spend the $5 bill once. The copy is worthless. This is possible because every bill has a unique encrypted identifier. In spending the bill, my computer checks with the centralized repository which verifies that my particular $5 bill is still unspent. Once I spend it, it cannot be spent again. As with many electronic transactions today, the safety of the system depends on the integrity of a centralized computer, or what Dan Lynch calls “the big database in the sky.”

One of the most important limitations of the digital cash techniques is that they are tethered to a transaction between at least three parties — a buyer, seller and central repository. So, to use such a scheme to protect intellectual property, would require networked computers and “live” files that have to dial up and check in with the repository to be operational. There are many compelling applications for this, including voter registration, voting tabulation, and the registration of digital artwork originals.

When I asked Dan Lynch about the use of his technology for intellectual property protection, he agreed that the bits that now represent a $5 bill could be used for any number of things, from medical records to photographs. A digital photograph could hide a digital signature in its low-order bits, and it would be imperceptible to the user. But those bits could be used with a registry of proper image owners, and could be used to prove misappropriation or sampling of the image by others.

Technology author Steven Levy has been researching cryptography for Wired magazine, and he responded to my e-mail questions with the reply “You are on the right track in thinking that crypto can preserve IP. I know of several attempts to forward plans to do so.” Digital cash may provide a “crypto-container” to preserve traditional notions of intellectual property.

The transaction tether limits the short-term applicability of these schemes for software copy protection. They won’t work on an isolated computer. This certainly would slow its adoption for mobile computers since the wireless networking infrastructure is so nascent. But with Windows ’95 bundling network connectivity, soon most computers will be network-ready — at least for the Microsoft network. And now that Bill Gates is acquiring Intuit, instead of dollar bills, we will have Bill dollars.

The transaction tether is also a logistical headache with current slow networks, which may hinder its adoption for mass-market applications. For example, if someone forwards a copyrighted e-mail, the recipient may have to have their computer do the repository check before they could see the text of the e-mail. E-mail is slow enough today, but in the near future, these techniques of verifying IP permissions and paying appropriate royalties in digital cash could be background processes on a preemptive multitasking computer (Windows ’95 or Mac OS System 8). The digital cash schemes are consistent with other trends in software distribution and development — specifically software rental and object-oriented “applets” with nested royalty payments. They are also consistent with the document-centric vision of Open Doc and OLE.

The user of the future would start working on their stationary. When it’s clear they are doing some text entry, the word processor would be downloaded and rented for its current usage. Digital pennies would trickle back to the people who wrote or inspired the various portions of the core program. As you use other software applets, such as a spell-checker, it would be downloaded as needed. By renting applets, or potentially finer-grained software objects, the licensing royalties would be automatically tabulated and exchanged, and software piracy would require heroic efforts. Intellectual property would become precisely that — property in a market economy, under lock by its “creator,” and Bill Gates’ 1975 lament over software piracy may now be addressed 20 years later.

 

--------end of paper-----------

 

On further reflection, I must have been thinking of executable code (where the runtime requires a cloud connect to authenticate) and not passive media. Verification has been a pain, but perhaps it's seamless in a web-services future. Cloud apps and digital cash depend on it, so why not the code itself.

 

I don't see it as particularly useful for still images (but it could verify the official owner of any unique bundle of pixels, in the sense that you can "own" a sufficiently large number, but not the essence of a work of art or derivative works). Frankly, I'm not sure about non-interactive content in general, like pure video playback. "Fixing" software IP alone would be a big enough accomplishment.

U.S. ATTACKED; Hijacked Jets Destroy Twin Towers and Hit Pentagon In Day of Terror

 

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President Vows to Exact Punishment for 'Evil'

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By SERGE SCHMEMANN

 

RELATED HEADLINES

A Creeping Horror: Buildings Burn and Fall as Onlookers Search for Elusive Safety

 

OTHER HEADLINES

Awaiting the Aftershocks:

Washington and Nation Plunge Into Fight With Enemy Hard to Identify and Punish

 

A Somber Bush Says Terrorism Cannot Prevail

 

Rescuers Become Victims

 

Search for Survivors

 

Officials Suspect Bin Laden

 

Terrorists Exploit Weakness

 

Casualties in Washington

 

Hijackers rammed jetliners into each of New York's World Trade Center towers yesterday, toppling both in a hellish storm of ash, glass, smoke and leaping victims, while a third jetliner crashed into the Pentagon in Virginia. There was no official count, but President Bush said thousands had perished, and in the immediate aftermath the calamity was already being ranked the worst and most audacious terror attack in American history.

 

The attacks seemed carefully coordinated. The hijacked planes were all en route to California, and therefore gorged with fuel, and their departures were spaced within an hour and 40 minutes. The first, American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 out of Boston for Los Angeles, crashed into the north tower at 8:48 a.m. Eighteen minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175, also headed from Boston to Los Angeles, plowed into the south tower. Then an American Airlines Boeing 757, Flight 77, left Washington's Dulles International Airport bound for Los Angeles, but instead hit the western part of the Pentagon, the military headquarters where 24,000 people work, at 9:40 a.m. Finally, United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 flying from Newark to San Francisco, crashed near Pittsburgh, raising the possibility that its hijackers had failed in whatever their mission was.

 

There were indications that the hijackers on at least two of the planes were armed with knives. Attorney General John Ashcroft told reporters in the evening that the suspects on Flight 11 were armed that way. And Barbara Olson, a television commentator who was traveling on American Flight 77, managed to reach her husband, Solicitor General Theodore Olson, by cell phone and to tell him that the hijackers were armed with knives and a box cutter.

 

In all, 266 people perished in the four planes and several score more were known dead elsewhere. Numerous firefighters, police officers and other rescue workers who responded to the initial disaster in Lower Manhattan were killed or injured when the buildings collapsed. Hundreds were treated for cuts, broken bones, burns and smoke inhalation.

 

But the real carnage was concealed for now by the twisted, smoking, ash-choked carcasses of the twin towers, in which thousands of people used to work on a weekday. The collapse of the towers caused another World Trade Center building to fall 10 hours later, and several other buildings in the area were damaged or aflame.

 

"I have a sense it's a horrendous number of lives lost," said Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. "Right now we have to focus on saving as many lives as possible."

 

The mayor warned that "the numbers are going to be very, very high."

 

He added that the medical examiner's office will be ready "to deal with thousands and thousands of bodies if they have to."

 

For hours after the attacks, rescuers were stymied by other buildings that threatened to topple. But by 11 p.m., rescuers had been able to begin serious efforts to locate and remove survivors. Mr. Giuliani said two Port Authority police officers had been pulled from the ruins, and he said hope existed that more people could be saved.

 

Earlier, police officer volunteers using dogs had found four bodies in the smoldering, stories-high pile of rubble where the towers had once stood and had taken them to a makeshift morgue in the lobby of an office building at Vesey and West Streets.

 

Within an hour of the attacks, the United States was on a war footing. The military was put on the highest state of alert, National Guard units were called out in Washington and New York and two aircraft carriers were dispatched to New York harbor. President Bush remained aloft in Air Force One, following a secretive route and making only brief stopovers at Air Force bases in Louisiana and Nebraska before finally setting down in Washington at 7 p.m. His wife and daughters were evacuated to a secure, unidentified location.

 

The White House, the Pentagon and the Capitol were evacuated, except for the Situation Room in the White House where Vice President Cheney remained in charge, giving the eerie impression of a national capital virtually stripped of its key institutions.

 

Nobody immediately claimed responsibility for the attacks. But the scale and sophistication of the operation, the extraordinary planning required for concerted hijackings by terrorists who had to be familiar with modern jetliners, and the history of major attacks on American targets in recent years led many officials and experts to point to Osama bin Laden, the Islamic militant believed to operate out of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's hard-line Taliban rulers rejected such suggestions, but officials took that as a defensive measure.

 

Senator Orrin Hatch, Republican of Utah, told reporters that the United States had some evidence that people associated with Mr. bin Laden had sent out messages "actually saying over the airwaves, private airwaves at that, that they had hit two targets."

 

In the evening, explosions were reported in Kabul, the Afghan capital. But officials at the Pentagon denied that the United States had attacked that city.

 

President Bush, facing his first major crisis in office, vowed that the United States would hunt down and punish those responsible for the "evil, despicable acts of terror" which, he said, took thousands of American lives. He said the United States would make no distinction between those who carried out the hijackings and those who harbored and supported them

 

"These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat, but they have failed," a somber president told the nation in an address from the Oval Office shortly after 8:30 p.m.

 

"The search is under way for those who are behind these evil acts," Mr. Bush said. "We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them."

 

The repercussions of the attack swiftly spread across the nation. Air traffic across the United States was halted at least until today and international flights were diverted to Canada. Borders with Canada and Mexico were closed. Most federal buildings across the country were shut down. Major skyscrapers and a variety of other sites, ranging from Disney theme parks to the Golden Gate Bridge and United Nations headquarters in New York, were evacuated.

 

But it was in New York that the calamity achieved levels of horror and destruction known only in war.

 

The largest city in the United States, the financial capital of the world, was virtually closed down. Transportation into Manhattan was halted, as was much of public transport within the city. Parts of Lower Manhattan were left without power, compelling Mayor Giuliani to order Battery Park City to be evacuated. Major stock exchanges closed. Primary elections for mayor and other city offices were cancelled. Thousands of workers, released from their offices in Lower Manhattan but with no way to get home except by foot, set off in vast streams, down the avenues and across the bridges under a beautiful, clear sky, accompanied by the unceasing serenade of sirens.

 

While doctors and nurses at hospitals across the city tended to hundreds of damaged people, a disquieting sense grew throughout the day at other triage centers and emergency rooms that there would, actually, be less work: the morgues were going to be busiest.

 

A sense of shock, grief and solidarity spread rapidly through the city. There was the expectation that friends and relatives would be revealed among the victims. Schools prepared to let students stay overnight if they could not get home, or if it emerged that there was no one to go home to.

 

There was also the fear that it was not over: stores reported a run on basic goods. And there was the urge to help. Thousands of New Yorkers lined up outside hospitals to donate blood.

 

As in great crises past, people exchanged stories of where they were when they heard the news.

 

"There is a controlled professionalism, but also a sense of shock," said Mark G. Ackerman, an official at the St. Vincent Medical Center. "Obviously New York and all of us have experienced a trauma that is unparalleled."

 

"I invite New Yorkers to join in prayer," said Cardinal Edward M. Egan as he emerged from the emergency room of St. Vincent's in blue hospital garb. "This is a tragedy that this great city can handle. I am amazed at the goodness of our police and our firefighters and our hospital people."

 

All communications creaked under the load of the sudden emergency. Mobile phones became all but useless, intercity lines were clogged and major Internet servers reported overloads.

 

The area around the World Trade Center resembled a desert after a terrible sandstorm. Parts of buildings, crushed vehicles and the shoes, purses, umbrellas and baby carriages of those who fled lay covered with thick, gray ash, through which weeping people wandered in search of safety, each with a story of pure horror.

 

Imez Graham, 40, and Dee Howard, 37, both of whom worked on the 61st floor of the north tower, were walking up Chambers Street, covered in soot to their gracefully woven dreadlocks caked in soot, barefoot. They had spent an hour walking down the stairs after the first explosion. They were taken to an ambulance, when the building collapsed. They jumped out and began to walk home. "They need me; I've got to get home," Ms. Howard said. Where was that? "As far away from here as possible."

 

In Chinatown, a woman offered them a pair of dainty Chinese sandals. Nearby, construction workers offered to hose the soot off passing people.

 

The twin pillars of the World Trade Center were among the best known landmarks in New York, 110-floor unadorned blocks that dominated any approach to Manhattan. It is probable that renown, and the thousands of people who normally work there each weekday, that led Islamic militants to target the towers for destruction already in 1993, then by parking vans loaded with explosives in the basement.

 

There is no way to know how many people were at work shortly before 9 a.m. when the first jetliners sliced into the north tower, also known as 1 World Trade Center. CNN and other television networks were quick to focus their cameras on the disaster, enabling untold numbers of viewers to witness the second jetliner as it banked into the south tower 18 minutes later, blowing a cloud of flame and debris out the other side.

 

Even more viewers were tuned in by 9:50 a.m. when the south tower suddenly vanished in swirling billows of ash, collapsing in on itself. Then at 10:29 a.m. the north tower followed. A choking grey cloud billowed out, blocking out the bright sunshine and chasing thousands of panicked workers through the canyons of Lower Manhattan. Plumes continued to rise high over the city late into the night.

 

"The screaming was just horrendous," recalled Carol Webster, an official of the Nyack College Alliance Seminary who had just emerged from the PATH trains when the carnage began. "Every time there would be another explosion, people would start screaming and thronging again."

 

The scenes of horror were indelible; people who left from the broken towers, people who fought for pay phones, people white with soot and red with blood. "We saw people jumping from the tower as the fire was going on," said Steve Baker, 27. "The sky went black, all this stuff came onto us, we ran."

 

The timing was murderous for the armada of rescue vehicles that gathered after the planes crashed, and were caught under the collapsing buildings. Many rescue workers were reported killed or injured, and the anticipation that Building 7 would soon follow led to a suspension of operatios. The firefighters union said that at least 200 of its members had died.

 

Mayor Giuliani, along with the police and fire commissioners and the director of emergency management, was forced to abandon a temporary command center at 75 Barclay Street, a block from the World Trade Center, and the mayor emerged with his gray suit covered with ash.

 

In the evening, officials reported that buildings 5 and 7 of the World Trade Center had also collapsed, and buildings all around the complex had their windows blown out. The Rector Street subway station collapsed, and the walkway at West Street was gone. World leaders hastened to condemn the attacks, including Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and Libya's Muammar el-Qaddafi.

 

European leaders began quiet discussions last night about how they might assist the United States in striking back, and Russia's president, Vladimir Putin, joined in expressing support for a retaliatory strike.

 

But in the West Bank city of Nablus, rejoicing Palestinians, who have been locked in a bitter struggle with Israel for almost a year, went into the streets to chant, "God is great!" and to distribute candies to celebrate the attacks.

 

Many governments took their own precautions against attack. Israel evacuated many of its embassies abroad, and non-essential staffers at NATO headquarters in Brussels were ordered home.

 

In Afghanistan, the ruling Taliban argued that Mr. bin Laden could not have been responsible for the attacks. "What happened in the United States was not a job of ordinary people," an official, Abdul Hai Mutmaen, told Reuters. "It could have been the work of governments. Osama bin Laden cannot do this work."

 

Apart from the major question of who was responsible, a host of other questions were certain to be at the forefront in coming days and weeks. One was the timing -- why Sept. 11?

 

The date seemed to have no obvious meaning. One of the men convicted in the bombing of the United States Embassy in Nairobi in 1998, in which 213 were killed, was originally scheduled for sentencing on Sept. 12. But the sentencing of the man, Mohamed Rasheed Daoud al-'Owhali, had been put off to mid-October.

 

It was possible that Mr. Al-'Owhali and the others convicted with him were close witnesses to the bombings, since terror suspects typically await sentencing at the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Lower Manhattan. Officials have not confirmed that the convicted Nairobi bombers are there.

 

Many questions would also be raised about how hijackers managed to seize four jets with all the modern safeguards in place. Initial information was sketchy, although a passenger on the United Airlines jetliner that crashed in Pennsylvania managed to make a cellular phone call from the toilet. "We are being hijacked, we are being hijacked," the man shouted at 9:58 a.m. As he was speaking, the plane crashed about eight miles east of Jennerstown, killing all 45 aboard.

 

For all the questions, what was clear was that the World Trade Center would take its place among the great calamities of American history, a day of infamy like Pearl Harbor, Oklahoma City, Lockerbie.

 

The very absence of the towers would become a symbol after their domination of the New York skyline for 25 years. Though initial reviews were mixed when the towers were dedicated in 1976, they came into their own as landmarks with passing years. King Kong climbed one tower in a remake of the movie classic.

 

In April, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which ran the World Trade Center through its first 30 years, leased the complex for $3.2 billion to a group led by Larry A. Silverstein, a developer, and Westfield America Inc.

 

In recent years, the complex has filled up with tenants and revenues have increased. In addition to the towers -- designed by the architect Minoru Yamasaki, each 1,350 feet tall -- the complex included four other buildings, two of which were also gone, for a total of 12 million square feet of rentable office space.

