new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged karadzic

Tršić (Serbian-Croatian: [tr̩ʃit̩ʃ], Serbian-Cyrillic: Трши village) is a village in the municipality of Loznica, in the Mačva region of Serbia. It is the birthplace of the Serbian linguist and language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić. Most houses in the area are built of wood.

The village was destroyed by Ottoman troops during the Serbian revolution but repaired and converted into a museum for Karadžić.

 

Courtyard in front of the house of Vuk Karadžić

During the creation of the ethno-park, the wish was taken to permanently mark and preserve the memories of Vuk and his work as well as preserve the natural environment and the spatial values.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tršić

House of Vuk (top right in the photo)

Tršić (Serbian-Croatian: [tr̩ʃit̩ʃ], Serbian-Cyrillic: Трши village) is a village in the municipality of Loznica, in the Mačva region of Serbia. It is the birthplace of the Serbian linguist and language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić. Most houses in the area are built of wood.

The village was destroyed by Ottoman troops during the Serbian revolution but repaired and converted into a museum for Karadžić.

 

Courtyard in front of the house of Vuk Karadžić

During the creation of the ethno-park, the wish was taken to permanently mark and preserve the memories of Vuk and his work as well as preserve the natural environment and the spatial values.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

oggi e' un altro giorno di festa per il mondo un altro criminale di guerra Radovan Karazic e' stato arrestato, è accusato di crimini di guerra dal Tribunale Penale Internazionale dell'Aja. Era latitante dal 1995.

si respira aria piu' pulita....

 

Cos'è il Destino: Misteriosa entità che dovrebbe controllare tutte le sorti umane e che viene invocata soprattutto da chi sbaglia per scusare il proprio insuccesso e dai tiranni per giustificare i propri crimini.

 

e ora festa!

У Троношком летопису из 1791. као ктитор манастира спомиње се краљица Каталина Немањић, жена краља Драгутина. Сматра се да је манастир настао између 1276. и 1282. године. Страдао је од Турака крајем 15. века када је црква срушена до темеља. Манастир је обновљен је у 16. веку, црква посвећена Ваведењу Богородице подигнута је 1559. године.

Kraljevo Serbia

OSH.Vuk Karadzic

Take this photo last year when I was attending a local fashion photographer workshop. Make-up artist is Ali Ancell, I am looking forward working with her again, but always missing chance. The fashion stylist is Rene Mussared.

Because it is a group shoot, around 12 amateur photographer take photo at the same time, in my opinion it was not a good experience for you to learn how to take a good photo. No lighting no assistant no reflector, so I use the longest lens and biggest aperture to shot a very sweet portrait in natural light.

Nina looks very enjoy the shooting, I love her shallow smile and closed eyes.

  

Model:Nina Karadzić

MUA: Ali Ancell

Fashion styling: Rene Mussared

 

With Haley Renee Workshop

 

Photography: James Photography

My Facebook Page: www.facebook.com/jamesyuphotography

 

Carema setting:1/250 ƒ/2 ISO 100 200 mm

  

.

[REPOST]

 

.

Scendo al capolinea. Non ci sono altri autobus parcheggiati, non ci sono posti di ristoro né edicole né biglietterie, non c’è una tettoia, un bagno Non c’è una stazione. E non c’e’ nessuno.

Due edifici bruciati che chiudono a semicerchio parte della piazza, alcuni lampioni arrugginiti ripiegati mollemente su un lato, un muro diroccato, una casa senza vetri alle finestre e un’altra coperta da decine di buchi neri.

Benvenuti nella città di Srebrenica, da qui è passata la guerra.

Per il ritorno l’autista mi indica con la testa il luogo dell’appuntamento. Cerco istintivamente il cartello che segnala la fermata del bus, come se la guerra lo avesse risparmiato per me…

Salgono nuovi passeggeri e tra loro una donna alta, magra, dai gesti lenti e il portamento elegante. L’autista fa spostare l’uomo che era seduto al posto migliore per fare accomodare lei. Deve essere una persona importante. Chissà chi è. L’autobus, come di consueto, fa la sosta vicino a un ristorante con i tavolini sotto gli alberi. La donna si siede distante, da sola, mi guarda, fa dei segni con la mano e capisco che sono rivolti a me. Penso che forse è un po’ matta ma forse no, vuole dirmi qualcosa e cerco di decifrare i suoi gesti: le dita che formano il numero tre e poi volano dietro la spalla.

Siamo in fila per risalire sull’autobus, la donna è dietro me. Mi mormora nell’orecchio poche parole che miracolosamente riesco a tradurre: due maschi una femmina. Tre. Non servono altre spiegazioni. Ecco chi è. Una madre di Srebrenica.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srebrenica_massacre

fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massacre_de_Srebrenica

es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masacre_de_Srebrenica

 

www.flickr.com/photos/fabyd/sets/72157604886791431/

 

Es kommt nur selten vor, aber wenn Ivanka sich entscheidet, den Fluss zu überqueren und in den südlichen Teil der Stadt zu fahren, dann hält sie mit ihrem alten Fiat Uno mitten auf der Brücke an. Dort, und nur dort, bringt sie das kosovarische Nummernschild an ihrem Fahrzeug an. »Sonst wird man von der neuen Polizei abgestraft. Nichtsdestotrotz war und ist der südliche Teil von ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ Territorium des serbischen Volkes und wird es auch immer bleiben.«

Ivanka spricht von »Kosovo i Metohija« (Kosovo und Metochien) und meint damit nicht nur jenes Gebiet, das seit 2008 unter dem Namen Republik Kosovo firmiert. Das Verständnis des neuen Staates hat sich für die 25jährige Kosovo-Serbin seit der NATO-Intervention 1999 nicht geändert, sie spricht noch immer von einer »historisch serbischen Region«. Mit 80.000 Einwohnern, zum Großteil Kosovo-Albanern ist der Norden der durch den Fluss Ibar geteilten Stadt Kosovska Mitrovica Zufluchtsort der letzten größeren städtischen Gemeinde von Kosovo-Serben, die ihr Zuhause noch nicht verlassen haben. Sie erkennen den neuen, mehrheitlich von Muslimen bewohnten Staat Kosovo nicht als ihren eigenen an und Priština nicht als ihre Hauptstadt. »Seit die Albaner uns 1999 aus allen Ecken von ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ vertrieben haben, stellen sie die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung. Wenn du dir jedoch die Namen der ältesten Orte hier ansiehst, wirst du feststellen, dass sie serbisch sind und sich auf alte christliche Orte beziehen, die vom Osmanischen Reich besetzt wurden.«

 

Mit weit aufgerissenen Augen macht sich Ivanka daran, das orthodoxe Kreuz, das an ihrem Rückspiegel baumelt, zu verstecken. Sie bemüht sich, »eine präzise Version der Geschichte« wiederzugeben, die jedoch die Repressionen ausblendet, die das Regime des serbischen Präsidenten Slobodan Milošević in den neunziger Jahren gegen die Kosovo-Albaner anwendete, als die proalbanische Guerilla UÇK (Befreiungsarmee des Kosovo) gegen zivile und uniformierte Kosovo-Serben vorzugehen begann – ein fataler Teufelskreis aus gegenseitiger Aggression zwischen zwei Ethnien. »Über die Albaner als Opfer habt ihr alles erzählt, jetzt aber sind wir dran«, sagt Ivanka. »Ich werde dir eine Roma-Familie zeigen, die vor dem Krieg neben dem Haus meiner Eltern wohnte. Auch die Roma wurden von den Kosovo-Albanern malträtiert. Das war keine Aggression der Serben gegen die Albaner, es war eine Aggression des Imperialismus, der die Albaner dazu benutzt hat, Spannungen zu erzeugen, um zu intervenieren und hier einen Marionetten-Staat der NATO zu etablieren.«

 

Entrechtet und schutzlos

Nachdem wir die Straßensperre passiert und die Brücke überquert haben, eröffnen sich uns neue Blicke: auf neue Moscheen, mit EU-Geldern renovierte Viertel und zu jeder Tageszeit mit Menschenmassen gefüllte Cafés. »Wovon leben alle diese arbeitslosen Menschen nur?« fragt Ivanka. Im »Roma-Viertel«, das aus einem ursprünglichen Flüchtlingscamp entstand, überleben die Bewohner dank humanitärer Hilfslieferungen. In eine Decke eingewickelt und mit bereits fertig vorbereitetem Tee in der Hand empfängt uns die Matriarchin Ahmeti am Eingang ihrer bescheidenen Wohnung. »Wir haben kaum Kontakt zu den Albanern. Als das hier noch Jugoslawien war, gab es keine Probleme. Muslime haben mit Christen zusammengelebt, Roma mit Nicht-Roma und anderen ethnischen Minderheiten. Ab den neunziger Jahren begann dann alles kompliziert zu werden«, erzählt sie.

 

Von den neuen Behörden der Kosovo-Albaner marginalisiert, leben die Roma schutzlos. »Nachdem uns die albanische UÇK im Beisein der vollkommen passiven NATO vertrieben hatte, sind einige wenige Familien später hierher zurückgekehrt. Dank der Vereinten Nationen haben wir ein Dach über dem Kopf, aber sicher fühlen wir uns noch immer nicht«, berichtet Ahmeti. »Denn wir wissen, dass die Albaner uns nie mochten. Erst vor kurzem wurde die Familie Dibrani wieder angegriffen.«

 

Der neue Staat Kosovo hat viele Eigenheiten. Obwohl er nicht zum Schengen-Raum gehört und es kein unterzeichnetes bilaterales Abkommen gibt, können Bürger der EU das Land ohne Reisepass besuchen – ein Ausweisdokument ist ausreichend. Die Nationalhymne hat keinen anerkannten Text – neben Spanien ist das ein Ausnahmefall. Und auch wenn häufig Dollars benutzt werden, so gilt doch der Euro als offizielles Zahlungsmittel, obwohl das Land nicht Mitglied der Eurozone ist – das gibt es sonst nur in Montenegro. Der Verfassung nach ist die Staatsflagge blau mit gelben Sternen – fast so wie die der Europäischen Union –, aber die Bevölkerung (zum Großteil Kosovo-Albaner) verwendet die allgegenwärtige albanische Fahne: rot und mit einem schwarzen Adler als Motiv.