    

(Black&white copy of color image that was done with with color pencils on paper)

 

(color version here: www.flickr.com/photos/jdyf333/1183086277/in/set-721576017... )

 

Please click on the link below to see some photos of LSD doses and to read some *IMPORTANT* information about LSD:

www.flickr.com/photos/jdyf333/2075297284/

 

Please note: DEPICTION IS NOT ADVOCACY!!!

 

San Francisco Bay Area LSD lab used by William Leonard Pickard, 1988. The narc in the protective bodysuit (upper central part of image) was not careful enough and got so intoxicated on LSD dust that he had to be rushed to a hospital, saying that everything had turned into a "cartoon".

  

("Pickard faced 20 years in prison if convicted in 1988, but according to a court affidavit, charges were dropped because he was an informant."

 

---quote from an article about William Leonard Pickard, "Past director of UCLA drug policy program convicted of running LSD lab" by Brad Greenberg. The article was published in the Daily Bruin, University of California, Los Angeles, on 4.3. 2003, and was about Pickard's later arrest and conviction on LSD charges including those related to another LSD lab that was allegedly being assembled in a converted missile silo in Kansas. In the trial that occurred after Pickard's final arrest in October 2000, the authorities alleged that at one point he had been producing approximately 2.2 pounds of pure LSD [enough to make between 10 to 20 million doses] every 5 weeks.)

 

("Pickard himself told the Kansas court he had been a DEA informant since 1973 and had periodic contact with senior DEA officials on 'international cases' since 1992. If released on bail, Pickard promised, 'I would immediately proceed to report to the federal building [and] cooperate even aggressively with the DEA in any matters that they wish.'"

 

---Seth Rosenfeld, the San Francisco Chronicle, 12.19. 2000. On SFgate.com.)

  

(Waldron Voorhees, also known as "Captain Clearlight", bragged that he was the "LSD King" because he "made 250 million" doses of LSD. After his 1992 LSD arrest, Voorhees betrayed his co-defendants by officially admitting he was guilty and agreed to help the DEA. "Voorhees and his attorney agreed for Voorhees to be wired for sound and walk through the Upper Haight to attract street dealers."

 

---quotes from an article by Jack Boulware, San Francisco Weekly, 8.21. 1996.)

  

("...intelligence is more important than elimination."

 

---Nazi counterespionage officer H. J. Giskes, in his 1949 book LONDON CALLING NORTH POLE, explaining why the Nazis sometimes secretly helped British flyers escape from Nazi-occupied countries. These British flyers were completely unaware that that their journeys to freedom were orchestrated by the Nazis. Giskes was quoted by former U.S. Director of Central Intelligence [de facto head of the CIA] Allen Dulles in a book Dulles edited, GREAT TRUE SPY STORIES, 1968.)

  

A randomly-edited selection of approximately 700 of my pictures

may be viewed by clicking on the link below:

www.flickr.com/groups/psychedelicart/pool/43237970@N00/

 

Please click here to read my "autobiography":

thewordsofjdyf333.blogspot.com/

 

And my Flicker "profile" page may be viewed by clicking on this link:

www.flickr.com/people/jdyf333/

 

My telephone number is: 510-260-9695

  

A very, very few of the MANY authorities who have been unmasked:

  

Norman Wielsch, the head of the Central Contra Costa Narcotics Enforcement Team (in Contra Costa County in the San Francisco Bay Area) and a 12-year veteran of the state Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement, was arrested in February 2011 and charged with selling methamphetamine and marijuana.

  

Richard Wayne Parker, BNE, 649 lb. cocaine theft, Riverside, CA., (assisted by 2 CHP officers). 1997

  

Joshua Wendell Blackburn, CHP, 140 lb. cocaine theft, Santa Ana, CA. 2007

  

Cary Kent, BPD, evidence theft (286 envelopes opened) and possession of heroin and methamphetamine, Berkeley. 2006

  

Deborah Madden, San Francisco Police Department crime lab technician, convicted of stealing cocaine. Hundreds of cases were dismissed because of Madden's actions. She told police investigators she used the cocaine to try to control an alcoholism problem. 2013

  

("...chemist Annie Dookhan pleaded guilty in 2013 to tampering with evidence during her nine years working at a state crime lab." [in Massachusetts]

 

---Scott Malone, Reuters, 4.18. 2017

 

"Investigators said she admitted to intentionally contaminating some samples to turn them from negative samples into positive samples."

 

---Eric Levenson, CNN, "Nearly 20,000 drug convictions dismissed over chemist's misconduct", 4.18. 2017

 

Sonja Farak, another chemist at a Massachusetts crime lab, was arrested for tampering with evidence and stealing cocaine.)

  

(FBI agent Matthew Lowry became addicted to heroin. He was arrested on the street in Washington, D.C.

 

"The counternarcotics agent, according to court documents, was found to be 'incoherent'."

 

"His car, which had run out of gas, had traces of heroin seized in the drug arrests in which he had participated--along with some emptied evidence bags."

 

"His theft of drug evidence...forced authorities to free about 30 drug dealers because the evidence used in their arrests had been tampered with."

 

"Lowry pleaded guilty in late March to 64 counts, including obstruction of justice, falsification of records and possession of heroin."

 

---Chantal Valery, Yahoo News, 7.9. 2015.)

  

Guillermo "Memo" Robles, former BPD narcotics officer, drunk driving and vehicular manslaughter, Berkeley. 2007. The person Robles killed was a 82-year-old retired librarian named Betty Jean Kietzman.

 

(When Robles was a police officer, I wrote several letters to Berkeley city officials, including one to the mayor, one to the city attorney, one to the police chief, and one to the Alameda County district attorney. All of the letters mentioned that Robles clearly had a problem with his alcohol use. Years before Robles killed Betty Jean Kietzman, I was walking in the parking lot of a shopping center in El Cerrito and Robles, who was VERY drunk, almost ran me over with his car. [It was not the first time it had happened.] I was able to jump out of the path of his speeding vehicle, but if I hadn't, he may well have killed me. I called the Berkeley police chief and very politely requested that he force Robles into treatment for his rather well-known problem with alcohol. It was the second time I had called the Berkeley police and very politely requested that they take action to stop Robles from driving drunk. The chief declined to take action, as did the police chief of El Cerrito. I called the Alameda County District Attorney, who refused to investigate Robles. I called the Contra Costa County District Attorney, who refused to investigate Robles. I called the then U.S. Attorney in San Francisco, Robert Mueller, and very politely told him that I thought Robles was going to kill someone with his drunk driving and very politely requested that he take action to force Robles into treatment. Mueller refused, stating that I was "anti-police" and a "troublemaker"... I have NEVER liked alcohol, I don't use alcohol, and I have never been inside the bar where Robles very, very often got drunk. I am faintly acquainted with the alcohol server who served Robles alcohol at the bar just before Robles killed Betty Jean Kietzman, because I used to talk to this alcohol server when the alcohol server sometimes drank coffee at a nearby all-night donut shop after the alcohol server left work at the bar. The alcohol server seemed to feel remorse about having served Robles alcohol just before Robles killed Betty Jean Keitzman,)

  

Enrique Zambrano, a Berkeley waterfront commissioner, brutally beat and severely injured a university professor and his wife and then murdered and dismembered a fellow commissioner who would have testified against him. 1988

  

("In the summer of 2008, the Oakland Police Department's Internal Affairs Division discovered that more than half of all drug-related search warrants involving confidential informants had been falsified."

 

"In the end, the scandal cost the city millions of dollars."

 

"Of the 40 search warrants filed by Oakland police officer Karla Rush between March of 2007 and August 2008, 39 were fraudulent."

 

Rush lost her job with the Oakland Police Department and is now a University of California police officer in Berkeley.

 

---Joaquin Palomino, East Bay Express, 8.28. 2013.)

  

("A suicide note left by Oakland police Officer Brendan O'Brien in September 2015 implicated cops in having sex with a victim of sex trafficking who went by the name Celeste Guap. Eventually, OPD disciplined 12 officers, firing four of them. Prosecutors filed criminal charges against three officers and a retired sergeant."

 

---Scott Morris, The Monthly, August 2017.)

  

Gary Dale Baker, who was a member of the Sacramento California police force for more than 20 years, was sentenced to 62 years in prison for repeatedly raping a stroke-disabled woman in her 70s. 2015

  

Louis Lombardi, a San Ramon, CA. police officer, arrested in 2011 for selling drugs to confidential informants, and for stealing cash, drugs, and guns.

  

The Sheriff of San Francisco, Ross Mirkarimi, was arrested in 2012 for domestic violence battery, child endangerment, and dissuading a witness.

  

Before he became President, George W. Bush was arrested for driving while drunk on alcohol. He was convicted of the charge and paid a fine. Bush has publicly admitted drinking "too much", but stated that he stopped after his 40th birthday celebration. (His wife, Laura Bush, once failed to stop at a Stop sign and hit another car, killing a teenage boy.)

 

("Perhaps that cocaine caused me to exclaim

As I fell to the floor give me more give me more"

 

---Ray Benson, Chris O'Connell, and Peter Sheridan in the song they wrote "Am I High?", performed by the band Asleep at the Wheel. [Asleep at the Wheel performed at the 2001 George Bush Inaugural Ball. They were scheduled to play at the White House on September 11, 2001.])

  

Before he became Vice President, Dick Cheney was arrested twice for driving while drunk on alcohol. In a 2011 book that Cheney co-authored, he wrote that he did not like waking up in jail.

  

Michael William Meyrick, DEA, (supervising officer of the San Jose, CA. DEA office) 2 counts of prowling ("peeping tom") and one count of resisting arrest, San Jose. 1996

  

Clifford T. Shibata., DEA (a supervisor with 25 years of service) mail fraud, theft of $178,000 from the San Francisco DEA office undercover drug purchase fund, and false statements, San Francisco. 1997

  

Michael Sullivan, Coast Guard Pacific area chief of response who supervised the operation of 20 Coast Guard cutters and was the Coast Guard's liaison to the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon, possession of cocaine and obstruction of justice, California. 2008

  

Kyle Foggo, CIA (former Executive Director of the CIA and the No. 3 position at the agency) fraud (27 additional charges including money laundering and conspiracy were dismissed in exchange for his guilty plea). 2008

  

("Early last month, the former South Korean president Park Geun-hye was sentenced to 24 years in prison and fined $17 million for bribery, extortion and abuse of power. That same day, the former South African president Jacob Zuma, forced to resign in February by his own party, appeared in court to face charges over a $2.5 billion arms deal. The next day came an even bigger blow: Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Brazil's former president and current front-runner in polls for October's presidential election, began serving a 12-year jail term on corruption charges..."

 

---Brook Larmer, The New York Times Magazine, 5.6. 2018.)

  

David H. Petraeus was director of the CIA, a former four-star general in the U.S. Army, the former commander of U.S. forces in Afghanistan (2010-2011), and the former commander of the Multi-National Forces in Iraq (2007-2008). Petraeus, who is married and has two children, resigned from his CIA job after the FBI discovered that he had lied to his wife and was having sex with another woman.

 

("David H. Petraeus...has reached a plea deal with the Justice Department and admitted providing his highly classified journals to a mistress when he was the director of the C.I.A."

 

Federal prosecutors noted that Petraeus lied when he told the Federal Bureau of Investigation that he did not share classified information with his mistress.

 

"Mr. Petraeus has agreed to plead guilty to one count of unauthorized removal and retention of classified material...

He is eligible for up to one year in prison, but prosecutors will recommend a sentence of probation for two years and a $40,000 fine."

 

---Michael S. Schmidt and Matt Apuzzo, The New York Times, 3.3. 2015.)

  

Bernard Kerik, former New York City Police Commissioner (the top law enforcement post in New York) 8 felonies, including tax fraud and lying to the White House when he was a candidate for Director of Homeland Security, New York. 2007

  

Marion Barry, the mayor of Washington, D.C., was videotaped smoking crack cocaine in 1990. He was arrested by the FBI on drug charges, was convicted of possessing cocaine, and went to prison. In 1994, Barry was again elected mayor of the capital of the United States.

  

Rob Ford, the mayor of Toronto, was forced to admit he used an illegal drug after a video was made that showed him smoking crack cocaine in 2013.

  

Narcotics Detective Jason Fredriksson, arrested in San Leandro, CA. in 2011 for giving more than a pound of marijuana to a confidential informant. (The informant was a woman who was engaged in an extramarital affair with Fredriksson.)

  

John Fredriksson, a former Alameda County District Attorney's office Inspector who worked in the prosecutor's office for more than 20 years, arrested in Walnut Creek, CA. in 2011 and charged with 8 counts of sexually molesting a child under the age of 14. (John Fredriksson is the father of Jason Fredriksson.)

  

John Cunningham, former Richmond, CA. police officer, was sentenced to 16 years in prison for sexually abusing and beating his son, Richmond, CA. 2003

  

Michael Gressett, former Contra Costa County, CA. Deputy District Attorney (who was a sex crimes prosecutor), arrested for rape, Martinez, CA. 2008

  

Mark Peterson, the District Attorney of Contra Costa County, was charged with 13 felonies in 2017.

  

Former Santa Cruz County District Attorney Peter Chang was charged with felony witness tampering in 1999.

  

Rene De La Cova, DEA, convicted of stealing $700,000, Miami, Florida. 1994 (De La Cova was the DEA supervisor who arrested Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega in 1990)

  

("Two former federal agents have been charged with wire fraud, money laundering and related offenses for stealing digital currency during their investigation of Silk Road, an underground black market that allowed users to conduct illegal transactions over the internet."

 

[Silk Road was the world's largest online illegal drug marketplace.]

 

"Carl M. Force, 46, of Baltimore, was a Special Agent with the Drug Enforcement Administration [DEA], and Shaun W. Bridges, 32, of Laurel, Maryland, was a Special Agent with the U.S. Secret Service..."

 

"Force served as an undercover agent and was tasked with establishing communications with a target of the investigation, Ross Ulbricht..."

 

"Force...sold information about the government's investigation to the target of the investigation..."

 

"Force...engaged in a broad range of illegal activities calculated to bring him personal financial gain."

 

"Bridges...diverted to his personal account over $800,000 in digital currency that he gained control of during the Silk Road investigation."

 

---from a U.S. Department of Justice press release, 3.30. 2015.)

  

(“In February 2017, then-Santa Cruz Police Chief Kevin Vogel accused ICE [Immigration and Customs Enforcement] of using gang raids as a cover to enlist Santa Cruz police officers in immigration enforcement and said his agency would no longer collaborate with ICE. ‘We can’t cooperate with a law enforcement agency we cannot trust,’ Vogel said at the time."

 

---Darwin BondGraham and Ali Winston, the East Bay Express, 10.11. 2017.)

  

Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa, highly decorated New York City Police detectives who became mafia hit-men, arrested in 2005 for committing 8 murders.

  

Aldrich Ames, a highly-trusted longtime CIA officer, arrested and convicted in 1994 after many years of spying for the Soviets.

  

Robert Philip Hansson, a highly-trusted longtime FBI agent, arrested and convicted in 2001 of spying for the Soviets over a period of 22 years.

  

Daniel James White, ex-police officer, ex-San Francisco Supervisor, and Vietnam war veteran, who murdered San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk in 1978. White served 5 years in prison for the murders and committed suicide after he was released from prison.

  

Gerrit Van Raam was a Field Supervisor of the Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement, Northern California. Van Raam later murdered 2 people and committed suicide. (A photo of Van Raam was on the cover of ROLLING STONE magazine, February 17, 1972. [It accompanied Joe Eszterhas' NARK, A TALE OF TERROR.])

  

Former "National Sheriff of the Year" Patrick Sullivan was arrested in Colorado for possessing methamphetamine and offering to sell methamphetamine if his customers had sex with him. 2011

  

("Van Buren, Missouri--Tommy Adams, county sheriff for a little more than two years, was arrested earlier this month after giving meth to an informant at his cabin on a remote and hilly gravel road, according to a court document. He also allegedly snorted the drug himself with a straw."

 

"Missouri has reported more than 13,000 meth lab incidents in the past seven years."

 

"Lloyd Parsons, 37, a member of the Van Buren Fire Department, never figured Adams for one of the bad guys. He described Adams, the married father of an infant son, as professional and knowledgeable.