 

Auch USA-Flaggen sind im ganzen Land zu sehen: nicht nur auf Kleidungsstücken oder Privat-PKWs, sondern auch in Cafés, auf öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln und Gebäuden. Für Ahmeti »ist das hier amerikanisches Territorium, das geben sogar die Albaner zu. Hier befindet sich eine der größten Militärbasen der Welt, das so genannte ›Camp Bondsteel‹, das auf gestohlenem Land zahlreicher vertriebener Bauern errichtet wurde.« Der riesige Militärstützpunkt, der sich über fast vier Quadratkilometer erstreckt, verletzt die Prinzipien internationalen Rechts und operiert als Staat innerhalb des Staates. Hinter seinen drei Meter hohen Stacheldrahtmauern spielten sich viele obskure Vorfälle ab, die bis heute auf Aufklärung warten. »Von dort aus wurde nicht nur den Roma und den Serben Schaden zugefügt, sondern es war auch eines der geheimen Gefangenenlager der CIA, bevor es Guantanamo gab«, berichtet Ivanka.

  

Korrupte Missionare

In der Republik Kosovo kaufen lediglich zwei Prozent der knapp zwei Millionen Einwohner regelmäßig eine Tageszeitung. Und obwohl das Land auf keine solide journalistische Tradition zurückschauen kann, wurden unlängst doch gewagte investigative Reportagen über die weit verbreitete Korruption, die das Land seit seiner Unabhängigkeit plagt, veröffentlicht. Als Ergebnis dieser Arbeit kamen im vergangen Jahr Informationen ans Licht, die nicht nur die Regierung und die lokalen Behörden betreffen, sondern auch die »Rechtsstaatlichkeitsmission der Europäischen Union« (EULEX) selbst. Die mit bisherigen Kosten von mehr als einer Milliarde Euro äußerst kostspielige EU-Mission soll, wie ihre lateinische Abkürzung andeutet, durch die Entsendung von 1.600 internationalen Mitarbeitern über Ordnung und Gerechtigkeit im Land wachen.

 

Da sie es »satt hatte, so viel Korruption bei ranghohen Beamten der EU zu sehen«, spielte die britische Staatsanwältin Maria Bamieh der Zeitung Koha Ditore Informationen über Korruptionsfälle zu, in die ihr zufolge mehrere EULEX-Bedienstete verwickelt waren, die sie aus eigener Zusammenarbeit kannte. So geht es in den besagten Berichten um den italienischen Richter Francesco Florit, der sich demnach 300.000 Euro in die eigene Tasche stecken lassen hatte, um als Gegenleistung dafür einen wegen Mordes angeklagten Kosovo-Albaner freizulassen. In einem anderen Fall hätten der kanadische Staatsanwalt Jonathan Ratel und seine tschechische Kollegin Jaroslava Novotná den Prozess gegen Fatmir Limaj behindert. Der kosovo-albanische Exminister und Abgeordnete gilt als mutmaßlicher Kriegsverbrecher der UÇK, die in den neunziger Jahren erst auf den US-Listen der »Terroristen« und »Drogenhändler« stand, dann aber von den europäischen und nordamerikanischen Geheimdiensten selbst ausgebildet und trainiert wurde.

 

Ein weiteres Beispiel für die weitverbreitete Straflosigkeit im Kosovo ist Agim Zogaj. Dieser sollte vor drei Jahren gegen Limaj aussagen, wurde dann jedoch erhängt in einem Park in Duisburg gefunden – nur Wochen, nachdem die EU sich seiner als »geschützten Zeugen« angenommen hatte. Wie viele andere Prozesse gegen UÇK-Veteranen, die sich heute in Machtpositionen befinden, wurde auch dieser schlussendlich eingestellt. Der Bruder von Agim, Afrim Zogaj, sagt dazu: »Wenn ein vermeintlich von der EU geschützter Zeuge ermordet wird, ist das ein klares Zeichen an jene, die die Wahrheit kennen. Niemand wird jemals wieder darüber sprechen wollen.«

 

Perspektive Auswanderung

Der Ursprung der Stadt Kosovska Mitrovica geht bis ins 14. Jahrhundert zurück, als die Kirche Sankt Dimitri gebaut wurde. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass weder dieses noch irgendein später gebautes Gotteshaus bestehen blieb – Sankt Dimitri befand sich im umkämpften Süden der kleinen Stadt und wurde während des Krieges praktisch vollständig zerstört –, bauten die Kosovo-Serben von Kosovska Mitrovica im Jahr 2005 eine neue Version der Kirche wieder auf. Erzählungen zweier portugiesischer Soldaten zufolge, die in der Zone patrouillieren, ist es »die einzige, die seit Ende des Krieges nicht von den Albanern angegriffen wurde«.

 

Vor der Silhouette der 21 Meter hohen Kirche treffen sich die wenigen jungen Menschen, die noch nicht ausgewandert sind, und genießen die Aussicht über eine Stadt, die nicht mehr ihre ist. Zoran und Marija sitzen auf einer Bank und rauchen. Für die junge Frau gibt es keine Zukunft in Kosovska Mitrovica. »Diesen Sonntag finden Kommunalwahlen statt, aber wir boykottieren sie. Wir glauben nicht mehr an die Politiker von heute. Nicht einmal die Kosovo-Albaner glauben an ihre eigenen, und obwohl sie das gesamte Gebiet von ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ für sich beansprucht haben, emigrieren sie genauso in die EU.« Die Kosovo-Serben fühlen sich marginalisiert, nicht nur von der Ausgrenzungspolitik der Kosovo-Albaner, sondern auch von einer neuen serbischen politischen Klasse, die so schnell wie möglich in den gemeinsamen Markt der EU eintreten will. Sie haben Angst, dabei vergessen zu werden und sehen sich mittellos ohne Kontrolle über ihre eigene Zukunft. »Die Wahlfarce, das ist es doch, was heute gefeiert wird. Ich will mich nicht an einer Wahl im albanischen Kosovo beteiligen, einem Land, das von einem Kriegsverbrecher regiert wird, den seine eigenen Leute ›Schlange‹ nennen«, erklärt Marija. Sie meint den kosovo-albanischen Premierminister Hashim Thaçi, eine weitere Figur der UÇK, die es immer wieder geschafft hat, ungeschoren davonzukommen, wenn sein Name im Rahmen von EULEX-Untersuchungen zu Kriegsverbrechern auftauchte.

 

Folgt man dem Weg von der Kirche aus bergab, so kommt man an einem Haus mit Garten vorbei, in dem landwirtschaftliches Gerät herumsteht. Dort lebt der 60jährige Miroljub, ein bekannter serbisch-kosovarischer Nationalist, der im Krieg von 1999 gekämpft hat. In traditioneller Tracht steht er auf der Veranda seines kleinen Hauses. Er meint, dass »Europa und der gesamte Westen in Serbiens Schuld stehen« und dass es nur eine Frage der Zeit ist, bis Europa sie wieder brauchen würde. »Der Krieg auf dem Balkan ist eine unabänderliche Tatsache, dagegen können auch die westlichen Schutzherren mit ihren geheuchelten humanitären Absichten nichts ändern. Auf diesem Gebiet haben die Muslime, egal ob Ottomanen oder Albaner, immer Druck ausgeübt, und wir Christen verteidigen unser Territorium. Dieses Denkmodell von Gut gegen Böse wurde jedoch von außen zu uns gebracht. Hier kämpfen wir alle, wir haben keine andere Wahl«, sagt Miroljub. Der Medienberichterstattung schenkt er keinen Glauben mehr. »Die hat in der Regel keinerlei Interesse daran gezeigt, der Welt zu erzählen, wer die Jugoslawien-Kriege angezettelt hat und auf welche Art und Weise«, berichtet Miroljub, während er Raki in drei kleinen Gläsern serviert.

 

Nachdem er den Schnaps getrunken hat, scheint ihm bewusst zu werden, wie unpopulär sein Diskurs wirken könnte und in ernstem Ton versucht er, sich zu erklären. »Der Islam ist nicht unser Feind, denn hier gibt es muslimische Minderheiten, die unter der Gewalt der Albaner gelitten haben und auf unserer Seite sind. Man sollte den Konflikt nicht auf Themen schieben, die darin eigentlich keine Rolle spielen. Unser Feind ist jeder, der uns von unserem Zuhause vertreiben will, egal ob er aus Texas, Berlin oder Tirana kommt.« Dann nimmt er ein Geschichtsbuch zur Hand, zeigt die albanische Flagge und sagt: »Außer von der NATO werden die Albaner auch noch von den Saudis finanziert. Sieh dir nur ihre neuen Moscheen an. Unsere Kirchen fallen auseinander, und unsere Jungen beten ja nicht einmal mehr.«

 

Offene Wunden

»Über die Albaner als Opfer habt ihr alles erzählt, jetzt aber sind wir dran«, sagt Ivanka.