'I've worked several accidents with the guy and he knew his stuff, even the medical part,' Parsons said."

 

---Jim Salter, Associated Press, 4.19. 2011.)

  

Webster Hubbell, Associate Attorney General of the United States, pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion and was sentenced to 21 months in prison. 1995

  

Arnold Schwarzenegger, the wealthy actor who served as governor of California, has four children by his wife. She left him when she discovered that he had cheated on her and fathered a child with a household employee. 2012

  

Republican Dennis Hastert, the former Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the third most powerful public official in the U.S. in 2007. Hastert, a former high school wrestling coach, and said to be a homosexual pedophile, was arrested in 2015 and charged with lying to the FBI about the $1.7 million in hush money payments he made to one of his victims.

  

Robert Bernard Anderson, United States Secretary of the Treasury, pleaded guilty to tax evasion. 1987

  

Caspar Weinberger, United States Secretary of Defense, indicted in the Iran/Contra scandal. 1986

  

Henry Cisneros, United States Secretary of Housing, pleaded guilty to a charge of lying to the FBI. 1999

  

John Fife Symington, governor of Arizona, convicted of fraud, 1997

  

James Guy Tucker, governor of Arkansas, convicted of fraud conspiracy, 1996

  

Edwin Edwards, governor of Louisiana, convicted of extortion, 2000

  

John G. Rowland, governor of Connecticut, convicted of conspiracy to commit mail fraud and tax fraud. 2004

  

Don Siegelman, governor of Alabama, convicted of bribery, mail fraud and obstruction of justice. 2006

  

Harold Guy Hunt, governor of Alabama and a Baptist minister, was convicted of a felony for violating a state ethics law and removed from office. 1993

  

Alabama governor Robert Bentley, a doctor and a staunch family-values conservative republican who was a former Baptist deacon, pleaded guilty to 2 campaign violations and resigned amid a sex scandal. 2017

  

Rod Blagojevich, governor of Illinois, arrested for conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud and influence-peddling. 2008

  

Eliot Spitzer, governor of New York, resigned after he admitted paying to have sex with a prostitute ("I have acted in a way that violates my obligations to my family and violates my, or any, sense of right and wrong," Spitzer said at a news conference.) 2008

  

Jim Traficant, U.S. Congressman from Ohio, convicted on 10 counts of financial corruption and sentenced to 8 years in prison. 2002

  

Walter R. Tucker III, U.S. Congressman from California, convicted on charges of extortion and income tax fraud and sentenced to 27 months in prison, 1996

  

Dan Rostenkowski, U.S. Congressman from Illinois, convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to 18 months in prison, 1995

  

Joe Kolter, U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania, convicted of conspiracy to commit embezzlement and sentenced to 6 months in prison, 1995

  

Tom DeLay, former U.S. House Majority Leader, was convicted of money laundering and conspiracy to commit money laundering and sentenced to three years in prison. 2011

  

Bill Clinton: After lying about his sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky, President Bill Clinton was held in civil contempt of court by Judge Susan D. Webber Wright. His license to practice law was suspended in Arkansas for five years and later by the United States Supreme Court. He was also fined $90,000 for giving false testimony.

(Lewinsky testified that Clinton inserted a tobacco cigar into her vagina...) 1998

 

("Recently, the portrait artist Nelson Shanks [past subjects: Princess Diana, Pope John Paul II] divulged that his portrait of Bill Clinton, currently hanging in the National Portrait Gallery, contains a hidden image: a shadow across the Oval Office mantel was painted in the shape of Monica Lewinsky's blue dress."

 

---Michael Schulman, The New Yorker, 4.6. 2015. Lewinsky's famous dress was stained with Bill Clinton's semen. Shanks said Clinton was "...probably the most famous liar of all time...")

  

(Democrat Anthony Weiner, a former U.S. congressman from New York [who resigned in 2011 after it was shown that he sent obscene photos of himself to a woman] pleaded guilty in 2017 to a charge of sending an obscene image to a minor, and was sentenced to 21 months in prison. Weiner’s wife, Huma Abedin [a long-time aide to Hillary Clinton, who served as vice chair of Clinton’s 2016 presidential campaign] filed for divorce after Weiner pleaded guilty.)

  

Colonel David Russell Williams, a 23 year military veteran and the commander of Canada's largest Air Force base, was convicted of murdering 2 women and and raping 2 others. Williams also broke into at least 48 houses, frequently stealing the underwear of young girls, which he then photographed himself wearing. Williams is a decorated military pilot who flew VIP airplanes carrying the Queen of England and the Prime Minister of Canada. 2010

  

Joseph DeAngelo, a former cop who served in the U.S. Navy, was arrested in 2018 and charged with being the "Golden State Killer" who raped at least 45 people and killed at least 12 people. He also burglarized at least 120 homes.

  

U.S. brigadier general Jeffrey A. Sinclair, who served five combat tours in Iraq and Afghanistan, was charged with a number of crimes, including adultery, forcible sodomy, possession of pornography and alcohol while deployed, and filing fraudulent claims. 2012

  

("Army Maj. General David Haight, Army Ranger, decorated combat veteran and family man, held a key post in Europe this spring...He also led a double life: an 11 years affair and a 'swinger lifestyle' of swapping sexual partners that put him at risk of blackmail and espionage..."

 

"Haight was investigated by the Army inspector general, who issued a report in April, and fired him in May from his job running operations and plans at U.S. European Command..."

 

---Tom Vanden Brook, USA TODAY, 8.25. 2016.)

  

("The former chairman of Montgomery County's Republican Party was charged Tuesday drugging a female employee of his Lansdale, Pennsylvania law firm and raping her while she was unconscious.

 

Robert J. Kerns, 66, surrendered to county detectives Tuesday morning and was expected to be released after posting a portion of the $1 million bail. He faces 19 counts, including rape, sexual assault, tampering with evidence, and lying to authorities.

 

The charges followed weeks of investigation and represented a spectacular downfall for a power broker who led the county GOP for five years.

 

Less than a month ago, Kerns shared the spotlight at a party with Gov. Corbett. On Tuesday, he was escorted in handcuffs from court after a county grand jury portrayed him as a 'manipulative and predatory' rapist." 2013)

  

Lt. Col. Jeffrey Krusinski, the officer in charge of sexual assault prevention programs for the U.S. Air Force was arrested and charged with sexual battery. The police said Krusinski was in a parking lot when he approached and attacked a woman that he had never before met. 2013

  

("Like a lot of people of his generation, he experimented in his younger days. Those days have long passed and the experiment has long been over."

 

---Tom Dresslar, spokesman for California State Treasurer Bill Lockyer, in response to a question asking if Lockyer had ever used illegal drugs. Lockyer is a former Attorney General of California.

 

[From a newspaper article by Julia Prodis Sulek and Josh Richman, West County Times (Contra Costa County, California) 4.13. 2012. The article was about an email message that the press received from the account of Bill Lockyer's wife, Nadia, that stated that "Bill bought and gave me drugs..." Nadia Lockyer was an Alameda County Supervisor at the time the message was sent, and had just been in rehab for substance abuse.

 

Nadia, who is the the mother of a young child, has admitted that she was cheating on her husband with a boyfriend who is a methamphetamine addict.])

  

(Liar Judge James Ware was the Chief Federal Judge in the Northern District of California, which includes San Francisco, from December 2010 to August 2012.

 

"On June 27, 1997, President Bill Clinton nominated Ware to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, to replace J. Clifford Wallace, who had taken senior status. Ware had a hearing before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee in October 1997.

However, Ware's nomination unraveled amid an embarrassing scandal that ultimately resulted in a judicial reprimand, and Clinton withdrew his nomination of Ware on November 27, 1997. In 1998, Judge Ware was reprimanded by the Judicial Council of the Northern District Court of California for fabricating the story of being the brother of Virgil Ware, a 13 year old black boy shot by teenage racists in Alabama in 1963 on the same day as the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. According to a story Judge Ware had told MANY audiences, he was riding his bike with his brother Virgil on the handlebars when Virgil was shot and killed by white racists. The incident was a real one, however it happened to a different James Ware, as was discovered when Judge Ware's claim was published in the Alabama papers after he was nominated to the Ninth Circuit by President Bill Clinton. The father of the long-ago slain boy contacted the Alabama courts to report that the California judge was impersonating his own son James Ware who was an employee in a Birmingham power plant. The Alabama courts contacted the California courts, who convened the ethics hearing. Judge Ware was reprimanded but allowed to retain his lifetime appointment as district judge.")

  

(“By his account, he had been awarded a Purple Heart in Vietnam. He’d participated in covert operations for the Central Intelligence Agency. He boasted of an impressive educational background as well--an undergraduate degree in physics and a master’s degree in psychology. None of it was true.”

 

---Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, National Geographic, June 2017, describing Los Angeles County Superior Court judge Patrick Couwenberg, who was removed from the bench in 2001.)

  

(“I don’t know anybody who didn’t lie on his resume.”

 

---Willie Brown, mayor of San Francisco, quoted by Larry Hatfield, San Francisco Examiner, 1.19. 1996. [Brown’s campaign manager, Jack Davis, had accused police chief Fred Lau of lying about having a bachelor’s degree from San Francisco State University.])

  

(Jim Jones founded the Peoples Temple Christian Church Full Gospel. Headquartered in San Francisco, Jones' group was very strongly supported by California assemblyman Willie Brown, who later became mayor of San Francisco. Others who supported Jones included George Moscone, Walter Mondale, and Rosalynn Carter. Jones and some of his followers moved to Guyana. In late 1978 Jones, before killing himself, made 909 of his followers commit suicide.)

  

("A longtime federal judge was arrested in Atlanta, Georgia and charged with using cocaine and marijuana with a stripper while he met to pay her for sex. An FBI agent said U.S. District Senior Judge Jack T. Camp, 67, possessed and used cocaine, marijuana and Roxycodone with the exotic dancer, aided and abetted her possession of the drugs knowing she is a drug felon, and possessed guns while using controlled substances.

Camp was appointed to the Federal bench by President Reagan in 1988."

 

---News report, 10.5. 2010.)

  

("...if a judge rendered a decision about granting parole just before a meal, the inmate's odds for a favorable outcome dipped to near zero; just after the judge ate, the chances rose to around sixty-five percent."

 

---Sarah Stillman, in her article "Good Behavior". The New Yorker, 1.23. 2017.)

  

(Alameda County, California Judge Daniel Paul Seeman was arrested in June 2012 and charged with elder abuse and perjury. Seeman is a former Drug Court judge.

 

"...police and prosecutors, through court records, told a story of a man who cunningly and systematically waged a 12-year campaign to take all of Anne Nutting's money."

 

---Paul T. Rosynsky, the Oakland Tribune, 6.15. 2012.)

  

(A news item in the San Francisco Chronicle, June 1975, noted the theft, from the police evidence office, of the $70 million worth of drugs that had been seized in the famous "French Connection" case...)

  

("...we humans live in an utterly frightening, insane world where our leaders, even if they are sane, must pretend to be insane in order to be electable, presumably to reflect the sentiments of the voters."

 

---from a letter someone sent to the editor of the San Francisco Chronicle, 7.13. 2004.)

  

("...the whole world is upside-down."

 

Greg Suhr, Deputy Police Chief, San Francisco, quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle after he was indicted for Conspiracy to Obstruct Justice in 2003.)

  

("I believed in order and conformity and the need for everyone to abide by social norms."

 

---former New York City police commissioner and former Los Angeles police chief William Bratton, describing why he was so offended in the late 1960's by artists, poets, marijuana smokers, and LSD users. The quote is from his 1998 book TURNAROUND: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic.)

  

(Information about how banks launder money for the drug cartels:

www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/03/us-bank-mexico-drug-... )

  

("Anti-narcotics agents working for the US government have laundered or smuggled millions of dollars in drug proceeds to see how the system works and use the information against Mexican drug cartels..."

 

"As it launders drug money, the Drug Enforcement Administration often allows cartels to continue their operations over months or even years before making seizures or arrests..."

 

---Yahoo news, 12.4. 2011, about a report that was published in The New York Times 12.3. 2011.)

  

("...if you look at the drug war from a purely economic point of view, the role of the government is to protect the drug cartel."

  

---Milton Friedman, in a 1991 interview on "America's Drug Forum," a national public affairs talk show that appears on public television stations. From 1977 on, Friedman was a Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford , and was considered the leader of the Chicago School of monetary economics. Professor Friedman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science in 1976, and was also the recipient of the National Medal of Science and the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the U.S. government in 1988.)

  

("Looters stole from pharmacies and methadone clinics during the 2015 Freddie Gray riots in Baltimore, Maryland."

 

"...police officers confronted the looters and seized the stolen drugs."

 

"Instead of removing the drugs from the streets...the officers themselves engaged in a pervasive pattern of re-selling...the drugs to Baltimore residents."

 

"The testimony revealed that during the course of the officers enterprise, they made a profit of more than one million dollars from these sales."

 

"Our officers are the very drug dealers they are entrusted to take off the streets. And in their dealing those drugs to Baltimore residents, the infusion led, according to the Baltimore Police Department, to a spike in crime after the riots."

 

---Kathryn Freybalter, a law professor who was a federal Public Defender for the District of Maryland from 1998 to 2012. "Federal Trial Unravels Years of Police Corruption in Baltimore". WNYC, 2.6. 2018.)

  

(Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano served only 5 years in prison for his involvement in 19 murders [because he became a government witness]. He testified in 1992 against his former mafia boss John J. Gotti. After leaving the witness protection program, Gravano started dealing the drug ecstasy, and was arrested for running what the authorities called the largest ecstasy ring to ever operate in Arizona. He pleaded guilty to the charges in 2001.)

  

The DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration), a Federal agency, conducts "buy/bust" operations, where its agents buy illicit drugs from a dealer and then immediately arrest the dealer. Sometimes the agents do a "sell/bust" operation where they sell drugs to a person and then immediately arrest the person. Occasionally the agents will conduct a "buy/let go" operation and at a later date arrest the dealer. What is not commonly known to the public, however, is that the DEA (and other law enforcement groups) also do "sell/let go" operations where, to establish the "credibility" of their undercover agents to a group of drug dealers, they sell a dealer drugs and do not attempt to arrest the dealer until some future date, frequently after the dealer has re-sold to the community the drugs the police provided him...

  

("As the U.S. Supreme Court said in Russell, supra:

 

'The illicit manufacture of drugs is not a sporadic, isolated criminal incident, but a continuing, though illegal, business enterprise. In order to obtain convictions for illegally manufacturing drugs, the gathering of evidence of past unlawful conduct frequently proves to be an all but impossible task. Thus in drug-related offenses law enforcement personnel have turned to one of the only practicable means of detection: the infiltration of drug rings and a limited participation in their unlawful present practices. Such infiltration is a recognized and permissible means of investigation; if that be so, then the supply of some item of value that the drug ring requires must, as a general rule, also be permissible. For an agent will not be taken into the confidence of the illegal entrepreneurs unless he has something of value to offer them. Law enforcement tactics such as this can hardly be said to violate "fundamental fairness" or be " shocking to the universal sense of justice" . . . .'"

 

[From Docket Number 79-1362

United States of America, Plaintiff-

Apellee, v. Peter Wylie, Defendent-

Apellant. United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Sheldon Perluss, Defendent-Appellant.

United States of America, Plaintiff-

Appellee, v. David Bachrach,

Defendent-Appellant., 625 F.2d

1371 (9th Cir. 1980)])

  

("Kenneth E. Melson, the acting director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, 'told congressional investigators that some Mexican drug cartel figures targeted by his agency in a gun-trafficking investigation were paid informants for the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration.'"

 

"The ATF 'allowed guns to be purchased in the United States in hopes they would be traced to cartel leaders. Under the gun-trafficking operation known as Fast and Furious, the ATF lost track of the guns, and many were found at the scenes of crimes in Mexico, as well as two that were recovered near Nogales, Arizona, where a U.S. Border Patrol agent was killed.'"

 

"Representative Darrell Issa and Senator Charles Grassley told Attorney General Eric Holder that Melson told them he became 'sick to his stomach when he...learned the full story.'"

 

"Issa and Grassley said 'The evidence we have gathered raises the disturbing possibility that the Justice Department not only allowed criminals to smuggle weapons but that taxpayer dollars from other agencies may have financed those engaged in such activities.'"