Ivanka kann sich mit den Ausführungen Miroljubs unverkennbar identifizieren und hält es für unentbehrlich, ein verlassenes Hotel zu besuchen, das heute als improvisiertes Flüchtlingsheim dient. »Hier leben Serben, die aus anderen Teilen von ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ vertrieben wurden, teilweise sogar aus Bosnien und Kroatien. Das sind die Verlierer des Krieges. Die Welt weiß nichts darüber, dass viele Serben für immer aus ihren Dörfern und Städten verbannt wurden, dass Hunderttausende Menschen nie in ihre Häuser zurückkehren konnten. Dass die Serben Anfang des vergangenen Jahrhunderts in ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ die Hälfte der Bevölkerung ausmachten, während wir jetzt Fremde in unserer eigenen Heimat sind«, sagt Ivanka. Das Hotel ist gleich ums Eck, wir gehen vorbei an Gedenktafeln für Radovan Karadžić und Ratko Mladić – für viele Serben Helden, Mörder jedoch für die Völker, die unter ihren grausamen Verwüstungsfeldzügen gelitten haben. Der Eingangsbereich und die Flure mit ihrem alten Teppichboden und den elegant mit Holz verkleideten Wänden erinnern Ivanka an »die Zeiten, als sich das sozialistische Jugoslawien Titos auf einem hohen Entwicklungsniveau befand«. Doch damit, so sagt sie, habe »der kapitalistische Block aufräumen« wollen. »Es störte sie zu sehen, dass es auch außerhalb ihres Systems Erfolg gab.«

 

Macht man die Tür zu einem der Zimmer auf, sieht es heute ganz anders aus. Der Geruch und die Atmosphäre werden ranzig, und es fällt schwer zu atmen. Ein altes Paar wohnt darin. Die beiden kochen sich ihr Essen, schlagen die Stunden tot und schlafen. Die Mehrheit der Bewohner kam als Flüchtlinge vom Land mit kleinen Kindern hierher. Nach einiger Zeit machten sich die mittlerweile erwachsenen Kinder aus dem baufälligen Heim davon. Übrig bleiben heute nur noch ihre Eltern, in fortgeschrittenem Alter und ohne Kräfte verharren sie gefangen in einem Zustand der Unsichtbarkeit. Das wertvollste, was sie besitzen ist ein Foto von dem, was früher »im Süden von ›Kosovo i Metohija‹« ihr Land war. »Schauen Sie, das ist unser Haus. Unsere eigenen Nachbarn, die zuvor aus Albanien gekommen waren, haben es abgebrannt«, erzählen die beiden Alten. In allen Zimmern wiederholt sich die gleiche Geschichte. »Wir wurden von der Guerilla-Mafia der UÇK vertrieben. Von Heroinhändlern wandelten sie sich zu angeblichen albanischen Befreiern«, sagt ein anderer Heimbewohner. Am Ende des Ganges will einer der jüngeren Flüchtlinge nicht fotografiert werden, aber gerne etwas sagen, während er ein Bild von seinem ehemaligen kleinen Hof zeigt. »Das ist nicht zu Ende. ›Kosovo i Metohija‹ ist Serbien. Sie können nicht einfach alles behalten.« Die übrigen Flüchtlinge nicken zustimmend. Auch Ivanka.

Übersetzung: Lissi Dobbler

(aus www.jungewelt.de/2015/04-11/068.php)

Residential building, by Slobodan Drinjaković, Branislav Karadžić a Aleksandar Stjepanović (1976).

 

Belgrade, Serbia.

 

© Roberto Conte (2017)

 

Website | Facebook | Instagram

On the left the Banjica residential complex, by Branislav Karadžić, Slobodan Drinjaković and Aleksandar Stjepanović (1972-76).

 

Belgrade, Serbia.

 

© Roberto Conte (2015)

 

Website | Facebook | Instagram

The cathedral steeple is visible from many parts of Belgrade. It has a cross on top that I managed to cut off.

 

Cathedral Church of St. Michael the Archangel -OR- Саборна Црква Св. Архангела Михаил - OR- St. Michael's Cathedral, Belgrade

 

The cathedral was built from 1837 to 1840 by order of prince Miloš Obrenović, in the style of classicism with late baroque elements. It’s interior is richly decorated with one of the most beautifully painted ceilings of all Serbian churches.

 

The main church of the city, Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel faces the main entrance into the Patriarchal See. The church was built on the site where earlier orthodox churches were looted and burned down.

 

Here is where Miloš Obrenović was anointed as Prince of Serbia, and Milan Obrenović and Petar I Karađorđević were crowned as Kings and where a grief-stricken widow tried to assassinate King Milan.

 

The church is the resting place of Prince Miloš Obrenović and his sons, as well as a Vuk Karadžić and Dositej Obradović, protagonists of Serbian cultural renaissance.

 

Sarebbe meglio non fosse

piuttosto che sia così

come oggi è

la nostra Srebrenica.

Nulla di morto né di vivente

in lei

può più abitare.

(Abdulah Sidran)

 

"In quella base circa 25 mila abitanti di Srebrenica, per lo più donne, bambini e anziani, avevano cercato la salvezza dopo l’irruzione in quella che avrebbe dovuto essere la «zona protetta dell’Onu» dei soldati di Ratko Mladic, oggi sotto processo con Karadzic al Tribunale dell’Aja. Ma i caschi blu olandesi consegnarono i rifugiati ai loro carnefici. Uomini e ragazzi, divisi dalle donne e bambini deportati verso Tuzla, furono portati via per essere uccisi assieme ai circa sei mila uomini presi prigionieri in meno di due giorni tra quei 15 mila che avevano cercato di salvarsi fuggendo attraverso i boschi. Mentre in varie località della zona i prigionieri venivano barbaramente uccisi, l’Onu non fece nulla per impedirlo e il comandante del battaglione olandese, Thom Karremans, immortalato dalle telecamere, brindava con Mladic alla «brillante operazione militare» per la conquista di Srebrenica."

 

sino ad oggi sono stati identificati 8.372 morti...

  

last may i made two illustrations for the bus library. in fact it isn't ordinary bus-library, it's digital one, placed in prijepolje- serbia, europe. it's a part of the national serbia's library, belgrade. i was very proud and happy when i got this lovely arrangement to do.

:] oOo. hope u like it!

this is the front side of the bus with the door and two windows.

 

www.infobus.rs

www.biblioteka-prijepolje.rs

 

btw my bus design got the award. :]

356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

230 - St Pontianus begins his reign as Catholic Pope

285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler.

365 - Alexandria hit by Earthquake; about 50,000 die

866 - John appointed bishop of the kingdom

905 - Holy Roman Catholic emperor Louis III captured

976 - Emperor Otto II gives earl Leopold I, East Bavaria

1320 - Count Louis of Nevers marries 8-year old daughter of Philips V

1542 - Pope Paul III begins inquisition against Protestants (Sactum Officium)

1545 - The first landing of French troops onto the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight occurs.

1568 - Battle at Jemmingen: Alva's troops beat Dutch rebellion

1579 - Mechelen surrenders to duke of Parma

1588 - English fleet defeats Spanish armada

1595 - Alvara Mendana discovers Marquesas Island

1669 - John Lockes Constitution of English colony Carolina approved

1718 - The Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.

1730 - States of Holland put death penalty on "sodomy"

1749 - Pieter Steyn becomes pension advisor of Holland

1773 - Pope Clemens XIV bans Jesuits

1774 - Peace of Kutsjuk Kainardji (end Russian-Turkish War)

1774 - Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the war.

1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte wins Battle of Pyramids in Egypt

1825 - Java princess Dipo Negoro/Mangkubumi declare war on all non-islamics

1831 - Belgium gains independence from Netherlands, Leopold I made king

1836 - 1st Canadian RR opens, between Laprairie & St John, Quebec

1846 - Mormons found 1st English settlement in Calif (San Joaquin Valley)

1861 - 1st major battle of Civil War ends (Bull Run), Va-South wins

1865 - In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots and kills Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.

1866 - Cholera epidemic kills hundreds in London

1867 - City Gardens on Folsom opens

1873 - Jesse James & James Younger gang's 1st train robbery (Adair Iowa)

1877 - -27] US army breaks railroad strike

1880 - Compressed air accident kills 20 workers on Hudson River tunnel, NY

1884 - 1st Test Cricket match played at Lord's

1896 - National Federation of Afro-American Women & Colored Women's

1897 - Tate Gallery opens in England

1898 - Spain cedes Guam to US

1900 - Pope Leo XIII encyclical to Greek-Melkite rite

1904 - After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway is completed

1904 - Camille Jenatzy sets world auto speed record at 65.79 MPH

1918 - U-156 shells Nauset Beach, in Orleans, Massachusetts.

1919 - Anthony Fokker's establishes airplane factory at Hamburg & Amsterdam

1919 - Dirigible crashes through bank skylight killing 13 (Chicago, Ill)

1921 - Indians (9) & Yankees (7) hit a record 16 doubles

1923 - Phillies score 12 in 6th & beat Cubs 17-4

1925 - Monkey Trial ends-John Scopes found guilty of teaching Darwinism

1930 - 110°F (43°C) at Millsboro, Delaware (state record)

1930 - US Veterans Administration forms

1931 - Reno race track, becomes 1st in US to use daily double wagering

1933 - Haifa Harbor in Palestine opens

1934 - 113°F (45°C), near Gallipolis, Ohio (state record)

1938 - Paul Hindemith & Leonide Massines ballet premieres in London

1940 - Soviet Union annexes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

1940 - VARA-management accepts Rost of Tonningens demands

1941 - 200 Jewish Torahs are burned in Ukraine

1941 - Himmler orders building of Majdanek concentration camp

1942 - 8 die as coal waste heap slides in river valley near Oakwood, Va

1944 - British premier Winston Churchill flies to France, meets Montgomery

1944 - General Koiso becomes premier of Japan

1944 - US forces land on Guam to get rid of Japanese invaders

1944 - Von Kluge warns Hitler of impending collapse of front in Normandy

1945 - Detroit Tigers & Phila A's play 24 inning 1-1 tie

1946 - Jesus T Pinerol becomes 1st native born Puerto Rican governor

1947 - Indonesia begins 1st political election

1948 - WSPD TV channel 13 in Toledo, OH (NBC) begins broadcasting

1949 - Senate ratifies North Atlantic Treaty by a vote of 82-13 (NATO)

1951 - Dalai Lama returns to Tibet

1952 - 7.8 earthquake shakes Kern County Calif, 14 killed

1952 - Premier Ghavam es-Sultaneh of Persia, resigns

1954 - At Geneva, France agrees to independence of North & South Vietnam

1955 - 1st sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor launched-Seawolf

1956 - Cin Red pitcher Brooks Lawrence loses after 13 straight wins

1956 - US performs atmospheric nuclear Test at Enwetak

1957 - 1st black to win a major US tennis tournament (Althea Gibson)

1957 - 39th PGA Championship: Lionel Hebert at Miami Valley GC Dayton Ohio

1957 - Marilynn Smith/Fay Crocker wins Hot Springs 4-Ball Golf Tournament

1959 - 1st nuclear powered merchant ship, NS Savannah, christened, Camden NJ

1959 - Red Sox are last team to use a black player (Pumpsie Green)

1960 - Country of Katanga forms in Africa

1960 - In Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) Sirima Bandaranaike is world's 1st woman PM

1960 - Francis Chichester arrive in NY aboard Gypsy Moth II, setting record of 40 days for a solo Atlantic crossing

1961 - Launch of Mercury 4 (Liberty Bell) with Grissom

1962 - 160 civil right activists jailed after demonstration in Albany Ga

1962 - Battles on Chinese & Indies boundary

1963 - 45th PGA Championship: Jack Nicklaus shoots a 279 at Dallas AC Dallas

1964 - Arnold Long takes 11 catches in the match for Surrey v Sussex

1964 - Mildred Simpson runs female world record marathon (3:19:33)

1964 - Neth last whaling ship Willem Barents Sea sold to Japan

1965 - Pakistan, Iran & Turkey sign Regional Co-Operation pact

1966 - Gemini X returns to Earth

1966 - USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

1968 - 50th PGA Championship: Julius Boros shoots a 281 at Pecan Valley TX

1968 - Carol Mann wins LPGA Buckeye Savings Golf Invitational

1968 - Jan Janssen wins Tour de France: 1st Dutchman

1969 - Neil Armstrong steps on Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT)

1969 - Russia's Luna 15 impacts moon after 52 lunar orbits

1970 - Huge Aswan Dam opens in Egypt

1970 - Libya orders confiscation of all Jewish property

1970 - USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

1970 - Clay Kirby has a no-hitter going for 8 inn, but is lifted for a pinch hitter, Reliever Jack Baldschun gives up 3 hits & Padres lose, 3-0

1971 - US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site

1972 - 2 passenger trains collide head-on killing 76 (Seville, Spain)

1972 - 27.5 cm rainfall at Fort Ripley, Minnesota (state record)

1972 - Bloody Friday: 22 IRA-bombs explode in Belfast

1972 - Dodgers release & end career of pitcher Hoyt Wilhelm

1972 - In NY, 57 murders occur in 24 hours

1973 - Braves Hank Aaron hits Ken Brett's fastball for his 700th HR

1973 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Atoll un the Pacific

1973 - USSR launches Mars 4 for fly-by (2600 km) of red planet

1974 - 29th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Sandra Haynie

1974 - Eddy Merckx wins his 5th Tour de France

1974 - House Judiciary approves 2 Articles of Impeachment against Pres Nixon

1975 - Billy Martin fired as Texas Rangers manager

1975 - NY Met Félix Millán hits 4 singles; erased by Joe Torres 4 double plays

1976 - "Guys & Dolls" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 239 performances

1976 - 1st outbreak of "Legionnaire's Disease" kills 29 in Phila

1976 - Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.

1977 - Libyan-Egyptian border fights

1977 - Sri Lanka premier Bandaranaike loses election

1978 - Bolivia milt coup under general Juan Pereda, pres Hugo Banzer flees

1978 - US Postal Service & unions agree on a contract averting mail strike

1978 - World's strongest dog, 80-kg St Bernard, pulls 2909-kg load 27 m

1979 - 108th British Golf Open: Seve Ballesteros shoots a 283 at Royal Lytham

1979 - National Women's Hall of Fame (Seneca Falls, NY) dedicated

1980 - Jean-Claude Droyer climbs Eiffel Tower in 2 hrs 18 mins

1981 - Australia set 130 to win, all out 111 at Headingley Willis 8-43

1982 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island

1983 - Polish govt ends 19 months of martial law

1983 - Storm cuts short Diana Ross' free concert in NY's Central Park

1983 - US announces Lebanon freed American hostage David Dodge

1984 - 1st documented case of a robot killing a human in US

1984 - Marita Koch of E Germany sets world women's mark for 200m, 21.71s

1984 - USSR performs underground nuclear Test

1985 - "Leader of the Pack" closes at Ambassador Theater NYC after 120 perfs

1985 - 114th British Golf Open: Sandy Lyle shoots a 282 at Royal St George

1985 - Amina Fakir (Detroit), 23, crowned 18th Miss Black America

1985 - Bernard Hinault wins his 5th & last Tour de France

1985 - Judy Clark wins LPGA Boston Five Golf Classic

1986 - Barbara Palacios Teyde, 22, of Venezuela, crowned 35th Miss Universe

1986 - Pleasure Island plans unveiled

1987 - Kristi Addis, of Mississippi, crowned 5th Miss Teen USA

1988 - ESA's Ariane-3 launches 2 communications satellites (1 Indian)

1988 - Mass Gov Michael Dukakis accepts Democratic nomination for president

1989 - Eastern Airlines submits a reorganization plan to creditors

1989 - Greg LeMond (US) wins Tour de France in fastest time

1989 - Mike Tyson KOs Carl Williams in 1:33 for heavyweight boxing title

1990 - Goodwill Games opens in Seattle Wash

1990 - Pink Floyds' "Wall" is performed where Berlin Wall once stood

1991 - 120th British Golf Open: Ian Baker-Finch shoots 272 at Royal Birkdale

1991 - Betsy King wins LPGA JAL Big Apple Golf Classic

1991 - Sharmell Sullivan (Gary Indiana), 20, crowned 23rd Miss Black America

1991 - Ferguson Jenkins, Gaylord Perry, Rod Carew, Tony Lazzeri, & Bill Veeck are elected into the Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY

1993 - Angela Kennedy swims world record 50 m butterfly stroke (26.93)

1994 - Tony Blair is declared the winner of the leadership election of the British Labour Party, paving the way for him to become Prime Minister in 1997.

1995 - Brian Lara completes a pair for West Indians v Kent

1995 - KC Royals set club-record of 22 singles in 15 innings

1996 - 125th British Golf Open: Tom Lehman shoots a 271 at Royal Lytham

1996 - Dottie Pepper wins LPGA Friendly's Golf Classic

1996 - Wayne Gretzky signs a 2 year deal with NY Rangers

1997 - 200-year-old USS Constitution sails under its own power

1997 - NY Yank Mike Whiton held in Milwaukee on charges of sexual assault

1997 - The fully restored USS Constitution (aka "Old Ironsides") celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.

2002 - Telecom giant WorldCom files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the largest such filing in United States history.

2004 - The United Kingdom government publishes Delivering Security in a Changing World, a paper detailing wide-ranging reform of the country's armed forces.

2005 - Four terrorist bombings, occurring exactly two weeks after the similar July 7 bombings, target London's public transportation system. All four bombs fail to detonate and all four suspected suicide bombers are captured and later convicted and imprisoned for long terms.

2007 - Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the final book in the bestselling Harry Potter series is released.

2008 - Bosnian-Serb war criminal Radovan Karadžić is arrested in Serbia and is indicted by the UN's ICTY tribunal.

 

Deep Blue café, Science Museum, London (taken with a 35-80mm lens kindly donated by Pete Woodhead!)

"I vizi dovunque generano l'odio, perché consumano e non creano, ma nei paesi come la Bosnia, anche le virtù spesso parlano e si esprimono attraverso l'odio."

(Ivo Andrić_Racconti di Sarajevo)

 

L'Holiday Inn fu ideato da Strauss nel 1983 e costruito per i giochi olimpici del 1984.

Prima della guerra, gli ultimi piani erano occupati dal quartier generale di Radovan Karadzic e delle forze paralamilitari.

ll 6 aprile del 1992 alcuni cecchini spararono dalle finestre dell'Holiday Inn sulla folla che, in quello stesso piazzale, manifestava per la pace.

L'albergo diventò famoso perché durante la guerra fu l'unico risparmiato dai bombardamento, in quanto ospitava i giornalisti di tutto il mondo.

 

The Bosnian War was characterised by shelling of cities and town, ethnic cleansing, and systematic mass rape. What became iconic of the Bosnian War was the Siege of Sarajevo - the longest siege in modern European history, as it lasted over 3 years (including occasional ceasefires). Due to an UN-imposed embargo, the already well-equipped Serbian soldiers faced a poorly equipped Bosnian army, that nevertheless never gave up the city, while its civilian inhabitants had to hide from sniper and artillery fire, and continued to starve.

The inhabitants like to emphasise how they were all in it together, regardless of whether they were Muslim, Orthodox (Serbian), or Catholic (Croatian), in defiance of what the commander of besieging forces, Bosnian Serbian psychiatrist and poet Radovan Karadžić, once said - that multi-ethnic Bosnia would never last. Bosnian TV and Radio never referred to the agressors simply as Serbs, but always Karadžić Serbs or the Chetniks; there were also Serbs fighting on the Bosnian side (such as Jovan Divjak). [13] As the siege dragged on however, people did become somewhat less tolerant. [3]

Later, some foreign Muslim charity organisation even refused to help non-Muslim survivors of the siege. [3]

In the photo, a few of the many nondescript Communist era buildings damaged by artillery and sniper fire.

 

Full gallery: www.m1key.me/photography/sarajevo/

last may i made two illustrations for the bus library. in fact it isn't ordinary bus-library, it's digital one, placed in prijeplje- serbia, europe. it's a part of the national serbia's library, belgrade. i was very proud and happy when i got this lovely arrangement to do.

:] oOo. hope u like it!

 

this is the second side of the bus with two windows.