 

---Richard A. Serrano, the San Francisco Chronicle, 7.7. 2011.

 

In a September 20, 2012 interview on Univision, Barack Obama falsely stated that operation Fast and Furious began during the presidency of George W. Bush, when in fact operation Fast and Furious began months after Obama became president.)

  

("Just because something is in the public domain doesn't mean it's been officially released or declassified by the U.S. government."

 

---Jennifer Youngblood, a spokeswoman for the CIA, explaining why the CIA was demanding information that is already well-known to the public not be published in a recent book written by former FBI counterterrorism expert Ali Soufan. Youngblood was quoted in an 8.26. 2011 article in The New York Times, "C.I.A. Demands Cuts in Book About 9/11 and Terror Fight". The article, written by Scott Shane, mentions that the book details how the CIA withheld information from the FBI about two future 9/11 hijackers.)

  

("People think they're free in this country. Don't kid yourself. This is a police state. The government can pretty much do whatever it wants."

 

---Dr. Steven Hatfill, quoted by David Freed, The Atlantic, May 2010. Hatfill was harassed by the FBI because they very, very strongly suspected that he mailed anthrax to people. It turned out that the FBI was mistaken.)

  

("...a portrait of depravity that is hard to comprehend."

 

---The Editorial Board of The New York Times, describing "The Senate Report on the C.I.A.'s Torture and Lies." 12.9. 2014.

 

"...'at no time' did the C.I.A.'s torture program produce intelligence that averted a terrorism threat, the report said.")

  

("On March 8, 1971, burglars broke into an F.B.I. office in Media, Pennsylvania, and stole hundreds of the agency's files."

 

"The instigator of the break-in...was...a college physics professor."

 

Among the others participating was a professor of religion and his wife, a grad student studying child development...

 

"...they were part of the Quaker-and Catholic-influenced peace movement...which sustained the activities of the Berrigan brothers, among others. The burglars believed that the anti-war movement was being infiltrated by F.B.I. informants..."

 

The break-in led to the discovery and public disclosure of COINTELPRO:

"Since 1956...a highly secret program...spied on civil-rights leaders, suspected Communists, public critics of the F.B.I., student activists, and many others."

 

"The program sought to intimidate, smear, and blackmail them, to break up marriages, get people fired, demoralize them."

 

One of the first documents the burglars read instructed agents to "enhance the paranoia"...

 

---Margaret Talbot, in her review of the book THE BURGLARY by Betty Medsger. The New Yorker, 1.20. 2014.)

   

RUNNER UP

 

Martin Horton- Eddison (College of Arts and Humanities)

 

The image depicts the exchange of virtual currency for controlled narcotic substances between two anonymised actors. Those engaged in the transaction are not bound by state borders or geography; they are in the same space, yet in different places, at the same time.

 

The alley is comprised of servers and the pavement is a highway of binary code. The deal takes place under impotent state flags; the backdrop is a fractured representation of the international drug prohibition regime. This is a visual representation of an inherently ethereal subject.

 

The research investigates the transnational crypto-drug market phenomena and the associated challenges for drug control policy at the international level. It seeks to quantify how significantly anonymised online drug communities may impact the primacy of the state in the international system. How will the present analogue prohibition framework contend with the digital age?

 

The new BMW 1 Series.

Unmistakably sporty, with a higher quality feel and greater presence.

  

New special-edition models, an enhanced premium interior, extended

connectivity features and the latest-generation iDrive operating system: this is

the next generation of the BMW 1 Series. The sportiest representative of the

premium compact class comes with a broad range of efficient engines

encompassing powerful three-, four- and six-cylinder variants. Uniquely in this

class, the BMW 1 Series has rear-wheel drive, with the intelligent xDrive allwheel-

drive system available as an option. The new edition of the

BMW 1 Series will be launched in July 2017 in 3-door and 5-door versions.

  

The BMW 1 Series: a tour de force in the premium compact class.

The success story of this sporty compact model dates back to late-summer

2004 and the introduction of the original BMW 1 Series. Thanks to its

superior agility and driving dynamics, it rapidly positioned itself as the epitome

of sporting prowess in the compact segment. To date, more than two million

units of the BMW 1 Series have been sold worldwide, of which approximately

960,000 are from the latest model generation. Germany is the most important

international market and this is where one in four BMW 1 Series is sold,

followed by the UK (20 per cent) and China (eight per cent). The

BMW 1 Series is built in Germany at the plants in Regensburg (3-door and 5-

door models) and Leipzig (5-door). There are also assembly plants for the

Asia-Pacific region in Chennai (India) and Rayong (Thailand).

  

New special-edition models with striking looks.

The BMW 1 Series is unmistakeably sporty: dynamic contours, the distinctive

kidney grille, long bonnet and a sportily stylish rear define its appearance. New

special-edition models – the Edition Sport Line Shadow, Edition M Sport

Shadow and BMW M140i Edition Shadow – see BMW emphasising the

youthfully refreshing, sporty character of the 1 Series. The special editions

stand out from their siblings with a kidney grille frame painted in black, LED

headlights with black inserts and darkened rear lights which likewise feature

LED technology. The BMW 1 Series Edition M Sport Shadow has black

exhaust tailpipes, too. The new exterior colours Seaside Blue and Sunset

Orange also contribute to the new car’s more striking looks.

  

The Sport Line, Urban Line and M Sport variants of the BMW 1 Series remain

in the line-up alongside the standard model. And now there are also specialedition

models to choose from. The handover from one model to the next

sees five new light-alloy wheels being added to the range in 17- and 18-inch

formats. A total of 16 different wheel designs – in sizes ranging from 16 to

18 inches – provide plenty of scope for personalisation. The new

BMW 1 Series Edition Sport Line Shadow comes with exclusive 17-inch lightalloy

wheels (725) as standard. The Edition M Sport Shadow has 18-inch

wheels in either Jet Black or Bicolour Jet Black (719 M) to complement its

shadow-like character. And an additional 18-inch light-alloy wheel design is

offered for the M140i/M140i xDrive Edition Shadow (436 M in Orbit Grey).

  

Upgraded interior, redesigned instrument panel.

Moving inside the new BMW 1 Series, an array of details add to the cabin’s

exclusive, high-quality feel. With a clear and stylish design, the instrument

panel has been completely reworked to place an even greater emphasis on

driver focus. The black-panel instrument cluster has likewise been

reconfigured. Contrast stitching gives the various model variants a

sophisticated appearance. The centre stack, which houses the control panels

for the radio and air conditioning system, features a high-gloss black surface.

There is a roll cover for the cupholders in the centre console, giving the new

interior a clean look. And the window buttons in the doors now have chrome

trim. Thanks to virtually imperceptible gaps, the glove compartment blends

seamlessly into the overall ambience. The air vents for the air conditioning

have been revised and also contribute to the generous impression of space

created by the interior of the new BMW 1 Series.

  

Customers can also specify an optional new seat covering in Cognac Dakota

leather, while the interior trim strips are now available with Pearl Chrome

accents. The Urban Line offers exclusive new combinations of white or black

acrylic glass with chrome detailing. The standard model, Sport Line and

M Sport variants can be ordered with new combinations of Piano Finish Black,

aluminium or Fineline wood trim with chrome. When it comes to the seat

coverings, BMW 1 Series customers can choose from seven cloth variants,

some including leather or Alcantara.

  

Using iDrive, the touchscreen or voice control to operate various functions.

 

The new BMW 1 Series is equipped with the latest generation of the iDrive

operating system as standard. Using the iDrive Touch Controller allows the

driver to comfortably access and activate a variety of vehicle, navigation and

entertainment functions with one hand. Thanks to the touchpad integrated

into the Controller, it is easy to enter destinations for the navigation system in

handwriting style. If the optional Navigation system Professional is fitted, the

high-resolution central 8.8-inch display now comes in touchscreen form.

Intelligent voice control is the third way of operating these functions.

 

Perfectly connected from the word go.

Thanks to the standard built-in SIM card in the BMW 1 Series,

ConnectedDrive provides optimum connectivity and access to BMW services

without having to rely on the customer’s smartphone. These include the

Concierge Services, where personal assistants select destinations such as

restaurants or hotels for the driver while en route, make reservations and then

send the information directly to the vehicle’s navigation system, complete with

all contact details. Online Entertainment gives BMW 1 Series occupants a

choice of millions of music tracks and audio books, while RTTI (Real Time

Traffic Information) finds a smart way around traffic jams. RTTI now also

includes a hazard preview based on fleet information, meaning that in addition

to the real-time traffic situation, the service also notifies drivers of dangerous

situations – such as accidents or heavy rain – detected by other BMW

vehicles. Anonymised sensor data is used for this purpose. Hazard reports

and rain are shown on the map in the vehicle’s display, while a warning and

message appear on the navigation map when approaching the location of the

danger.

  

Plus, in selected cities in Germany and the USA, the On-Street Parking

Information service uses the Navigation system Professional display to

indicate the probability of finding an available roadside parking space.

  

The all-encompassing digital concept BMW Connected seamlessly integrates

the BMW 1 Series into the user’s digital life via touchpoints such as an

iPhone, Apple Watch, Android smartphone or smartwatch. BMW Connected

detects mobility-related information, such as the addresses contained in the

appointments calendar, and transmits this automatically to the vehicle. The

user then receives a message on their smartphone notifying them in advance

of the ideal departure time based on real-time traffic information. In addition,

places the user drives to regularly and personal mobility patterns are also

stored automatically. This means that manually entering destination

addresses in the navigation system is set to largely become a thing of the

past. If navigation details such as the destination address and desired arrival

time have already been set outside the vehicle on the user’s smartphone, the

link between phone and car will allow BMW Connected to transfer the

information seamlessly and make it available to the BMW navigation system.

  

BMW Connected and the Remote Services allow BMW 1 Series drivers to

stay in touch with their car at all times, no matter where they are. They can

control the heating and ventilation, lock and unlock the doors and call up

vehicle-related information, quickly and easily using their smartphone. And if

they happen to forget where they parked their car, they can check its location

on a map via BMW Connected. Alternatively, the vehicle’s horn or headlight

flasher can be activated remotely in order to locate it in a large car park, for

example. With the help of Alexa and Alexa-capable devices, BMW 1 Series

drivers in Germany and the UK can even manage their appointments in the

BMW Connected mobility agenda and operate vehicle functions by voice

control from the comfort of their home.

  

For the first time, BMW now offers Microsoft Office 365 users a secure server

connection for exchanging and editing emails, calendar entries and contact

details in the BMW 1 Series, thanks to the car’s built-in Microsoft Exchange

function.

  

The optional in-car WiFi hotspot provides a high-speed mobile internet

connection for up to ten devices. Apple CarPlay is also available for the

BMW 1 Series via a BMW navigation system. Integrating the smartphone into

the vehicle’s system environment allows the phone and selected apps to be

operated using the iDrive Controller, voice commands or the touchscreen

display (if the Navigation system Professional is specified). Compatible

smartphones can also be supplied with power wirelessly by means of an

optional inductive charging tray.

  

Driver assistance systems: extra help for the driver.

The assistance systems on the options list for the new BMW 1 Series include

Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go function, which enables the vehicle to

move along with the flow of traffic automatically up to near its maximum

speed. The system alerts the driver and applies the brakes if it detects an

obstacle. The Driving Assistant is also available as an option and comprises

the Lane Departure Warning system and City Collision Mitigation, which

applies the brakes automatically at speeds up to 60 km/h (37 mph) in

response to an imminent collision with a car, motorcycle or pedestrian, for

instance. The Parking Assistant, meanwhile, manoeuvres the car into parking

spots that are either parallel or perpendicular to the road. Its ultrasonic sensors

help to search for suitable spaces while travelling at up to 35 km/h (22 mph).

  

Highly efficient three-, four- and six-cylinder power units.

The new BMW 1 Series comes with a wide choice of petrol and diesel

engines, comprising three-, four- and six-cylinder variants. They all hail from

the state-of-the-art BMW EfficientDynamics engine family and feature

BMW TwinPower Turbo technology. With the exception of the BMW 116i,

116d EfficientDynamics Edition and 118d xDrive, all models can be specified

with the eight-speed Steptronic or eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission

as an alternative to the six-speed manual gearshift. The M140i xDrive can only

be ordered with the eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission.

 

On the petrol side, the line-up ranges from the BMW 116i – whose

turbocharged three-cylinder unit produces 80 kW/109 hp (fuel consumption

combined: 5.4 – 5.0 l/100 km [52.3 – 56.5 mpg imp]; CO2 emissions

combined: 126 – 116 g/km)* – to the BMW M140i M Performance model,

which stirs 250 kW/340 hp from its six-cylinder in-line engine (fuel

consumption combined: 7.8 – 7.1 l/100 km [36.2 – 39.8 mpg imp]; CO2

emissions combined: 179 – 163 g/km)*.

  

The diesel models likewise draw their power from cutting-edge engine

technology. In addition to a basic concept that is inherently more efficient, all

the three- and four-cylinder units feature new turbocharger technology and

enhanced common-rail direct injection systems. At the lower end of the

power spectrum is the BMW 116d, delivering 85 kW/116 hp and maximum

torque of 270 Newton metres (199 lb-ft). In the process, it burns

4.1 – 3.6 litres of fuel per 100 km (68.9 – 78.5 mpg imp), equating to CO2

emissions of 107 – 96 g/km*. In extra-efficient BMW 116d EfficientDynamics

Edition guise, fuel consumption is a frugal 3.8 – 3.4 l/100 km

(74.3 – 83.1 mpg imp), resulting in CO2 emissions of 101 – 89 g/km*. The

most powerful four-cylinder diesel engine in the line-up can be found in the

new BMW 125d. The multi-stage turbocharging technology, including

variable turbine geometry for the high-pressure turbocharger, results in

remarkably quick response, output of 165 kW/224 hp and peak torque of

450 Newton metres (332 lb-ft). Combined fuel consumption comes in at

4.6 – 4.3 l/100 km [61.4 – 65.7 mpg imp] and combined CO2 emissions are

120 – 114 g/km*.

  

Intelligent all-wheel drive for optimum power transmission.

The BMW M140i, BMW 118d and BMW 120d can be specified with

BMW xDrive intelligent all-wheel drive as an alternative to classical rear-wheel

drive. Besides the specific benefits of AWD – such as optimum transmission

of power to the road, supreme driving safety and maximum traction in wintry

conditions, for example – BMW xDrive also reduces understeer and oversteer

through corners. The result is sharper handling in situations such as when

turning into bends.

  

Two new elite athletes from BMW M GmbH: the M140i andM140i xDrive.

The sportiest member of the BMW 1 Series range also boasts a new look. To

mark the new model year, the BMW M140i M Performance model is also

available in M140i Edition Shadow trim. Black inserts are added to the

standard LED headlights and the kidney grille surround is painted black. The

darkened rear light assemblies lend further impact to the car’s sporting aura,

* Fuel consumption figures based on the EU test cycle, may vary depending on the tyre format specified.

as do the standard 18-inch light-alloy wheels, which are now available for the

first time in Style 436 M Orbit Grey and Style 719 M Jet Black or Bicolour Jet

Black, to go with the previously available Ferric Grey (Style 436 M). The

sportiest BMW 1 Series leaves the factory shod with high-performance

mixed-size tyres as standard, with dimensions of 225/40 at the front and

245/35 at the rear.

  

The BMW M140i is powered by a three-litre straight-six engine complete with

direct injection, M Performance TwinPower Turbo technology with twin-scroll

turbocharging, fully variable valve timing (VALVETRONIC) and Double-

VANOS variable camshaft control. This all combines to give the BMW M140i

an output of 250 kW/340 hp and maximum torque of 500 Newton metres

(369 lb-ft), which can be summoned from as low down as 1,520 rpm and

remains on tap up to 4,500 rpm. This gives the BMW M140i all the right

credentials for delivering extraordinary performance: with the six-speed

manual gearshift, this compact racer sprints from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in

4.8 seconds, while top speed is electronically limited to 250 km/h (155 mph).