 

www.infobus.rs

www.biblioteka-prijepolje.rs

The word werewolf is thought to derive from Old English wer (or were)— pronounced variously as /ˈwɛər, ˈwɪər, ˈwɜr/— and wulf. The first part, wer, translates as "man" (in the specific sense of male human, not the race of humanity generally). It has cognates in several Germanic languages including Gothic wair, Old High German wer, and Old Norse verr, as well as in other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit 'vira', Latin vir, Irish fear, Lithuanian vyras, and Welsh gŵr, which have the same meaning. The second half, wulf, is the ancestor of modern English "wolf"; in some cases it also had the general meaning "beast."

 

An alternative etymology derives the first part from Old English weri (to wear); the full form in this case would be glossed as wearer of wolf skin. Related to this interpretation is Old Norse ulfhednar, which denoted lupine equivalents of the berserker, said to wear a bearskin in battle.

  

Facsimile of the first seven lines of the 14th century English translation of the 12th century French manuscript The Romance of William of PalerneYet other sources derive the word from warg-wolf, where warg (or later werg and wero) is cognate with Old Norse vargr, meaning "rogue," "outlaw," or, euphemistically, "wolf".[1] A Vargulf was the kind of wolf that slaughtered many members of a flock or herd but ate little of the kill. This was a serious problem for herders, who had to somehow destroy the rogue wolf before it destroyed the entire flock or herd. The term Warg was used in Old English for this kind of wolf. Possibly related is the fact that, in Norse society, an outlaw (who could be murdered with no legal repercussions and was forbidden to receive aid) was typically called vargr, or "wolf."

 

Other terms

The term lycanthropy, a synonym, comes from Ancient Greek lykánthropos (λυκάνθρωπος): λύκος, lýkos ("wolf") + άνθρωπος, ánthrōpos ("human").[2] A compound of which "lyc-" derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *wlkwo-, meaning "wolf", formally denotes the "wolf - man" transformation. Lycanthropy is but one form of therianthropy, the ability to metamorphose into animals in general. The term therianthrope literally means "beast-man." The word has also been linked to the original werewolf of classical mythology, Lycaon, a king of Arcadia who, according to Ovid's Metamorphoses, was turned into a ravenous wolf in retribution for attempting to serve his own son to visiting Zeus in an attempt to disprove the god's divinity.

 

There is also a mental illness called lycanthropy in which a patient believes he or she is, or has transformed into, an animal and behaves accordingly. This is sometimes referred to as clinical lycanthropy to distinguish it from its use in legends. Despite its origin as a term for man-wolf transformations only, lycanthropy is used in this sense for animals of any type. This broader meaning is often used in modern fictional references, such as in roleplaying game culture.

 

Another ancient term for shapeshifting between any animal forms is versipellis, from which the English words turnskin and turncoat are derived.[3] This Latin word is similar in meaning as words used for werewolves and other shapeshifters in Russian (oboroten) and Old Norse (hamrammr).

 

The French name for a werewolf, sometimes used in English, is loup-garou (pronounced /lugaˈru/), from the Latin noun lupus meaning wolf.[4] The second element is thought to be from Old French garoul meaning "werewolf." This in turn is most likely from Frankish *wer-wulf meaning "man-wolf."[5]

 

Folk beliefs

Description and common attributes

Werewolves were said to bear physical tell-tale traits in European folklore. These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low set ears and a swinging stride. One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound. A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue.[6] The appearance of a werewolf in its animal form varies from culture to culture, though they are most commonly portrayed as being indistinguishable from ordinary wolves save for the fact that they have no tail (a trait thought characteristic of witches in animal form), and that they retain human eyes and voice. After returning to their human forms, werewolves are usually documented as becoming weak, debilitated and undergoing painful nervous depression.[6] Many historical werewolves were written to have suffered severe melancholia and manic depression, being bitterly conscious of their crimes.[6] One universally reviled trait in medieval Europe was the werewolf's habit of devouring recently buried corpses, a trait which is documented extensively, particularly in the Annales Medico-psychologiques in the 19th century.[6] Fennoscandian werewolves were usually old women who possessed poison coated claws and had the ability to paralyse cattle and children with their gaze.[6] Serbian vulkodlaks traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, where they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees. They would then get a hold of another vulkodlaks skin and burn it, releasing the vulkodlak from whom the skin came from its curse.[6] The Haitian jé-rouges typically try to trick mothers into giving away their children voluntarily by waking them at night and asking their permission to take their child, to which the disoriented mother may either reply yes or no.[6]

 

Becoming a werewolf

Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin (which also is frequently described).[7] In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve.[7] To drink rainwater out of the footprint of the animal in question or to drink from certain enchanted streams were also considered effectual modes of accomplishing metamorphosis.[8] The 16th century Swedish writer Olaus Magnus says that the Livonian werewolves were initiated by draining a cup of specially prepared beer and repeating a set formula. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia.

 

In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man could turn into a werewolf if he, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his face.[6]

 

In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628),

 

are certayne sorcerers, who having annoynted their bodies with an ointment which they make by the instinct of the devil, and putting on a certayne inchaunted girdle, does not only unto the view of others seem as wolves, but to their own thinking have both the shape and nature of wolves, so long as they wear the said girdle. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures.

 

Such were the views about lycanthropy current throughout the continent of Europe when Verstegan wrote.

 

The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis, or of sending out a familiar, real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician, male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature. In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy. Nevertheless it will be well to touch on both these beliefs here.

 

The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with werewolfism. Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves.[6]

 

The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra ("All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies") was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. St. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh king Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years. In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil.

 

A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an 80-year-old man named Thiess. In 1692, in Jurgenburg, Livonia, Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God.[9] He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for Idolatry and superstitious belief.

 

A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary werewolves. The former are generally thought to have made a pact, usually with the Devil, and morph into werewolves at night to indulge in nefarious acts. Involuntary werewolves, on the other hand, are werewolves by an accident of birth or health. In some cultures, individuals born during a new moon or suffering from epilepsy were considered likely to be werewolves.

 

Becoming a werewolf simply by being bitten by another werewolf as a form of contagion is common in modern horror fiction, but this kind of transmission is rare in legend, unlike the case in vampirism.[6]

 

Even if the denotation of lycanthropy is limited to the wolf-metamorphosis of living human beings, the beliefs classed together under this head are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul, which goes forth seeking whom it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit, whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being.

 

Vulnerabilities

Most modern fiction describes werewolves as vulnerable to silver weapons and highly resistant to other attacks. This feature does not appear in stories about werewolves before the 19th century. (The claim that the Beast of Gévaudan, an 18th century wolf or wolf-like creature, was shot by a silver bullet appears to have been introduced by novelists retelling the story from 1935 onwards and not in earlier versions.[10])

 

Unlike vampires, they are not generally thought to be harmed by religious artifacts such as crucifixes and holy water. In many countries, rye and mistletoe were considered effective safeguards against werewolf attacks.[citation needed] Mountain ash is also considered effective, with one Belgian superstition stating that no house was safe unless under the shade of a mountain ash.[6] In some legends, werewolves have an aversion to wolfsbane.[citation needed]

 

Remedies

Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form. In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations.[6]

 

In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of werewolfism; medicinally (usually via the use of wolfsbane), surgically or by exorcism. However, many of the cures advocated by medieval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients. A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife. Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that simply scolding a werewolf will cure it.[6] Conversion to Christianity is also a common method of removing werewolfism in the medieval period. A devotion to St. Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes.

 

Classical literature

 

Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius.Herodotus in his Histories[11] wrote that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were transformed into wolves once every nine years. These rituals were apparently meant to symbolise earthly regeneration and rebirth. Virgil was also familiar with human beings transforming into wolves.[12]

 

In Greek mythology, the story of Lycaon provides one of the earliest examples of a werewolf legend. According to one version, Lycaon was transformed into a wolf as a result of eating human flesh; one of those who were present at periodical sacrifice on Mount Lycæon was said to suffer a similar fate.

 

In Metamorphoses, the Roman poet Ovid vividly described stories of men who roamed the woods of Arcadia in the form of wolves.[13]

 

The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder, relates two tales of lycanthropy. Quoting Euanthes,[14] he mentions a man who hung his clothes on an ash tree and swam across an Arcadian lake, transforming him into a wolf. On the condition that he attacked no human being for nine years, he would be free to swim back across the lake to resume human form. Pliny also quotes Agriopas regarding a tale of a man who was turned into a wolf after tasting the entrails of a human child.

 

In the Latin work of prose, the Satyricon, written about 60 C.E. by Gaius Petronius Arbiter, one of the characters, Niceros, tells a story at a banquet about a friend who turned into a wolf (chs. 61-62). He describes the incident as follows, "When I look for my buddy I see he'd stripped and piled his clothes by the roadside...He pees in a circle round his clothes and then, just like that, turns into a wolf!...after he turned into a wolf he started howling and then ran off into the woods."[15]

 

European cultures

Many European countries and cultures influenced by them have stories of werewolves, including Albania (oik), Armenia (mardagayl) France (loup-garou), Greece (lycanthropos), Spain (hombre lobo), Argentina (lobizón), Mexico (hombre lobo and nahual), Bulgaria (върколак - varkolak), Turkey (kurtadam), Czech Republic/Slovakia (vlkodlak), Serbia/Montenegro/Bosnia (vukodlak, вукодлак), Belarus (vaukalak, ваўкалак), Russia (vourdalak, оборотень), Ukraine (vovkulak(a), vurdalak(a), vovkun, перевертень), Croatia (vukodlak), Poland (wilkołak), Romania (vârcolac, priculici), Macedonia (vrkolak), Slovenia (volkodlak), Scotland (werewolf, wulver), England (werewolf), Ireland (faoladh or conriocht), Wales (bleidd-ddyn), Germany (Werwolf), the Netherlands (weerwolf), Denmark/Sweden/Norway (Varulv), Norway/Iceland (kveld-ulf, varúlfur), Galicia (lobishome), Portugal/Brazil (lobisomem), Lithuania (vilkolakis and vilkatlakis), Latvia (vilkatis and vilkacis), Andorra/Catalonia (home llop), Hungary (Vérfarkas and Farkasember), Estonia (libahunt), Finland (ihmissusi and vironsusi), and Italy (lupo mannaro). In northern Europe, there are also tales about people changing into animals including bears, as well as wolves.

  

A German woodcut from 1722Werewolves in European tradition were mostly evil men who terrorized people in the form of wolves on command of the Devil, though there were rare narratives of people being transformed involuntarily. In the 10 century, they were given the binomial name of melancholia canina and in the 14th century, daemonium lupum.[6] In Marie de France's poem Bisclavret (c. 1200), the nobleman Bizuneh, for reasons not described in the lai, had to transform into a wolf every week. When his treacherous wife stole his clothing needed to restore his human form, he escaped the king's wolf hunt by imploring the king for mercy and accompanied the king thereafter. His behaviour at court was so much gentler than when his wife and her new husband appeared at court, that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed. Other tales of this sort include German fairy tales, Märchen, in which several aristocrats temporarily transform into beasts. See Snow White and Rose Red, where the tame bear is really a bewitched prince, and The Golden Bird where the talking fox is also a man.

 

Werewolf folklore is rare in England, possibly because wolves had been eradicated by authorities in the Anglo-Saxon period.[16]

 

Harald I of Norway is known to have had a body of Úlfhednar (wolf coated), which are mentioned in Vatnsdœla saga, Haraldskvæði, and the Völsunga saga resemble some werewolf legends. The Úlfhednar were fighters similar to the berserkers, though they dressed in wolf hides rather than those of bears and were reputed to channel the spirits of these animals to enhance effectiveness in battle.[6] These warriors were resistant to pain and killed viciously in battle, much like wild animals. Ulfhednar and berserkers are closely associated with the Norse god Odin.

 

In Latvian folklore, a vilkacis was someone who transformed into a wolf-like monster, which could be benevolent at times.[citation needed] Another collection of stories concern the skin-walkers. The vilkacis and skin-walkers probably have a common origin in Proto-Indo-European society, where a class of young unwed warriors were apparently associated with wolves[citation needed].

 

In other hand, in the Hungarian folklore, the concept of werewolf goes back to the Middle Ages. The werewolves used to live specially in the region of Transdanubia, and it was thought that the ability to change into a wolf it was obtained in the infant age, after the suffering of abuse by the parents or by a curse. At the age of seven the boy leaves the house and goes hunting by night and can change to person or wolf whenever he wants. The curse can also be obtained when in the adulthood the person passed three times through an arch made of a Birch with the help of a wild rose's spine.

 

The werewolves were known to exterminate all kind of farm animals, especially sheep. The transformation usually occurred in the Winter solstice, Easter and full moon. Later in the XVII and XVIII century, the trials in Hungary not only were conduced against witches, but against werewolves too, and many records exist creating connections between both kinds. Also the vampires and werewolves are closely related in Hungary, being both feared in the antiquity.[17]

 

According to the first dictionary of modern Serbian language (published by Vuk Stefanović-Karadžić in 1818) vukodlak / вукодлак (werewolf) and vampir / вампир (vampire) are synonyms, meaning a man who returns from his grave for purposes of fornicating with his widow. The dictionary states this to be a common folk tale.

 

Common amongst the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland, and the Serbs and Slovenes, was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shape-shifting abilities. Though capable of turning into any animal they wished, it was commonly believed that such people preferred to turn into a wolf.[18]

 

According to Armenian lore, there are women who, in consequence of deadly sins, are condemned to spend seven years in wolf form.[19] In a typical account, a condemned woman is visited by a wolfskin-toting spirit, who orders her to wear the skin, which causes her to acquire frightful cravings for human flesh soon after. With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers. She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin. The transformation is generally said to be involuntary, but there are alternate versions involving voluntary metamorphosis, where the women can transform at will.

 

The 11th Century Belarusian Prince Usiaslau of Polatsk was considered to have been a Werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "Vseslav the prince judged men; as prince, he ruled towns; but at night he prowled in the guise of a wolf. From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan. The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed. For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St. Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev."

 

There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks – and consequent court trials – in sixteenth century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism, but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in 1573, there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused[citation needed]. The loup-garou eventually ceased to be regarded as a dangerous heretic and reverted to the pre-Christian notion of a "man-wolf-fiend." The lubins or lupins were usually female and shy in contrast to the aggressive loups-garous.[citation needed]

 

Some French werewolf lore is associated with documented events. The Beast of Gévaudan terrorized the general area of the former province of Gévaudan, now called Lozère, in south-central France. From the years 1764 to 1767, an unknown entity killed upwards of 80 men, women, and children.[citation needed] The creature was described as a giant wolf by the sole survivor of the attacks, which ceased after several wolves were killed in the area.

 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England, who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic."[20]

 

American cultures

Main article: Skin-walker

During the Norse colonization of the Americas, it is thought by Woodward that the Vikings brought with them their beliefs in werewolves, which would manifest themselves in the folklore of some Native American tribes.[6]

 

The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob".[21]

 

When the European colonization of the Americas occurred, the pioneers brought their own werewolf folklore with them and were later influenced by the lore of their neighbouring colonies and those of the Natives. Belief in the loup-garou present in Canada, the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan[22] and upstate New York, originates from French folklore influenced by Native American stories on the Wendigo. In Mexico, there is a belief in a creature called the nahual, which traditionally limits itself to stealing cheese and raping women rather than murder. In Haiti, there is a superstition that werewolf spirits known locally as Jé-rouge (red eyes) can possess the bodies of unwitting persons and nightly transform them into cannibalistic lupine creatures.[6]

 

Origins of werewolf beliefs

Many authors have speculated that werewolf and vampire legends may have been used to explain serial killings in less rational ages. This theory is given credence by the tendency of some modern serial killers to indulge in practices commonly associated with werewolves, such as cannibalism, mutilation, and cyclic attacks. The idea is well explored in Sabine Baring-Gould's work The Book of Werewolves.

 

Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but widespread feature of life in Europe.[23] Some scholars have suggested that it was inevitable that wolves, being the most feared predators in Europe, were projected into the folklore of evil shapeshifters. This is said to be corroborated by the fact that areas devoid of wolves typically use different kinds of predator to fill the niche; werehyenas in Africa, weretigers in India,[6] as well as werepumas ("runa uturunco")[24][25] and werejaguars ("yaguaraté-abá" or "tigre-capiango")[26][27] of southern South America.

 

In his Man into Wolf (1948), anthropologist Robert Eisler drew attention to the fact that many Indo-European tribal names and some modern European surnames mean "wolf" or "wolf-men". This is argued by Eisler to indicate that the European transition from fruit gathering to predatory hunting was a conscious process, simultaneously accompanied by an emotional upheaval still remembered in humanity's subconscious, which in turn became reflected in the later medieval superstition of werewolves.[28]

  

Werewolf, by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1512Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in 1963 entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves, in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria, stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity, reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf[29]. This is however argued against by Woodward, who points out how mythological werewolves were almost invariably portrayed as resembling true wolves, and that their human forms were rarely physically conspicuous as porphyria victims.[6] Others have pointed out the possibility of historical werewolves having been sufferers of hypertrichosis, a hereditary condition manifesting itself in excessive hair growth. However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe.[6] People suffering from Downs Syndrome have been suggested by some scholars to have been possible originators of werewolf myths.[21] Woodward suggested rabies as the origin of werewolf beliefs, claiming remarkable similarities between the symptoms of that disease and some of the legends. Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies.[6] However, the idea that lycanthropy could be transmitted in this way is not part of the original myths and legends and only appears in relatively recent beliefs.

 

Vampiric connections

In Medieval Europe, the corpses of some people executed as werewolves were cremated rather than buried in order to prevent them from being resurrected as vampires.[6] Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life as vampires in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. This differs from conventional werewolfery, where the creature is a living being rather than an undead apparition. These vampiric werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest. The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins were thought to weigh it down. Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would be used.[6] The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovakia. In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as one creature; Vulkodlak.[6] In Hungarian and Balkan mythology, many werewolves were said to be vampiric witches who became wolves in order to suck the blood of men born under the full moon in order to preserve their health. In their human form, these werewolves were said to have pale, sunken faces, hollow eyes, swollen lips and flabby arms.[6] The Haitian jé-rouges differ from traditional European werewolves by their habit of actively trying to spread their lycanthropic condition to others, much like vampires.[6]

 

In fiction

Main article: Werewolf fiction

The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf of London in 1935. The main werewolf of this film is a dapper London scientist who retains some of his style and most of his human features after his transformation,[30] as lead actor Henry Hull was unwilling to spend long hours being made up by makeup artist Jack Pierce.[31] Universal Studios drew on a Balkan tale of a plant associated with lycanthropy as there was no literary work to draw upon, unlike the case with vampires. There is no reference to silver nor other aspects of werewolf lore such as cannibalism.[32]

 

However, he lacks warmth, and it is left to the tragic character Talbot played by Lon Chaney, Jr. in 1941's The Wolf Man to capture the public imagination. With Pierce's makeup more elaborate this time,[33] this catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness.[30] Sympathetic portrayals are few but notable; the comedic but tortured protagonist David Naughton in An American Werewolf In London,[34] and a less anguished and more confident and charismatic Jack Nicholson in the 1994 film Wolf.[35] Rachel Hawthorne's Dark Guardian novels examine a secret society of werewolves who live peacefully alongside normal humans, are able to initiate the change at will to protect their kind, and generally retain control of themselves when transformed.[36] Other werewolves are decidedly more willful and malevolent, such as those in the novel The Howling and its subsequent sequels and film adaptations.

 

The form a werewolf assumes was generally anthropomorphic in early films such as The Wolf Man and Werewolf of London, but larger and powerful wolf in many later films.[37]

 

The transmogrification process is often portrayed as painful in film and literature within the horror genre. The resulting wolf is typically cunning but merciless and prone to killing and eating people without compunction, regardless of the moral character of its human counterpart.