When the optional eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission is specified, the

BMW M140i reaches the 100 km/h (62 mph) mark from rest in an even

quicker 4.6 seconds (fuel consumption combined: 7.1 l/100 km

[39.8 mpg imp]; CO2 emissions combined: 163 g/km)*. Performance is even

more remarkable in the BMW M140i xDrive versions, thanks to the presence

of intelligent all-wheel drive. Equipped with the eight-speed Steptronic Sport

transmission as standard, the M140i xDrive surges from 0 to 100 km/h

(62 mph) in 4.4 seconds, while returning combined fuel consumption of

7.4 l/100 km (38.2 mpg imp) and CO2 emissions of 169 g/km*.

  

Variable sport steering adds to the impression of exceptional agility at the

wheel of the BMW M140i. It comes with electromechanical power assistance

and adapts the steering angle of the front wheels to the prevailing driving

situation. This allows lightning-fast evasive manoeuvres but also produces a

sensation of excellent directional and straight-line stability in motorway driving.

The M Sport suspension, M Sport braking system and shorter throw for the

six-speed manual gearshift have all been perfectly matched to the might of

the six-cylinder in-line engine, as have high-performance tyres designed to

ensure that acceleration and braking force are transmitted to the road to

optimum effect. The Driving Experience Control switch in the BMW M140i

features the same modes included in all models in the range, such as

Comfort, Sport and ECO PRO, but also adds the ultra-dynamic Sport+ mode.

In this setting, the configuration of the Dynamic Stability Control system

allows the driver to perform controlled drifts.

It was dusk in the east end of Toronto and I was on my way to the ATM to do a bit of banking. I saw her sitting on a ledge outside the subway station wearing inline skates. I was drawn to her healthy, happy appearance as she looked at her mobile phone with a look of amusement on her face. The light was lousy and I didn’t have my camera with me so I noticed her and continued on my errand.

 

I have felt a bit lacking in motivation to reach out this week and I don’t know why. I went for a nice long bike ride through the city today and saw some good candidates for the project but always saw something that wasn't quite right and kept moving - at least enjoying the ride. I did stop one excellent prospect but she was short on time and I accepted her friendly “I’m sorry but I’m short on time but I hope your project goes well.” Usually I would follow-up with “I could do it in two minutes” but today I didn’t.

 

Heading to the bank, I told myself “If she’s still there when I come back, I’m going to introduce myself and ask. I have my phone in my pocket and even though the conditions are poor, she looks really friendly and I’d like to at least give it a try.”

 

She was and I did.

 

She took out an earphone and listened with friendly surprise to my request. “Sure, but it would have to be kind of quick because I’m waiting for someone who’s about to arrive. Oh, and I’m not very photogenic.” My response was “Oh boy, have I ever heard that before... and I don’t buy it.” We both laughed. Meet Roxanne.

 

My options were limited as I knew I had to get next to the windows of the subway station to capture some artificial light to supplement the flat, minimal light of a sun that had already set. She walked a few steps in her skates and carried the grocery bag she had with her – presumably holding shoes and perhaps a change of clothes. Roxanne exuded friendliness and trust and said she was waiting for her sister’s boyfriend. They were going to meet up with her family and go to a movie together.

 

The two windows available were both partially blocked, one by a vending machine inside and the other by a poster on the window. I made the best of it and explained that I was waiting for people in the background to pass to reduce clutter in the already cluttered background. I felt Roxanne’s good will and positive energy as she patiently posed for the photo and warned me that she had just blinked in the prior one. I wasn’t at all confident that I had a usable photo and just then her sister’s boyfriend arrived and introduced himself, before stepping aside. We shook hands and I said “Roxanne will explain but I’m doing a photo project.” I tried one more photo and this is it. (Focus was flawed in the others.)

 

We quickly exchanged information. Roxanne is 20 and was born and raised in Toronto. “Do you have anything you would like to share with the world?” “Umm, gosh. Let’s see. I guess just do what YOU want to do and don’t worry too much what others think.” “An example?” “Well, I attended the University of Toronto for a year but I wasn’t ready for it and didn’t have a plan. I was doing it mostly to please my family. I’m taking a year off, working as a server and saving up some money. I’m going to return to school, but not university. I want to be a paramedic. You have to find what you want and then you will be motivated.” I could tell that this young woman was getting it all figured out.

 

I feel as if Roxanne was there for a reason. I was a bit stuck and hesitant in reaching out to people this week and needed to get unstuck. The fact that the sun had gone down and I was without my camera wasn’t going to stop me when I saw her friendly face outside the subway station. Roxanne’s friendly face was exactly what I needed. In the brief couple of minutes we had, I sensed youthful energy and good will. I think it shows in Roxanne’s portrait.

 

Thank you Roxanne for sharing a couple of minutes with this stranger and for your participation in The Human Family. You are now #836 in Round 9 of my project. Good luck with school. The world needs more life-savers.

 

Photography is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or an electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects activate a sensitive chemical or electronic sensor during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically. Photography has many uses for business, science, art, and pleasure.

The word "photograph" was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (phos) "light" and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Traditionally, the products of photography have been called negatives and photographs, commonly shortened to photos.

 

Function

The camera or camera obscura is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.

In all but certain specialized cameras, the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use, manually or automatically, of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear, sharp and well illuminated. The controls usually include but are not limited to the following:

 

Focus: The adjustment to place the sharpest focus where it is desired on the subject.

 

Aperture : Adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number, which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction – the higher the f-number, the smaller the opening, the less light, the greater the depth of field, and the more the diffraction blur. The focal length divided by the f-number gives the effective aperture diameter.

 

Shutter speed : Adjustment of the speed (often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane; 'faster' shutter speeds (that is, those of shorter duration) decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion of the subject and/or camera.

 

White balance : On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature.

 

Metering : Measurement of exposure so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically. Before automatic exposure, correct exposure was accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device or by the photographer's knowledge and experience of gauging correct settings. To translate the amount of light into a usable aperture and shutter speed, the meter needs to adjust for the sensitivity of the film or sensor to light. This is done by setting the "film speed" or ISO sensitivity into the meter.

 

ISO speed : Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. The higher the ISO number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower ISO number, the film is less sensitive to light. A correct combination of ISO speed, aperture, and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light, hence it is 'correctly exposed,' indicated by a centered meter.

 

Autofocus point : On some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many Single-lens reflex cameras (SLR) feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.

 

Many other elements of the imaging device itself may have a pronounced effect on the quality and/or aesthetic effect of a given photograph; among them are:

 

Focal length and type of lens (telephoto or "long" lens, macro, wide angle, fisheye, or zoom)

Filters placed between the subject and the light recording material, either in front of or behind the lens

Inherent sensitivity of the medium to light intensity and color/wavelengths.

The nature of the light recording material, for example its resolution as measured in pixels or grains of silver halide.

 

Exposure and rendering

Camera controls are inter-related. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

 

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that don't have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. Aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. If the f-number is decreased by a factor of , the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

 

Exposures can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed and aperture. For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125th of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250th of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography. Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

 

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame.

 

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

 

Chemicals and process used during film development

Duration of print exposure – equivalent to shutter speed

Printing aperture – equivalent to aperture, but has no effect on depth of field

Contrast – changing the visual properties of objects in an image to make them distinguishable from other objects and the background

Dodging – reduces exposure of certain print areas, resulting in lighter areas

Burning in – increases exposure of certain areas, resulting in darker areas

Paper texture – glossy, matte, etc

Paper type – resin-coated (RC) or fiber-based (FB)

Paper size

Toners – used to add warm or cold tones to black and white prints

 

Uses

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories of favorite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment.

 

History

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti described a pinhole camera in the 5th century B.C.E.,[4] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[4][5] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[6] and Georges Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silver chloride.[citation needed] Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568.[citation needed] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[citation needed] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[citation needed]

 

Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822[3] by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed by a later attempt to duplicate it.[3] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the first permanent photograph from nature with a camera obscura in 1826. However, because his photographs took so long to expose (8 hours), he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure (several minutes). Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839.

Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions to the new methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

 

In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper.

 

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

 

In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, also known as the Lippmann plate.

 

Processes

Black-and-white

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image of blue and white for example. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

 

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

 

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid 1800s. Early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.

One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession.

 

Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as H. W. Vogel, emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.

 

The first commercially successful color process, the Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the market in 1907. It was based on a 'screen-plate' filter made of dyed grains of potato starch, and was one of many additive color screen products available between the 1890s and the 1950s. A later example of the additive screen process was the German Agfacolor introduced in 1932. In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern ('integrated tri-pack') color film which was developed by two musicians Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky ("Man" and "God") working with the Kodak Research Labs. It was Kodachrome, based on multiple layered silver gelatin emulsions that were each sensitized to one of the three additive colors—red, green, and blue. The cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes were created in those layers by adding color couplers during processing. This was followed in 1936 by Agfa's Agfacolor Neu. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, use such incorporated-coupler techniques, though since the 1970s nearly all have used a technique developed by Kodak to accomplish this, rather than the original Agfa method. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

 

Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.

 

Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

 

Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[7] Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red, and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).

 

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics & law enforcement, and even some claimed use in ghost hunting.

 

Digital photography

Traditional photography burdened photographers working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines. In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

 

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

 

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On May 25, 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[8] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[9][10]

 

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[11]

 

According to the U.S. survey results, more than two-thirds (68 percent) of professional photographers prefer the results of film to those of digital for certain applications including:

 

film’s superiority in capturing more information on medium and large format films (48 percent);

creating a traditional photographic look (48 percent);

capturing shadow and highlighting details (45 percent);

the wide exposure latitude of film (42 percent); and

archival storage (38 percent)

Digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "illustrations," passing them as real photographs. Today's technology has made picture editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allows digital fingerprinting of RAW photos to verify against tampering of digital photos for forensics use.

 

Camera phones, combined with sites like Flickr, have led to a new kind of social photography.

 

Modes of production

Amateur

An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby and not for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable or superior to that of many professionals and may be highly specialised or eclectic in its choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward.

 

Commercial

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:

 

Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.

Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case.

Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.

Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.

Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.

Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine.

Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.

Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.

Landscape photography: photographs of different locations.

Wildlife photography that demonstrates life of the animals.

Photo sharing: publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online.

Paparazzi

The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism "A picture is worth a thousand words", which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.

 

Many people take photographs for self-fulfillment or for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.

 

Art

 

During the twentieth century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.

 

The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light"; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.

 

Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art.

 

There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto's frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.

—[12]

On February 14, 2006 Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph "99 Cent II Diptychon" for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder making it the most expensive of all time.

 

Conceptual photography

Photography that turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

 

Science and forensics

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861 and the Staplehurst rail crash of 1865. One of the first systematic applications occurred at the scene of the Tay Rail Bridge disaster of 1879. The court, just a few days after the accident, ordered James Valentine of Dundee to record the scene using both long distance shots and close-ups of the debris. The set of over 50 accident photographs was used in the subsequent court of inquiry so that witnesses could identify pieces of the wreckage, and the technique is now commonplace both at accident scenes and subsequent cases in courts of law. The set of over 50 Tay bridge photographs are of very high quality, being made on a large plate camera with a small aperture and using fine grain emulsion film on a glass plate. When the surviving positive prints are scanned at high resolution, they can be enlarged to show details of the failed components such as broken cast iron lugs and the tie bars which failed to hold the towers in place. The set of original photographs is held at Dundee City Library. The photographs show that, in the words of the Public Inquiry the bridge was "badly designed, badly built and badly maintained". The methods used in analysing old photographs are collectively known as forensic photography.

 

Between 1846 and 1852 Charles Brooke invented a technology for the automatic registration of instruments by photography. These instruments included barometers, thermometers, psychrometers, and magnetometers, which recorded their readings by means of an automated photographic process.

Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and developed much further since that time.

 

Other image forming techniques

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic film, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

 

Social and cultural implications

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing "On Photography" (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[13] It has been concluded that photography is a subjective discipline "to photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one’s self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power."[14] Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo. Along with the context that a photograph is received in, photography is definitely a subjective form.

 

Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its impact on society. In Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as a promoter of voyeuristic inhibitions. 'Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing'.[14] Michal Powell's Peeping Tom (1960) portrays the camera as both sexual and sadistically violent technology that literally kills in this picture and at the same time captures images of the pain and anguish evident on the faces of the female victims.[citation needed]

 

"The camera doesn't rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate - all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment."[14]

 

Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[15] Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed." Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[14]

 

One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze"[16] in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a "reverse gaze"[17] through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.

 

Forms

Aviation photography

Architectural photography

Candid photography

Cloudscape photography

Digiscoping

Documentary photography

Erotic photography

Fashion photography

Fine art photography

Fire photography

Food photography

Forensic photography

Glamour photography

Head shot

Landscape art

Landscape photography

Miksang (contemplative photography)

Nature photography

Wedding photography

Special occasion photography

Social photography

Nude photography

Old-time photography

Photojournalism

Portrait photography

Sports photography

Still life photography

Stock photography

Street photography

Travel photography

Underwater photography

Vernacular photography

VR photography

War photography

Wedding photography

Wildlife photography

Photographers and photographs

List of most expensive photographs

List of photographers

Movie stills photographer

 

Equipment (cameras, etc.)

Camera

Camera Phone

Color chart

Digital camera

Digital single-lens reflex camera

Dry box

Film base

Film format

Film holder

Film scanner

Film stock

Filter

Flash

Gray card

Lenses for SLR and DSLR cameras

List of photographic equipment makers

Monopod

Movie projector

Perspective control lens

Photographic film

Photographic lens

Reflector

Rangefinder camera

SD Card(for digital photography)

Single-lens reflex camera

Slide projector

Soft box

Still camera

Toy camera

Tripod

Twin-lens reflex camera

Video camera

View camera

Zone plate

History

Albumen print

Calotype

Daguerreotype

Timeline of photography technology

 

Techniques

Aerial Photography

Afocal photography

Astrophotography

Bokeh

Contre-jour

Cross processing

Cyanotype

Film developing

Full spectrum photography

Harris Shutter

High dynamic range imaging

High speed photography

Image fusion

Infrared photography

Kinetic photography

Kite aerial photography

Lead room

Light painting

Lith-Print

Macro photography

Micrography, or Photomicrography

Monochrome Photography

Motion blur

Night photography

Panning

Panoramic photography

Photogram

Photograph conservation

Photographic mosaic

Photographic print toning

Push printing

Push processing

Rephotography

Rollout photography

Sabatier Effect

Schlieren photography

Stereoscopy

Sun printing

Tilted plane focus

Time-lapse

Ultraviolet photography

Wide dynamic range

Zoom burst

 

General concepts

Camera obscura

Composition in visual arts

Diana camera

Early photographers of York

Gelatin-silver process

Gum printing

Hand-coloring

Holography

Kirlian photography

Lomography

Mourning portraits

Negative

North American Nature Photography Association

Photograph

Print permanence

Vignetting

Technical principles

Angle of view

Aperture

Color temperature

Depth of field

Depth of focus

Digital versus film photography

Double exposure

Exposure

F-number

Film format

Film speed

Perspective distortion

Photographic printing

Photographic processes

Pinhole camera

Reciprocity (photography)

Red-eye effect

Rule of thirds

Science of photography

Shutter speed

Zone System

 

After This what you think about Photography

St Brelade's Church is one of the twelve ancient parish churches in the island of Jersey; it is sited on the west side of the island in the parish of St Brelade, in the southwest corner of St Brelade's Bay. It is unique in the Channel Islands in having one of the very few surviving medieval chapels, the Fisherman's Chapel, sited directly next to the main church building.

 

The church is dedicated to Saint Brelade. St Brelade was also known as St Branwalader, and has no connection with St Brendan.

 

The present church is mentioned in deeds of patronage. In AD 1035, Robert of Normandy confirmed the patronage of the church to the monastery of Montivilliers, which shows that the church was here before 1035. The Church was first built by Saint Branwalader. The chancel is the oldest part of the building. The original building extended some six feet into the nave. It was then only a small monastic chapel.

 

Early in the 12th century it became a parish church, so additions were made; and in the 14th–15th centuries, the roof was raised some two and a half feet higher to a Gothic pitch. The roof of the Fishermen's Chapel was raised at the same time.

 

The church of the 12th century was cruciform in structure, consisting of a chancel, a nave (built in two periods) and two transepts—the latter forming the two arms. At a later date, perhaps a century later, the chancel aisle was built, and after that the nave aisle.

 

The tower is of later date than the chancel.