 

Werewolves are often depicted as immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects, such as a silver-tipped cane, bullet or blade; this attribute was first adopted cinematically in The Wolf Man.[33] This negative reaction to silver is sometimes so strong that the mere touch of the metal on a werewolf's skin will cause burns. Current-day werewolf fiction almost exclusively involves lycanthropy being either a hereditary condition or being transmitted like an infectious disease by the bite of another werewolf. In some fiction, the power of the werewolf extends to human form, such as invulnerability, super-human speed and strength and falling on their feet from high falls. Also aggressiveness and animalistic urges may be harder to control (hunger, sexual harassment). Usually in these cases the abilities are diminished in human form. In other fictions it can even be cured by medicine men or even antidotes.

 

Fantastic literature sometimes includes the painful element to the change, but often does not. For example, J. K. Rowling maintains the painful transition between forms while Charles de Lint, Terry Pratchett, Fritz Leiber, and myriad others reach back to the non-painful medieval literary sources. Poul Anderson in Operation Chaos presents a modernised American werewolf, in complete control of himself and free of the traditional taints, while in Three Hearts and Three Lions appears a far more traditional (though not unsympathetic) female werewolf.

 

The 1961 Hammer film The Curse of the Werewolf, adapted from the 1933 novel The Werewolf of Paris by American author Guy Endore, in 1961 draws on traditional legends of a child born on Christmas Eve being cursed.[38]

 

A three year-old Lejla arrives in the United Kingdom.

© UNHCR/Courtesy of the Damon family

 

A war baby tells her story 20 years after onset of the Sarajevo siege

 

LONDON, United Kingdom, April 18 (UNHCR) – Dressed in skinny jeans and a blazer, she looks every inch the fashionable young Londoner. But Lejla Damon is no regular 19-year-old. "I was born on Christmas Day," she says with a flick of her glossy brown hair, fixing me with her green-eyed stare. "It was in 1992, in the main hospital in Sarajevo," she continues.

 

"My mum was a Bosnian Muslim; she'd been held for some time in a concentration camp where she had been raped repeatedly by a Serb soldier." Nine months later, the woman gave birth to a girl. "She absolutely hated me. She thought I was evil . . . and that I would grow up to be like the men who abused her. She wanted absolutely nothing to do with me," Lejla reveals.

 

It was an inauspicious start to her life, coinciding with the onset of the siege of the Bosnia and Herzegovina capital, Sarajevo, and descent into Europe's deadliest conflict since the Second World War. When it was over almost four years later, the former Yugoslavia had disintegrated while almost 200,000 people were dead and 2.7 million forcibly displaced.

 

Even before the first shots were fired in Bosnia, BBC journalist Dan Damon was working in Slovenia covering the 10-day war of independence in June 1991 and its aftermath, together with his photographer wife Sian. The following year, the couple managed to steal their way into Sarajevo, where for seven days Dan was the only Western TV reporter in the city.

 

The couple were determined to remain in Sarajevo, even staying as guests of Bosnian Serb political leader Radovan Karadzic and in the rooms of UN military commander General Philippe Morillon, when he was absent from the city. Under constant artillery, rocket, mortar and sniper fire, the city's 400,000 inhabitants struggled to find food, medicine and water, and thousands of civilians were killed and wounded.

 

Dan and Sian were reporting from a hospital when they met Lejla's mother, who told them she did not want to keep her child. Aware that what they were doing was illegal, they took the decision – with her mother's consent – to take the baby out of the country to safety. They called her Lejla, after a Bosnian diplomat who had helped them. "They saw that it was a horrible situation for the baby to be in and they didn't want to just leave me there," Lejla explains. "Obviously it wasn't the most legitimate exit."

 

The couple were no strangers to risk, but the effort to smuggle her out of the country in an armoured van, the falsified documents and the years locked in legal battle to adopt her were as tough as anything they had faced in their careers. Eventually they won custody and, at the age of three, their refugee daughter began her life in the United Kingdom.

 

Growing up in the UK, Lejla was aware of her origins and has twice visited the country of her birth. Last year she went to Sarajevo with her parents for a trip that included a meeting with President Bakir Izetbegović. Despite not speaking the language, she has a strong connection to the country: "I feel extremely relaxed in Sarajevo, but it is very strange because I saw the hospital where I was born and so many graves. You can see the progress, but it's disappointing there is so much progress still to be made."

 

She does not dwell on what might have happened if Dan and Sian had not found her in Sarajevo. "I've had a very nice life, I've had a good education, I've had fun and I've done all the things children are meant to do when they're younger. I've been very grateful to my parents," she confides.

 

But Lejla has clearly given much thought to tracing her birth mother. "I don't know whether it would be for the best, especially for someone in her situation. I don't want to bring up things that aren't very pleasant at all. I was conceived through something that's so horrible and a violation of humanity," Lejla says. "If she said, 'No, I don't want to see her,' I think it would knock me. And I don't think I'm quite ready for that."

 

Living with such a past has, at times, set her apart from her peers. "It's really strange because people my age have no idea where Bosnia is, they don't know much about the war because they may have just been born when it happened . . . I see the same attitude towards refugees and asylum-seekers. I think sometimes people are too narrow-minded," she comments.

 

"You never get stories by refugees from their point of view and sometimes I feel they do get put down and criticized, which is not fair. Even people my age are very dismissive of refugees. I say, 'so do you dismiss me?,' and they say, 'no, but you're different.' I find it worrying that people are so ignorant."

 

Lejla says she is inspired by the work that UNHCR does. "I've always been aware of it – even in my parents' photos from Bosnia, the UNHCR logo was in the background." Between 1992 and 1996, UNHCR coordinated the longest-running humanitarian airlift in history. Some 160,000 tonnes of food, medicine and other goods were delivered to Sarajevo in more than 12,000 flights. The airlift also evacuated more than 1,100 civilians in need of urgent medical care.

 

The UN refugee agency is still helping tens of thousands of victims of the conflict. Meanwhile, an international conference in Sarajevo next week hopes to raise up to 500 million euros to fund housing solutions for many of the remaining refugees, internally displaced and returnees.

 

Now studying for a degree in advertising, Lejla is eloquent and passionate about politics and world affairs. She hopes one day to become a war photographer like her mother. Despite some years of teenage rebellion, Lejla obviously idolizes Dan and Sian.

 

The couple went on to adopt two more children and Dan still regularly reports from conflict zones, most recently covering attacks by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. "I want to see the world, and not just the nice bits, and I want to help. That's definitely my parents' influence." Already planning her next visit to Bosnia, it is difficult to imagine a better outcome for this Christmas Day war baby.

 

By Laura Padoan in London, United Kingdom

  

A group of refugee women wait to see the doctor in a Bangladeshi camp. Forcibly displaced women are vulnerable to abuse.

UNHCR / G.M.B. Akash / June 2006

 

UNHCR chief reiterates commitment to prevention of sexual violence

 

GENEVA, November 25 (UNHCR) – UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres stressed on Wednesday that his agency was fully committed to the prevention of sexual violence, which he said needed a personal as well as a collective response.

 

"Gender-based violence is one of the most virulent, culturally endemic, and persistent trends in the world," Guterres noted in a special message to staff to mark the start of the annual 16 Days of Activism to Eliminate Violence Against Women, an international campaign originating from the first Women's Global Leadership Institute in 1991.

 

"Sexual violence is a brutal form of physical and psychological warfare rooted in the gender inequality extant not only in zones of conflict, but in our everyday personal lives," said the High Commissioner, who described sexual violence as a major global security concern.

 

"The persistence of such forms of violence undermine peace and security and shatter community and family ties. It demands a personal as well as a collective response," he stressed, while adding: "The prevention of sexual violence must remain one of our highest priorities."

 

Guterres said preventing and responding to sexual and gender-based violence was increasingly integrated into UNHCR's efforts on physical protection, health, access to psycho-social support and justice, livelihoods, community empowerment and durable solutions.

 

He pledged that the refugee agency "will, along with other UN agencies, increasingly assist states in their efforts to prevent sexual violence, protect individuals and provide remedy to victims."

 

UNHCR staff at Geneva headquarters and in the field will be holding a wide range of activities over the 16 days under this year's theme of "Commit. Act. Demand. We can end violence against women." Headquarters is running exhibitions on victims of sex trafficking and promoting UNHCR initiatives to foster gender equality in refugee settings.

 

There will also be a personal address by Guterres as well as presentations by representatives of UN Action – a network of 12 UN agencies working to end sexual violence in conflict – and the White Ribbon Campaign, an organization focused on mobilizing men to end violence against women.

 

Evidence of the gravity of violence and discrimination against women worldwide is widespread. A selection of recent news headlines tell of one abuse after another: In Australia, 16 football players are arrested for raping an 18-year-old girl; In Somalia, a divorced woman is stoned to death on a charge of adultery; in the Netherlands, former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic faces prosecution for crimes against humanity that include systematic rape.

 

The last decade, meanwhile, has seen renewed focus on the tactical use of sexual violence in conflict. In 2001, mass rape and sexual enslavement in wartime were, for the first time, regarded as a crime against humanity by the War Crimes Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

 

More recently, a report from 18 Colombian women's organizations to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights showed an alarming increase in sexual violence by state security forces over the previous five years. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, thought to have the highest rate of rape in the world, armed groups send messages to villages stating: "We will be raping your women and girls."

 

With sexual violence clearly integrated into military objectives, UN Security Resolutions 1820 and 1888 on "Women, Peace and Security," and the initiatives they have spawned, mark a milestone in the fight against sexual violence.

 

Guterres said the resolutions, passed in 2008 and 2009 respectively, represented the international community's clearest commitment to combating sexual violence in conflict. Yet gender-based violence is not just a problem for a few troubled states.

 

Also falling within the 16 days are International Women Human Rights Defenders Day (November 29), World AIDS Day (December 1), International Disability Day (December 3) and International Human Rights Day (December 10).