 

Once a rood screen adorned the church; the corbels on which it rested are still in place and a closed-up doorway, through which the rood was approached, is still in existence.

 

The font disappeared during the Reformation and was found on the slopes near the church, hidden in bracken and gorse, in 1840 and restored to the church. An ornate wooden cover for the font was provided in memory of H. G. Shepard, long-time churchwarden.

 

Above the font there was presumed to have existed, up to 1843, a smokers' gallery. However, this supposition, first mentioned by William George Tabb, Rector, has no documentary evidence.

 

A processional cross dating from the 13th century is to be seen in the Lady Chapel; this was found buried in the church.

  

The church by PJ Ouless

Nearly all the stone used in the building of this church came from the beach; limpet shells can be noted on the stonework.

 

The stained glass is the work of Henry Thomas Bosdet and replaced plain glass windows dating from the Reformation iconoclasm.

 

The carved text on the pulpit is a rendering of Proverbs 25:11: "Telles que sont les pommes d'or emaillées d'argent, telle est la parole dit comme il faut [A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in filigree work]."

 

Before the restoration of Balleine in the 1890s, the whole of the interior stone work was covered in plaster which was whitewashed; the plaster was removed to show the granite, and the whole re-pointed with cement. Balleine's restoration also saw Art Nouveau woodwork in the choir stalls and pulpit and modern paving in the chancel; it is made of five different types of Jersey granite and represents the waves breaking on the seashore.

 

The legend has the original site of the church a mile distant and moved by night by fairy folk from their sacred site to where it now stands, until the workmen got the message and left it where it is now.[1] This legend helps to explain the unusual situation of the church and can be traced back to the early 19th century. There are also many English churches which share the same legend.

 

William George Tabb was born on born on 6 October 1897 in Jersey Channel Islands, and baptised in the old Wooden Church at First Tower by the late Rev P. J. Mourant. He was confirmed by Bishop McArthur, Bishop of Southampton, in the original St Andrew's Church on the Esplanade, now a potato store. He was educated at the old Church of England National School under distinguished headmaster. Tom Adderson. Among his Sunday school teachers there were Mr and Mrs A. F. Hunt who for many years were in charge of the Church Bookshop in Waterloo Street.

 

He wanted to be a priest from an early age and he was much influenced by Mr Mourant, who became Vicar of St Andrew's, and by the organist of the Wooden Church, Harry Jerram. The latter became organist of All Saints and Mr Tabb followed him there and became a member of the choir, a server, a Sunday school teacher and a Lay Reader. There he met his wife, Edith Osment and her family, all of whom were members of the choir.

 

The outbreak of the First World War brought to an end the 'old days'. Reminiscing, Mr Tabb would say that they were good in parts. It is true that it was necessary to arrive at All Saints for Evensong at 6 p.m. in Order to get a seat in Mr Foster Ward's early days, but it is also true that the country churches in particular were largely without heat or light, and they were shut and locked from Sunday to Sunday. When Dean Falle arrived in 1906 and was joined by his curate, the Rev Herbert W Quarrie, they did much to stimulate the new life and energy into the Island Church.

 

Mr Tabb joined the Royal Navy and he had to grapple with New Testament Greek in a hammock. He saw active service in the North Sea and on Atlantic Convoy Patrols and he was present at the surrender of the German Fleet to Admiral Beatty. After the war he became the last private pupil of the late Ed Le Feuvre, Rector of Grouville - a brilliant coach. He then trained for work overseas at the Brotherhood of St Paul, Essex, supported by good friends at All Saints. Other scholars who had trained there included. Mr Curtis, curate of St Andrew, Prebendary L. Snell, sometime curate of St Helier and Mr Hornby, former rector of St John and St Clement.

 

From there he went to Canada for ordination in the Diocese of Ottawa, where he married Edith Osment. They was married in Ontario in 1924. The Church records state:

 

13327-24 William George TABB, 27, clerk in holy orders, Jersey - Channel Islands, Montague Rectory - Montague, s/o Charles Francis TABB & Ada SMITH, married Edith May OSMENT, 27, Jersey - Channel Islands, Rosedale - Montague, d/o Edwin Henry OSMENT & Erith Mary KELLAWAY, witn: John SALTER of Montague & Ada Zelie TABB of Rosedale, 18 November 1924 at Smith Falls.

 

After caring for four churches in the Montague and Franktown areas, and doing intensive missionary work in an area three times the size of Jersey, he became rector of Bearbrook with three Churches to care for. Six years later he returned to England after a severe operation and took a curacy in Dartmouth.

 

Dean Falle was always on the lookout for young Jerseymen to fill the Parish Cures and he offered Tabb Trinity. War and the Occupation brought great burdens. States work became more difficult. When Canon Cohu was sent to Germany he found himself on the Agriculture Committee in addition to the Public Health Committee under Edward Le Quesne. Apart from these two major committees he served at various times on the original Motor Traffic and Tourism Committees, Electricity, Markets and Westaway Crèche. Tabb's knowledge of French together with his intimate knowledge of Jersey manners and customs, stood him in good stead as Chapter Clerk.

 

After 10 years there he moved south to St Brelade's Church|St Brelade where he became Rector in 1946. While at Trinity he was able to continue his duties as chaplain to Athelstan Riley but St Brelade's needed his undivided attention. It was a growing parish, had a huge visitor population and Mrs Tabb had a large Rectory to run. He also gave up his work as Chaplain to the General Hospital and H.M. Prison. When he took office in 1946 his flock numbered 2,700. in 1965, the population of the Parish was 9,000.

 

He was Rector of Trinity Church in Jersey from 1934–1946, and Rector at St Brelade's Church from 1946 to 1971,[3] where he died as incumbent at the age of 74.

 

Another distinction which he shares with Canon Norman, Rector of St Saviour, is that of being the last Rector still in office who served in the States Chamber of the States of Jersey before Rectors were dismissed by the electorate.

 

Buried in the churchyard

Claude Cahun

George Reginald Balleine

Gilbert Imlay

Suzanne Malherbe

 

Jersey (/ˈdʒɜːrzi/ JUR-zee, French: [ʒɛʁzɛ] (About this soundlisten); Jèrriais: Jèrri [dʒɛri]), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (French: Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is an island and British Crown Dependency[10] near the coast of Normandy, France.[11] It is the second-closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English Crown. Jersey and the Jèrriais people has been described as a nation.[12][13]

 

The Bailiwick consists of the Island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles,[14] Les Écréhous,[14] Les Minquiers,[15] Les Pierres de Lecq,[16] and other reefs. Although the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional unit, though the islands have sometimes cooperated politicallly, for example running shared overseas offices. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.[17]

 

Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial, legal and judicial systems,[6] and the power of self-determination.[18] The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom,[19] and has an international identity separate from that of the UK,[20] but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey.[21] Unlike the UK, Jersey was never part of the European Union, however Brexit still had an impact on Jersey's relationship with Europe.[22]

 

British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and Pound sterling as its primary currency, even if some people still speak or understand Jèrriais, the local form of the Norman language, and place names with French or Norman origins abound. Additional British cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, and the popularity of British sports, including cricket.

 

Origin of the name

The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified specifically because none corresponds directly to the present names.[25] The name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey (also in its French version Césarée) since William Camden's Britannia,[26] and is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was also applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea.[27][28]

 

Andium, Agna and Augia were used in antiquity.

 

Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð (Old Norse for "earth") or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr ("Geirr's Island").[29] The ending -ey denotes an island[30][31] (as in Guernsey or Surtsey).

 

History

Main article: History of Jersey

See also: Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Maritime history of the Channel Islands, and German occupation of the Channel Islands

 

An 1893 painting of the Assize d'Heritage by John St Helier Lander.

Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.

 

La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island. Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity, as demonstrated by the concentration of dolmens. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island.

 

Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship (fanum).[32]

 

Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula (probably with the Avranchin) came formally under the control of the Duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands, Cotentin and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands. When William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.[33] The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, and Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands.[34]

 

In the Treaty of Paris (1259), the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, and since then the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown.[34]

 

On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island.[35]

 

In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries.[36] In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey. It is now a state in the United States.[37][38]

  

Liberation Day celebrations in Jersey, 9 May 2012

Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had ordered that the bailiwick be heavily fortified. On 6 January 1781, a French invasion force of 2,000 men set out to take over the island, but only half of the force arrived and landed. The Battle of Jersey lasted about half an hour, with the British successfully defending the island. There were about thirty casualties on each side, and the British took 600 French prisoners who were subsequently sent to Great Britain. Both of the army commanders were slain.

 

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France.[39] The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, milling, fishing, shipbuilding and production of woollen goods. 19th-century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.

 

During the Second World War, some citizens were evacuated to the UK but most remained. Jersey was occupied by Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945, when Germany surrendered.[40] During this time the Germans constructed many fortifications using Soviet slave labour. After 1944, supplies from mainland France were interrupted by the D-Day landings, and food on the island became scarce. The SS Vega was sent to the island carrying Red Cross supplies and news of the success of the Allied advance in Europe. During the Nazi occupation, a resistance cell was created by communist activist Norman Le Brocq and the Jersey Communist Party, whose communist ideology of forming a 'United Front' led to the creation of the Jersey Democratic Movement.[41] The Channel Islands were one of the last places in Europe to be liberated. 9 May is celebrated as the island's Liberation Day, where there are celebrations in Liberation Square.

 

Throughout 2020 and the beginning of 2021, Jersey suffered from the global COVID-19 pandemic. The island was placed into a lockdown, with significant restrictions on freedom of movement for residents on 30 March.

 

Governance

Politics

Main article: Politics of Jersey

 

The States building in St. Helier

Jersey is a British Crown dependency and is not part of the United Kingdom - it is officially part of the British Islands. As one of the Crown dependencies, Jersey is autonomous and self-governing, with its own independent legal, administrative and fiscal systems.[42] Jersey's government has described Jersey as a "self-governing, democratic country with the power of self-determination".[43]

 

Because Jersey is a dependency of the British Crown, Queen Elizabeth II reigns in Jersey.[44] "The Crown" is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the "Crown in right of Jersey".[45] The Queen's representative and adviser in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey - Sir Stephen Dalton since 13 March 2017. He is a point of contact between Jersey ministers and the UK Government and carries out some functions in relation to immigration control, deportation, naturalisation and the issue of passports.[46]

  

Sir John Chalmers McColl as Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

In 1973, the Royal Commission on the Constitution set out the duties of the Crown as including: ultimate responsibility for the 'good government' of the Crown dependencies; ratification of island legislation by Order-in-Council (royal assent); international representation, subject to consultation with the island authorities before concluding any agreement which would apply to them; ensuring the islands meet their international obligations; and defence.[47]

 

Legislature and government

Jersey's unicameral legislature is the States Assembly. It includes 49 elected members: 8 senators (elected on an island-wide basis), 12 Connétables (often called 'constables', heads of parishes) and 29 deputies (representing constituencies), all elected for four-year terms as from the October 2011 elections.[48] There are also five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff, the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General and Solicitor General.[49] Jersey has one of the lowest voter turnouts internationally, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it well below the 77% European average for that year.[50]

 

The Council of Ministers, consisting of a Chief Minister and nine ministers, makes up part of the Government of Jersey.[51][52] Each minister may appoint up to two assistant ministers.[53] A Chief Executive is head of the civil service.[54] Some government functions are carried out in the island's parishes.

 

The Bailiff is President (presiding officer) of the States Assembly,[55] head of the judiciary and as civic head of the island carries out various ceremonial roles.

 

Law

Main article: Law of Jersey

Jersey is a distinct jurisdiction for the purposes of conflict of laws, separate from the other Channel Islands, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.[56]

 

Jersey law has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law, English common law and modern French civil law.[57] Jersey's legal system is therefore described as 'mixed' or 'pluralistic', and sources of law are in French and English languages, although since the 1950s the main working language of the legal system is English.

 

The principal court is the Royal Court, with appeals to the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Bailiff is head of the judiciary; the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff are appointed by the Crown. Other members of the island's judiciary are appointed by the Bailiff.

 

Parishes

Main article: Parishes of Jersey

Saint OuenSaint MarySaint JohnTrinitySaint

MartinSaint PeterSaint

LawrenceSaint HelierSaint

SaviourGrouvilleSaint BreladeSaint Clement

Parishes of Jersey

Jersey is divided into twelve parishes (which have civil and religious functions). They are all named after their parish church. The Connétable is the head of the parish. They are elected at island general elections and sit ex oficio in the States Assembly.

 

The parishes have various civil administrative functions, such as roads (managed by the Road Committee) and policing (through the Honorary Police). Each parish is governed through direct democracy at Parish Assemblies, consisting of all eligible voters resident in the parish. The Procureurs du Bien Public are the legal and financial representatives of these parishes.

 

The parishes of Jersey are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions that are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

 

External relations

Main article: External relations of Jersey

 

Jersey Airport greets travellers with "Welcome to Jersey" sign in Jèrriais.

The external relations of Jersey are overseen by the External Relations Minister of the Government of Jersey.[58][59] In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor signed an agreement[20] that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey.

 

Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown. Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on various matters, for example Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries.[60][61] The Government maintains offices (some in partnership with Guernsey) in Caen,[62] London[63] and Brussels.[64]

 

Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie.

 

Jersey Independence has in the past been discussed in the States Assembly. Former External Relations Minister Sir Philip Bailhache has at various times warned that the island may need to go independent.[65] It is not Jersey Government policy to seek independence, but the island is prepared if it needed to do so.[66][67][68]

 

Relationship with the European Union

Jersey is a third-party European country to the EU. Its relationship with the EU operates under the free-trade agreement negotiated by the UK. Since 1 January 2021, Jersey has been part of the UK-EU Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement for the purposes of goods and fishing. Goods exported from the island into Europe are not be subject to tariffs and Jersey is solely responsible for management of its territorial waters. Although there is no provision for services, the External Relations Minister Ian Gorst is confident it is compatible with pre-existing relationship. The deal was unanimously approved by the States Assembly.[69]

 

Before the end of the transition period after the UK withdrew from the EU in 2020, Jersey had a special relationship with the EU. Jersey was within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible.[70] It was part of the EU customs union and the common external tariff applied. There was free movement of goods between Jersey and the EU but free movement of people did not apply to Jersey. Jersey was not part of the single market in financial services. It was not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as the movement of capital, company law or money laundering.

 

Under the EU trade deal, regarding fishing, Jersey takes control of all fishing boats in its waters through a licensing process, however EU boats with a history of fishing in Jersey waters will be granted a permit. Similarly, Jersey boats that have traditionally fished in French waters will be given a permit to continue by the French authorities.[71] The change means that Jersey will control fishing activities for EU boats in Jersey waters which is of concern especially to French fishermen.[72] Jersey boats registered with NEAFC can land crustaceans and fin fish they have caught at the ports of Carteret or Granville, as these species are exempt from the EU sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements for an Export Health Certificate, however specific French permission is required before each landing. Scallops, clams and whelks cannot be landed into the EU without a health certificate.[73]

 

COVID-19 pandemic

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Jersey

Jersey has been and continues to be affected by the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic since 10 March 2020. The strategy combatting the pandemic is to "suppress, contain and shield",[74] involving suppressing outbreaks of the virus and protecting vulnerable islanders. There are no plans to aim for elimination of the virus.[75] At first, the strategy simply involved increased health and hygiene guidance, but the rising number of cases led to Jersey going into a lockdown on 30 March 2020.[76] Restrictions were eased according to the "Safe Exit" framework[77] from May. From Novemeber, the island underwent a 'second wave' of infections, so the Government introduced a number of new restrictions such as a mask mandate and business closures.[78]

 

As of March 2021, Jersey is undergoing a phased exit from all Covid-19 restrictions which have been in place since March 2020. By 14 June, all restrictions, including social distancing but not travel restrictions, will be lifted. At present the island is in 'Stage 4' of reconnection. Schools and all businesses are open. All sport has also resumed and gatherings of up to 10 peopleare allowed indoors and outdoors.[79][80][81]

 

There are severe travel restrictions into the Bailiwick for all travellers. The island operates a border testing programme, which normally organises countries and regions according to a 'traffic light' system and all arrivals undergo three swab tests in the first 10 days from their arrival.[82] Since 30 January 2021 and until 26 April,[83] all countries have been classed as 'red', requiring a minimum 10 days self-isolation for all arrivals.[84] All arrivals therefore became obligated to go into a ten-day self-isolation period, with the option to swab test on the day of arrival, the 5th day after arriving, and the 10th day.[85]

  

Geography

Main article: Geography of Jersey

 

Satellite view of Jersey

 

Bonne Nuit bay

 

Map of islands of Bailiwick of Jersey

 

Large, detailed map of Jersey

Jersey is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometres (45.6 sq mi) (or 66,436 vergées),[5] including reclaimed land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel, about 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France, and about 87 nautical miles (161 km; 100 mi) south of Great Britain.[86] It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands and part of the British Isles, with a maximum land elevation of 143 m (469 ft) above sea level.

 

About 24% of the island is built-up. 52% of the land area is dedicated to cultivation and around 18% is the natural environment.[87]

 

It lies within longitude -2° W and latitude 49° N. It has a coastline that is 70 km long and a total area of 119 square kilometres. It measures roughly 9 miles from west to east and 5 miles north to south, which gives it the affectionate name among locals of "nine-by-five".

 

The island is divided into twelve parishes, the largest of which is St Ouen and the smallest of which is St Clement. The island is characterised by a number of valleys which generally run north-to-south, such as Waterworks Valley, Grands Vaux, Mont les Vaux, although a few run in other directions, such as Le Mourier Valley. The highest point on the island is Les Platons at 136 m.[88]

 

There are several smaller island groups that are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey, such as Les Minquiers and Les Écrehous, however unlike the smaller islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, none of these are permanently inhabited.

 

Settlements

The largest settlement is the town of St Helier, including the built-up area of southern St Helier and neighbouring areas such as Georgetown, which also plays host to the island's seat of government. The town is the central business district, hosting a large proportion of the island's retail and employment, such as the finance industry.

 

Outside of the town, many islanders live in suburban and rural settlements, especially along main roads leading out of town and even the more rural areas of the island have considerable amounts of development (St Ouen, the least densely populated parish still has 270 persons per square kilometre[89]). The south and east coasts from St Aubin to Gorey are largely urbanised. The most notable exurban development is the Les Quennevais area, which is home to a small precinct of shops, schools, a park and a leisure centre.

 

Most people across Jersey regularly travel from the rural settlements to St Helier and from the town to the rural areas for work and leisure purposes.

 

Housing costs in Jersey are very high. The Jersey House Price Index has at least doubled between 2002 and 2020. The mix-adjusted house price for Jersey is £567,000, higher than any UK region (UK average: £249,000) including London (average: £497,000; highest of any UK region).[90]

 

Climate

The climate is an oceanic climate with mild winters and mild to warm summers.[91]

 

The Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer. The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) on 9 August 2003 and again on 23 July 2019,[92] and the lowest temperature recorded was −10.3 °C (13.5 °F) on 5 January 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and coastal winds ensure that Jersey is slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of England during the summer months. Snow falls rarely in Jersey; some years will pass with no snow fall at all.

 

The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north–south.

 

The following table contains the official Jersey Airport averages for 1981-2010 for Jersey, being located 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from St. Helier.

 

Climate data for Jersey Airport, elevation 84m, 1981-2010

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear

Record high °C (°F)14.0

(57.2)18.0

(64.4)20.3

(68.5)25.0

(77.0)28.0

(82.4)33.0

(91.4)36.0

(96.8)36.0

(96.8)30.2

(86.4)26.0

(78.8)21.0

(69.8)16.0

(60.8)36.0

(96.8)

Average high °C (°F)8.3

(46.9)8.4

(47.1)10.4

(50.7)12.5

(54.5)15.8

(60.4)18.4

(65.1)20.4

(68.7)20.6

(69.1)18.7

(65.7)15.4

(59.7)11.7

(53.1)9.2

(48.6)14.2

(57.6)

Daily mean °C (°F)6.3

(43.3)6.1

(43.0)7.9

(46.2)9.5

(49.1)12.6

(54.7)15.1

(59.2)17.2

(63.0)17.5

(63.5)15.8

(60.4)13.0

(55.4)9.6

(49.3)7.1

(44.8)11.5

(52.7)

Average low °C (°F)4.3

(39.7)3.8

(38.8)5.3

(41.5)6.5

(43.7)9.3

(48.7)11.8

(53.2)13.9

(57.0)14.3

(57.7)12.9

(55.2)10.6

(51.1)7.5

(45.5)5.0

(41.0)8.8

(47.8)

Record low °C (°F)−10.3

(13.5)−9.0

(15.8)−3.3

(26.1)−1.6

(29.1)0.0

(32.0)5.9

(42.6)9.0

(48.2)7.7

(45.9)6.0

(42.8)−2.6

(27.3)−3.0

(26.6)−4.0

(24.8)−10.3

(13.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches)93.1

(3.67)68.9

(2.71)66.1

(2.60)56.4

(2.22)55.6

(2.19)47.5

(1.87)44.6

(1.76)49.5

(1.95)63.9

(2.52)103.4

(4.07)105.4

(4.15)111.3

(4.38)865.8

(34.09)

Mean monthly sunshine hours66.191.6134.0196.5236.7245.4252.7235.3184.6118.879.963.21,904.8

Source: Met Office[93] and Voodoo Skies[94]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Jersey

See also: Financial services in Jersey and Tourism in Jersey

 

The Central Business District of St Helier

Jersey's economy is highly developed and services-focused, with a GDP per capita of £45,320[95] in 2019. It is a mixed market economy, with free market principles and an advanced social security infrastructure.[96] It is based on financial services (40% of GVA in 2012), tourism and hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport and communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012).[5] 53,460 people were employed in Jersey as of December 2010: 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars.[5]

 

Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. Gross national income in 2009 was £3.7 billion (approximately £40,000 per head of population).[5] However, this is not indicative of each individual resident's purchasing power and the actual standard of living in Jersey is comparable to that in the United Kingdom outside central London.

 

Jersey is most notable for being one of the world's largest offshore finance centres. The United Kingdom acts as a conduit for financial services between European countries and the island.[97] The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the "leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents."[50] In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005,[98] a competition law based on those of other jurisdictions, to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth.

 

Tourism is an important economic sector for the island. Hospitality (hotels, restaurants and bars) made up 4.2% of Jersey's GVA in 2019. It is estimated that the wider contribution of tourism in particular is 8.3% (2017). Travel to Jersey is very seasonal. Accommodation occupancy is much higher in the summer months, especially August, than in the winter months (with a low in November). The majority of visitors to the island arrive by air from the UK.

  

Aerial view of fields in Saint Clement, Jersey

In 2017, 52% of the Island's area was agricultural land (a decrease since 2009).[87] Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce; agriculture's share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth.[5] Jersey cattle are a small breed of cow widely known for its rich milk and cream; the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale.[99][100] The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals.[5] Fisheries and aquaculture make use of Jersey's marine resources to a total value of over £6 million in 2009.[5] Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.

 

Jersey along with Guernsey has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in 1975.

 

On 18 February 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.[101]

 

Taxation

Jersey is not a tax-free jurisdiction. Taxes are levied on properties (known as 'rates') and a Personal Income Tax, Corporate Income Tax and goods and services tax exist.[102]

 

Before 2008, Jersey had no value-added tax. Many companies, such as Amazon and Play.com, took advantage of this and a loophole in European law, known as low-value consignment relief, to establish a tax-free fulfilment industry from Jersey.[103] This loophole was closed by UK authorities in 2012, leading to the closure of most of industry.[103]

 

There is a 20% standard rate for Income Tax and a 5% standard rate for GST. The island has a 0% default tax rate for corporations, however higher rates apply to financial services, utility companies and large corporate retailers.[102]

 

Jersey is considered to be a tax haven by some organisations - for example the Financial Secrecy Index ranks Jersey as 18th as of 2018.[104] Jersey does not feature, however, in the March 2019 revised EU list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes.[105]

 

Transport

Main article: Transport in Jersey

 

A cycle path in Gorey

The primary mode of transport on the island is the motor vehicle. Jersey has a road network consisting of 557 km of roads and there are a total of 124,737 motor vehicles registered on the island as of 2016.[106]

 

There are no longer any railways on the island, however there used to be two main railway lines, the Jersey Western Railway and the Jersey Eastern Railway. The Western Railway track has been converted to a cycle track. Public transport in Jersey consists of a bus network. There is also a taxi network.

 

Jersey has a large network of lanes, some of which are classified as green lanes, which have a 15 mph speed limit and where priority is afforded to pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.

 

Jersey has an airport and a number of ports, which are operated by Ports of Jersey.[107]

 

Currency

Main article: Jersey pound

 

The Jersey £5 note

 

Jersey stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of General William Mesny

Jersey's monetary policy is linked to the Bank of England. The official currency of Jersey is the pound sterling. Jersey issues its own postage stamps, banknotes (including a £1 note which is not issued in the UK) and coins that circulate alongside all other sterling coinage. Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey; however it is acceptable tender[108] in the UK and can be surrendered at banks in exchange for UK currency. Due to French tourism, many places accept the euro.

 

In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses.[109]

 

Demography

 

Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century after its split from Normandy.

Main article: Demography of Jersey

Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island's only town.[110] Approximately half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.[111]

 

The people of Jersey are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British.

 

Historical population

YearPop.±%

187156,627—

195155,244−2.4%

196159,489+7.7%

197169,329+16.5%

198176,050+9.7%

199184,082+10.6%

200187,186+3.7%

201197,857+12.2%

2019106,800+9.1%

2019 estimate[6]

Immigration and nationality

Jersey employs a number of population controls on people moving to and from the island. Jersey is part of the Common Travel Area (CTA),[112] a border control-free zone which encompasses the Crown Dependencies, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. This means a passport is not required to travel from Jersey from any of these territories (or vice versa), though the Government recommends all travellers bring photo ID, since it may need to be checked by customs or police officers and is generally required by commercial transport providers into the island.[113] Due to the CTA, Jersey-born British citizens in the rest of the CTA and British and Irish citizens in Jersey have the right to access social benefits, access healthcare, access social housing support and to vote in general elections.[114] For non-CTA travel, Jersey maintains its own immigration[115] and border controls (although most travel into the Bailiwick is from the rest of the CTA), however United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey's consent.[116]

 

The definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.[117] This means that for immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. As such, there is no such thing as a 'Jersey passport'. British passports issued in Jersey are full British passports with the same design of and their holders enjoy the same rights as other British citizens will only be issued to British Jersey residents or Jersey-born British citizens and say "BRITISH PASSPORT BAILIWICK OF JERSEY".[118][119]

 

Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration[120] by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.[121]

 

To control population, Jersey operates a system of registration which restricts the right to live and work in the island according to certain requirements. In order to move to Jersey or work in Jersey, everyone (including Jersey-born people) must be registered and have a registration card. There are a number of statuses:

 

Residential and employment statuses[122]

RequirementsHousingWork

EntitledMost Jersey-born residents (permanently)

Long-term residents (at least 10 years)

 

Can buy, sell or lease any propertyCan work anywhere

LicensedCertain essential workersCan buy, sell or lease most propertyPermission required

Entitled to workLong-term residents (at least 5 years)

Spouse or civil partner of someone who is entitled to work or higher.

 

Can lease 'registered' propertyCan work anywhere

RegisteredAll othersCan lease 'registered' propertyPermission required

History of immigration

Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.[26] In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon's coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.

 

Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom – the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.

 

Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which is, by 2013, about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.

 

Immigration has helped give aspects of Jersey a distinct urban character, particularly in and around the parish of St Helier, which contributes much to ongoing debates between development and sustainability throughout the island.[123]

 

Language

Further information: Languages of Jersey

See also: Languages of the United Kingdom § Jersey

Languages spoken as of 2001[89]

LanguageMain languageSecondary languageTotal speakers

English82,3493,44385,792

Portuguese4,0023,3007,305

French33814,77615,114

Jèrriais (Jersey French)1132,7612,874

Other3844,4964,880

Religion

 

St Thomas' Catholic Church in St Helier

Main article: Religion in Jersey

Religion in Jersey has a complex history, drawn largely from different Christian denominations. In 2015, Jersey's first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey people have no religion, with only small handfuls of Jersey people belonging to the non-Christian religions. In total, 54% said they had some form of religion, and 7% were not sure. Of those that specified a denomination of Christianity, equal proportions were 'Catholic' or 'Roman Catholic' (43%) as were 'Anglican' or 'Church of England' (44%). The remaining eighth (13%) gave another Christian denomination.[124]

 

The established church is the Church of England, from 2015 under the See of Canterbury (previously under the Winchester diocese). In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: De La Salle College in Saint Saviour is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Saviour is an all-girls school; and FCJ primary school in St. Saviour. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.

 

Culture

Main article: Culture of Jersey

 

Jèrriais road sign ("The black road") in Saint Ouen.

Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais – a variety of Norman – was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, British cultural influence saw an intense language shift take place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking.[23] Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.

  

Actress Lillie Langtry, nicknamed the Jersey Lily.

The dialects of Jèrriais differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the place names increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.

 

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.

 

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.[125] Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué[126] (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival),[127] the Battle of Britain air display, Jersey Live Music Festival, Branchage Film Festival, food festivals, and parish events.

 

The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.[128]

 

Media

Main article: Media of Jersey

Broadcast

Main article: Telecommunications in Jersey

 

A Channel Television crew interview the Bailiff of Jersey

BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Channel Islands News with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey. ITV Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.

 

Channel 103 is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online at bailiwickradio.com, Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.[129]

 

Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey's digital online news sources.[citation needed]

 

Daily newspaper

Jersey has only one newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post, which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since 1890.

 

Music

 

The Band of the Island of Jersey play at many events[130]

The traditional folk music of Jersey was common in country areas until the mid-20th century. It cannot be separated from the musical traditions of continental Europe, and the majority of songs and tunes that have been documented have close parallels or variants, particularly in France. Most of the surviving traditional songs are in French, with a minority in Jèrriais.

 

In contemporary music, Guru Josh was most notable for his internationally successful debut hit Infinity and its re-releases, reaching number one in numerous European countries. Furthermore, Nerina Pallot has enjoyed international success. Music festivals in Jersey include Jersey Live, Weekender, Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod and the Liberation Jersey Music Festival.[131]

 

Cinema

In 1909, T. J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture, The Perfect Alibi, was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 – during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda films.

 

The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. The Odeon is now a listed building.[132][133]

 

Since 1997, Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm on a big screen. The festival is regularly held in Howard Davis Park, St Saviour.

 

First held in 2008, the Branchage Jersey International Film Festival[134] attracts filmmakers from all over the world. The 2001 movie The Others was set on the island in 1945 shortly after liberation.

 

Food and drink

 

Jersey wonders, or mèrvelles, are a favourite snack consisting of fried dough, found especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.

Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussels (called moules in the island), oysters, lobster and crabs – especially spider crabs – ormers and conger.

 

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Island milk) However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

 

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). They were originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter.

 

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (lé nièr beurre), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Besides cider, apple brandy is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine,[135] and in 2013 the first commercial vodkas made from Jersey Royal potatoes were marketed.[136]

 

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders (les mèrvelles), fliottes, bean crock (les pais au fou), nettle (ortchie) soup, vraic buns.

 

Sport

Main article: Sport in Jersey

 

A statue of Jersey golfer, Harry Vardon, stands at the entrance to the Royal Jersey Golf Club

In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games, which it first hosted in 1997 and more recently in 2015.[137]

 

In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.

 

Jersey is an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competed in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey. In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.

 

For Horse racing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle.

 

The Jersey Football Association supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti competition among others.

 

Rugby union in Jersey comes under the auspices of the Jersey Rugby Association (JRA), which is a member of the Rugby Football Union of England. Jersey Reds compete in the English rugby union system;[138] after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship in 2012–13.[139]

 

Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to Saint Helier Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.

 

There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing.

 

Two professional golfers from Jersey have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon won six times and Ted Ray won once. Vardon and Ray also won the U.S. Open once each. Harry Vardon's brother, Tom Vardon, had wins on various European tours.

 

An independent body that promotes sports in Jersey and support clubs, 'Jersey Sport' was launched in 2017[140]

 

Literature

 

Victor Hugo in exile, 1850s.

Wace, a Norman poet of the 12th century, is Jersey's earliest known author. Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature). The first Jèrriais book to be published was Rimes et Poésies Jersiaises de divers auteurs réunies et mises en ordre, edited by Abraham Mourant in 1865. Writers born in Jersey include Elinor Glyn, John Lemprière, Philippe Le Sueur Mourant, Robert Pipon Marett and Augustus Asplet Le Gros. Frederick Tennyson and Gerald Durrell were among authors who made Jersey their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey include Jack Higgins.

 

Education

Main article: Education in Jersey

Schools

See also: List of schools in Jersey

The Government of Jersey provides education through state schools (including a fee-paying option at secondary level) and also supports private schools. The Jersey curriculum follows that of England.[24] It follows the National Curriculum although there are a few differences to adapt for the island,[141] for example all Year 4 students study a six-week Jersey Studies course.[142]

 

Further and higher education

Jersey has a college of further education and university centre, Highlands College. As well as offering part-time and evening courses, Highlands is also a sixth form provider, working alongside Hautlieu School which offers the only non-fee-paying sixth form, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University, University of Plymouth and London South Bank University. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two-year foundation degree in financial services and for a BSc in social sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth.

 

The Institute of Law is Jersey's law school, providing a course for students seeking to qualify as Jersey advocates and solicitors. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree programme, via the International Programmes. The Institute of Law also runs a 'double degree' course: students can obtain the LLB from the University of London and a Licence en droit M1 from Toulouse 1 Capitol University; the two combine 4 years of studies in both English and French. The Open University supports students in Jersey, but they pay higher fees than UK students. Private sector higher education providers include the Jersey International Business School.

 

Environment

Designations

Ramsar Wetland

Official nameSouth East Coast of Jersey, Channel Islands

Designated10 November 2000

Reference no.1043[143]

Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special Interest (SSI). Jersey has four designated Ramsar sites: Les Pierres de Lecq, Les Minquiers, Les Écréhous and Les Dirouilles and the south east coast of Jersey (a large area of intertidal zone).[144]

 

Jersey is the home of the Jersey Zoo (formerly known as the Durrell Wildlife Park[145]) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell.

 

Biodiversity

Four species of small mammal are considered native:[146] the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Jersey bank vole (Myodes glareolus caesarius), the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the French shrew (Sorex coronatus). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat (Mustela erminea) became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a protected species of reptile; Jersey is its only native habitat in the British Isles.[147]

 

The red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices led to a decline in the coastal slope habitat required by this species. Birds on the Edge, a project between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Jersey National Trust, is working to restore Jersey's coastal habitats and reinstate the red-billed chough (and other bird species) to the island[148]

 

Jersey is the only place in the British Isles where the agile frog Rana dalmatina is found.[149] The remaining population of agile frogs on Jersey is very small and is restricted to the south west of the island. The species is the subject of an ongoing programme to save it from extinction in Jersey via a collaboration between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Jersey Amphibian and Reptile Group (JARG), with support and sponsorship from several other organisations. The programme includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities.[150]

 

Trees generally considered native are the alder (Alnus glutinosa), silver birch (Betula pendula), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), aspen (Populus tremula), wild cherry (Prunus avium), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), holm oak (Quercus ilex), oak (Quercus robur), sallow (Salix cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra), elm (Ulmus spp.) and medlar (Mespilus germanica). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm (Cordyline australis) has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens.[151]

 

Notable marine species[152] include the ormer, conger, bass, undulate ray, grey mullet, ballan wrasse and garfish. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin[153] and grey seal.[154]

 

Historically the island has given its name to a variety of overly-large cabbage, the Jersey cabbage, also known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage.[155]

 

Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey's biodiversity.[156] It is easily recognisable and has hollow stems with small white flowers that are produced in late summer.[157] Other non-native species on the island include the Colorado beetle, burnet rose and oak processionary moth.[156]

 

Public services

Healthcare

Main article: Healthcare in Jersey

Health services on the island are overseen by the Department for Health and Social Care. Jersey does not have a nationalised health service and the service is not part of the National Health Service. Many healthcare treatments are not free at the point of use, however treatment in the Emergency Department is free. For residents, prescriptions and some hospital treatments are free, however GP services cost money.[158]

 

Emergency services

Emergency services[159] are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service,[160] Jersey Fire and Rescue Service[161] and the Jersey Coastguard.[162] The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters.[163]

 

The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884.[164] Border security and customs controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service. Jersey has adopted the 112 emergency number alongside its existing 999 emergency number.

 

Supply services

Water supplies in Jersey are managed by Jersey Water. Jersey Water supply water from two water treatment works, around 7.2 billion litres in 2018. Water in Jersey is almost exclusively from rainfall-dependent surface water. The water is collected and stored in six reservoirs and there is also a desalination plant that produces up to 10.8 million litres per day (around half of the Island's average daily usage). In 2017, 101 water pollution incidents were reported, an increase of 5% on 2016. Another estimated 515,700 m3 of water is abstracted for domestic purposes from private sources (around 9% of the population).[165]

 

Electricity in Jersey is provided by a sole supplier, Jersey Electricity, of which the States of Jersey is the majority shareholder.[166] Jersey imports a large amount of its power. Jersey Electricity claims the carbon intensity of its electricity supply is 35g CO2 e / kWh compared to 352g CO2 e / kWh in the UK. 35% of Jersey's imported power comes from hydro-electric sources and 65% from nuclear sources.

SEC 280 Final Exam

  

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SEC 280 Final Exam

(TCO 2) What is XKMS?

Key Management Specification, which defines services to manage PKI operations within the Extensible Markup Language (XML) environment

An XML standard for e-mail encryption

An XML standard that is used for wireless data exchange

A primary XML standard that is for application development

(TCO 2) All of the following are techniques used by a social engineer EXCEPT for which one?

An attacker replaces a blank deposit slip in a bank lobby with one containing his own account number

An attacker calls up the IT department posing as an employee and requests a password reset

An attacker runs a brute-force attack on a password

An attacker sends a forged e-mail with a link to a bogus website that has been set to obtain personal information

(TCO 2) Attackers need a certain amount of information before launching their attack. One common place to find information is to go through the trash of the target to find information that could be useful to the attacker. This process of going through a target’s trash is known in the community as _____

Trash rummaging

Garbage surfing

Piggy diving

Dumpster diving

(TCO 2) What are the SSL and TLS used for?

A means of securing application programs on the system

To secure communication over the Internet

A method to change from one form of PKI infrastructure to another

A secure way to reduce the amount of SPAM a system receives

(TCO 2) What are the security risks of installing games on an organization’s system?

There are no significant risks

Users can’t always be sure where the software came from and it may have hidden software inside of it.

The users may play during work hours instead of during breaks

The games may take up too much memory on the computer and slow down processing, making it difficult to work

(TCO 2) What is the ISO 17799?

A standard for creating and implementing security policies

A standard for international encryption of e-mail

A document used to develop physical security for a building

A document describing the details of wireless encryption

(TCO 3) A(n) _____ is a network typically smaller in terms of size and geographic coverage, and consists of two or more connected devices. Home or office networks are typically classified as this type of network

Local-area network

Office-area network

Wide-area network

(TCO 3) What is the main difference between TCP and UDP packets?

UDP packets are a more widely used protocol

TCP packets are smaller and thus more efficient to use

TCP packets are connection oriented, whereas UPD packets are connectionless

UDP is considered to be more reliable because it performs error checking

Internal-area network

(TCO 3) Unfortunately, hackers abuse the ICMP protocol by using it to _____.

Send Internet worms

Launch denial-of-service (DoS) attacks

Steal passwords and credit card numbers

Send spam

(TCO 3) Which transport layer protocol is connectionless?

UDP

TCP

IP

ICMP

(TCO 3) Which of the following is a benefit provided by Network Address Translation (NAT)?

Compensates for the lack of IP addresses

Allows devices using two different protocols to communicate

Creates a DMZ

Translates MAC addresses to IP addresses

(TCO 3) Which transport layer protocol is connection oriented?

UDP

RCP

IS

ICMP

(TCO 3) Which of the following is an example of a MAC address?

00:07:H9:c8:ff:00

00:39:c8:ff:00

00:07:e9:c8:ff:00

00:07:59:c8:ff:00:e8

(TCO 4) All of the following statements sum up the characteristics and requirements of proper private key use EXCEPT which one?

The key should be stored securely

The key should be shared only with others whom you trust

Authentication should be required before the key can be used

The key should be transported securely

(TCO 4) It is easier to implement, back up, and recover keys in a _____.

Centralized infrastructure

Decentralized infrastructure

Hybrid infrastructure

Peer-to-peer infrastructure

(TCO 4) When a message sent by a user is digitally signed with a private key, the person will not be able to deny sending the message. This application of encryption is an example of _____.

Authentication

Nonrepudiation

Confidentiality

Auditing

(TCO 4) Outsourced CAs are different from public CAs in what way?

Outsourced services can be used by hundreds of companies

Outsourced services provide dedicated services and equipment to individual companies

Outsourced services do not maintain specific servers and infrastructures for individual companies

Outsourced services are different in name only. They are essentially the same thing

(TCO 4) Cryptographic algorithms are used for all of the following EXCEPT _____.

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

Authentication

(TCO 6) A hub operates at which of the following?

Layer 1, the physical layer

Layer 2, the data-link layer

Layer 2, the MAC layer

Layer 3, the network layer

(TCO 6) Alice sends an e-mail that she encrypts with a shared key, which only she and Bob have. Upon receipt, Bob decrypts the e-mail and reads it. This application of encryption is an example of _____.

Confidentiality

Integrity

Authentication

Nonrepudiation

(TCO 6) The following are steps in securing a workstation EXCEPT _____.

Install NetBIOS and IPX

Install antivirus

Remove unnecessary software

Disable unnecessary user accounts

(TCO 8) Which of the following is a characteristic of the Patriot Act?

Extends the tap-and-trace provisions of existing wiretap statutes to the Internet, and mandates certain technological modifications at ISPs to facilitate electronic wiretaps on the Internet

A major piece of legislation affecting the financial industry, and also one with significant privacy provisions for individuals

Makes it a violation of federal law to knowingly use another’s identity

Implements the principle that a signature, contract, or other record may not be deleted

Denies legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because it is electronic form

(TCO 8) The Wassenaar Arrangement can be described as which of the following?

An international arrangement on export controls for conventional arms as well as dual-use goods and technologies

An international arrangement on import controls

A rule governing import of encryption in the United States

A rule governing export of encryption in the United States

(TCO 8) What is the Convention on Cybercrime?

A convention of black hats who trade hacking secrets

The first international treaty on crimes committed via the Internet and other computer networks

A convention of white hats who trade hacker prevention knowledge

A treaty regulating international conventions

(TCO 8) The electronic signatures in the Global and National Commerce Act _____.

Implement the principle that a signature, contract, or other record may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because it is electronic form

Address a myriad of legal privacy issues resulting from the increased use of computers and other technology specific to telecommunications

Make it a violation of federal law to knowingly use another’s identity

Are a major piece of legislation affecting the financial industry, and contains significant privacy provisions for individuals

(TCO 2) Give an example of a hoax and how it might actually be destructive

(TCO 2) What are the various ways a backup can be conducted and stored?

Backups should include the organization’s critical data, and…

(TCO 2) List at least five types of disasters that can damage or destroy the information of an organization

(TCO 2) List the four ways backups are conducted and stored.

Full back up, differential backup,…

(TCO 2) List at least five types of disasters that can damage or destroy the information of an organization.

Flood, chemical spill…

(TCO 2) Your boss wants you to give him some suggestions for a policy stating what the individual user responsibilities for information security should be. Create a bulleted list of those responsibilities.

Do not divulge sensitive information to individuals…

(TCO 3) What is the difference between TCP and UDP?

UDP is known as a connectionless protocol, as it has very few…

(TCO 3) List three kinds of information contained in an IP packet header

A unique identifier, distinguishing this packet from other packets…

(TCO 4) What are the laws that govern encryption and digital rights management?

Encryption technology is used to protect digital…

(TCO 5) Describe the laws that govern digital signatures

Digital signatures have the same…

(TCO 6) What are some of the security issues associated with web applications and plug-ins?

Web browsers have mechanisms to enable…

(TCO 6) What are the four common methods for connecting equipment at the physical layer?

Coaxial cable, twisted-pair…

(TCO 6) Describe the functioning of the SSL/TLS suite

SSL and TLS use a combination of symmetric and…

(TCO 6) Explain a simple way to combat boot disks

Disable them or… them in the…

(TCO 7) What are some ethical issues associated with information security?

Ethics is the social-moral environment in which a person makes…

(TCO 9) What are password and domain password policies?

Password complexity policies are designed to deter brute force attacks by increasing the number of possible passwords…

 

I saw her long, bright blue braids from behind as she stood by her bicycle on the sidewalk, talking on her cell phone. She was outside North of Brooklyn Pizzaria on Queen Street West in Toronto. I was totally intrigued and parked and locked my bicycle just in case she got off the phone. She did and I managed to cross the street before she rode off. I introduced myself and my photography project and told her that her braids grabbed me the instant I saw them. She laughed and said she’d be glad to be in my project. I helped her park her bike and explained the concept of the portraits. I thought the pizzeria sign would work as a background and she said “I actually used to be a server here.” Meet Bethany.

 

Bethany kindly loosened her braids and followed my request to pull them over her shoulders so they would be more visible in the portraits. We did the usual – with and without glasses, autofocus and manual focus, and change of angle. Through it all, Bethany was happy to help me take a good portrait and I enjoyed her easy good-natured friendliness.

 

Photos taken, we chatted. Bethany is 24 and is from the east end of Toronto. She has two jobs at present. One is working at a worker-owned sex-shop cooperative on Queen Street (www.comeasyouare.com). Their website describes the shop as follows: “Come As You Are is proudly worker owned and operated by Annanda DeSilva, Noah Kloeze, and Jack Lamon through our co-operative CAYA Co-operative Ltd. We are proud to be operating the store in this anti-capitalist, eqalitarian way, as well as having the distinction of being the only co-operatively run sex shop in the world!” I said I’d heard of the shop and she said it’s a great place to work. Her other job is as a podcast host. Her podcast is called Toast (toastpodcast.tumblr.com). Toast has a fascinating premise not unrelated to the Human Family project. It is described as follows: “Welcome to TOAST! It’s a podcast hosted by us - two roommates living in Toronto. The premise is that we host dinner, hang out with old friends, new friends or interesting strangers and then record some themed after-dinner conversation.” Great idea, no? I have looked at the episode list and it looks fascinating but I’ve not yet figured out how to listen to a podcast. The themes of the episodes I read about are mostly relationship-based and cover such serious topics as abuse and recovery.

 

It is sad to report that the greatest challenge Bethany has faced in life has been abuse and trauma. There is no fairness when a kind and friendly person like Bethany can report having been treated so badly. We talked a bit about how the power of friendship, both within and outside her family, provided the healing power – combined with some professional assistance along the way. We didn’t delve into the details of her experience but as a retired Social Worker I’ve heard literally hundreds of such stories and I was glad to hear that Bethany is on the road to recovery and that being open with those who are caring and whom she can trust allowed her to move forward in her life. It’s a natural impulse to hide the pain which only serves to prolong the suffering and Bethany’s message was that people in similar situations should find the courage to open up to trustworthy people in order to heal.

 

A result of what Bethany has been through was a fear of strangers, something she has worked hard to overcome. I told her how fortunate I felt that she was able to trust me, a complete stranger, and participate in my photo project. She said “It’s important to stay open and to stay kind.” She reflected on the fact that everyone’s life experience is different and unique and has to be regarded as such. I think she was talking about respecting our differences. One of her ongoing goals is building resilience to life’s misfortunes.

 

Although some of what Bethany touched on in the ten minutes we spent together was sad, her smile, her openness, and positive outlook worked together to make this encounter feel like a breath of fresh air. This was an encounter I won’t soon forget. After exchanging contact information we parted with a handshake and Bethany’s final words were “I’m so glad you stopped me for your project.” Me too.

 

Thank you Bethany for your courage, your trust, and your participation in my Human Family project on Flickr.

 

This is my 275th submission to The Human Family Group on Flickr.

 

You can view more street portraits and stories by visiting The Human Family.

 

@@click here to know more>>https://bit.ly/3tl3pfh

 

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