  

Clock Tower of Saborna Church in Beograd. This church was built from 1837 to 1845 in order of Milos Obrenovic. Architect is Franc Janke and the church is dedicted to Archangel Michail. Here is grave of ruler of Obrenovic dynasty and Dositej Obradovic and Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic.

Elementary school "Vuk Karadzic", Belgrade, Serbia

Skadarlija (Serbian Cyrillic: Скадарлија) is a vintage street, an urban neighborhood and former municipality of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in the Belgrade municipality of Stari Grad (Old town) and generally considered the main bohemian quarter of Belgrade, similar to Paris' Montmartre.

 

The history of Skadarlija began in the 1830s with the settlement of Gypsies in the abandoned trenches in front of the ramparts. The 1854 town plan of Belgrade reveals that the Gypsy hovels had been replaced by brick buildings into which artisans, caterers, petty clerks and others moved. The whole locality was referred to as the Gypsy Quarter until 1872, when the street was named after the town of Skadar), which was the capital of the Serbian medieval state (today Shkodër in Albania). Skadarska ulica, Serbian for "Skadar street", is still the official name. Skadarlija began to acquire its bohemian character in the last few decades of the 19th century, and particularly after 1901,when the well-known Dardaneli inn was demolished and its guests, prominent writers and actors, moved to the Skadarlija inns or kafanas. The best-known of these were Tri šešira ("Three Hats"), Dva jelena ("Two Deer"), Zlatni bokal ("The Golden Chalice"), Bandist, East, Guild, Vuk Karadžić and The two Sergeants. The first three of these still survive today, accompanied by some new restaurants like Ima dana ("There will be days"), Skadarlija (demolished in 2006), Dva bela goluba ("Two White Doves").

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skadarlija

Der NATO-Angriff auf Jugoslawien 1999 war ein Verbrechen. Anklage erhob das UN-Tribunal in Den Haag aber gegen die Opfer der Aggression, an der Spitze Präsident Slobodan Milosevic. Heute vor zehn Jahren starb er in der Haft. Ein Gespräch mit Cathrin Schütz, Interview: Arnold Schölzel

 

1993 hatte der UN-Sicherheitsrat mit der Gründung des ICTY – jetzt »Restmechanismus« genannt – der UN-Charta hohngesprochen. Er kann als höchstes Exekutivorgan der UN kein Justizorgan unter seiner Schirmherrschaft einrichten. Im Statut des Internationalen Gerichtshofs (IGH), der höchsten Rechtsinstanz im UN-System, wird erklärt, dass nur Staaten als Parteien vor dem Gerichtshof auftreten können, aber das Statut des ICTY baut auf das Prinzip der »persönlichen strafrechtlichen Verantwortlichkeit«. Damit wurde dem damals noch bestehenden Jugoslawien und auch den neu gegründeten Teilstaaten ohne ihre Zustimmung das souveräne Recht auf ihre Justizhoheit entrissen. So spielte das ICTY schon durch seine Gründung eine bedeutende Rolle bei der Auflösung des bestehenden internationalen Rechtssystems zugunsten einer »neuen Weltordnung«. Das ICTY agiert als verlängerter Arm der NATO und versucht der Gewaltanwendung gegen Jugoslawien den Anschein des Rechts zu verleihen. Es schützt jene Staaten, die die Sozialistische Föderative Republik Jugoslawien zerschlagen, die kroatischen und bosnisch-muslimischen Kriegsparteien bewaffnet und 1999 einen Angriffskrieg gegen Jugoslawien geführt haben.

 

Warum halten die USA, Deutschland und die anderen NATO-Mächte bis heute am ICTY fest?

 

Der NATO-Angriff auf Jugoslawien muss als Türöffnerkrieg für die unzähligen Aggressionen gesehen werden, die ihm folgten. Hier wurde alles erprobt, was wir heute sehen: die Zerstörung des Völkerrechts, die Aushebelung der Vereinten Nationen, die NATO-Aggression ohne UN-Mandat, die Zerstörung souveräner Staaten, massive Kriegspropaganda zur Rechtfertigung angeblich »humanitärer Kriegsgründe«. Jene, die damals zu Kriegsverbrechern erklärt wurden, gilt es zu verurteilen, um die Legende aufrechtzuerhalten, wonach das Eingreifen der NATO unvermeidbar war.

 

Für den 24. März, den 17. Jahrestag des Beginns des NATO-Angriffskrieges gegen Jugoslawien, ist die Verkündung des ICTY-Urteils gegen Radovan Karadzic angekündigt. Wie beurteilen Sie den Verlauf dieses Prozesses?

 

Ich habe in meiner Zeit am ICTY viele Prozesse erlebt. Alle sind Schauprozesse. Karadzic wird wegen Völkermords in Srebrenica verurteilt werden. Wer die Bücher von Alexander Dorin kennt, der die Ungereimtheiten wie kein anderer aufdeckt, wird wissen, wie das einzuordnen ist.

Linke RPf - Fluchtursachen

 

Im Aufruf zur Mahnwache ist davon die Rede, dass die NATO-Staaten immer noch »monströs die Dämonisierung der Serben« betreiben. Wo liegen die Gründe dafür? Immerhin bemüht sich die jetzige serbische Führung um Einvernehmen mit EU und NATO.

RTXL1MW Kopie.jpg

Foto: Paul Vreeker / Reuters

 

Hier geht es in erster Linie darum, dass die Verbreitung der Propagandalügen von damals, die längst als solche entlarvt werden konnten, bis heute forciert wird und diese gar Einzug in die Schulbücher halten. Nach Lesart der NATO-Kriegstreiber sind die Serben das Tätervolk, ist Milosevic der zweite Hitler. Das heutige Bemühen um Serbien ist Teil der aggressiven Politik gegen Russland, dessen Einfluss es zu verdrängen gilt.

 

Der Publizist Otto Köhler sagte auf der Rosa-Luxemburg-Konferenz im Januar 2015 in Berlin : »Unsere Intellektuellen, Hans Magnus Enzensberger an der Spitze, haben Slobodan Milosevic zum Hitler ernannt, damit die Bundeswehr endlich 1999 den Krieg gegen Jugoslawien fortführen konnte, den Hitler 1941 begonnen hatte.« An der Haltung gegenüber dem früheren jugoslawischen Präsidenten Milosevic, die Leute wie Enzensberger und die großen deutschen Medien 1999 einnahmen, hat sich nichts geändert. Hat er nach Ihrer Kenntnis auf Derartiges reagiert?

 

Slobodan Milosevic hat sich vor dem ICTY selbst verteidigt. Weil er das Tribunal als politisches Machtinstrument erkannt und die Anklage gegen ihn als politische, nicht juristische bewertet hat, hat er sich ebenso politisch verteidigt. Ähnlich wie Georgi Dimitroff hat auch Milosevic nicht nur sich selbst verteidigt, sondern sein Volk und die Wahrheit. Er hat seinen Prozess genutzt, um die NATO auf die Anklagebank zu stellen, um die Rolle Deutschlands bei der Zerschlagung Jugoslawiens aufzuzeigen und die fatale Einmischung der USA zu beweisen. Umgeben wurde er von jenen, die den Mut hatten, zu seinen Gunsten öffentlich für ihn einzutreten. Darunter fand sich Peter Handke mit seinem unermüdlichen Einsatz für »Gerechtigkeit für Serbien« wie auch viele westliche und auch aus Deutschland stammende Politiker, Journalisten, Polizisten, Militärs, die in das Kriegsgeschehen als Augenzeugen involviert waren und die beschlossen, ihrem Gewissen zu folgen und nicht ihren Auftraggebern und das Schweigen zu brechen. Viele von ihnen haben, unbeachtet von den westlichen Medien, als Zeugen der Verteidigung im Prozess ausgesagt und die Anklage tief erschüttert.

 

Die Todesumstände von Slobodan Milosevic in der Haft waren dubios. Gibt es neue Erkenntnisse?

 

Ich würde die Umstände nicht als dubios bezeichnen. Dubios war vielmehr die Untersuchung, die erfolgte. Milosevics Herzkrankheit war weithin bekannt. Ärztlicher Rat, der ausreichende Schonung und adäquate Behandlung forderte, wurde regelmäßig ignoriert, sein Arbeitsvolumen durch enge Prozesstermine und den kurzfristigen Austausch von Zeugen massiv erhöht. Schon Monate vor seinem Tod haben wir davor gewarnt, dass man ihn zermürben und schwächen will, um seiner Verteidigung zu schaden. Wie wir später über Wikileaks erfahren haben, hat man über seinen Gesundheitszustand aus dem Gefängnis heraus stetig an die US-Regierung berichtet. Milosevic hat schließlich eine Behandlung in einer Herzspezialklinik in Russland beantragt. Man sagte, diese sei nur möglich, wenn die nötigen Sicherheitsgarantien seitens Russlands vorlägen. Als diese vorlagen, hat man ihm die Behandlung untersagt. Wenige Tage darauf wurde er tot in seiner Zelle gefunden. Obwohl Milosevic kurz vor seinem Tod in einem Brief an die russische Botschaft die Befürchtung geäußert hat, dass man ihn vergifte, wurden die Todesumstände bis heute nicht unabhängig untersucht. Das ist dubios! Das ICTY hat den Fall mit einem internen Bericht, der die Beteiligten jeder Verantwortung entbindet, abgeschlossen. Milosevics Familie hat den kanadischen Anwalt Chris Black mit weiteren Untersuchungen beauftragt. Unklar bleibt u. a., wie zwei im ICTY-Bericht genannte Substanzen in Milosevics Körper gelangen konnten. Blacks Bemühungen sind jedoch im Sand verlaufen, weil die beteiligten Behörden und forensischen Institute mit Verweis auf ein Abkommen mit dem ICTY keine Informationen herausgeben. Gelungen ist es jedenfalls, einen sich selbst verteidigenden Milosevic, der es wagte, die wahren Motive der NATO aufzudecken, zum Schweigen zu bringen. Sein Agieren widersprach dem Sinn der Erfindung des ICTY und durfte nicht sein.

 

Vor zwei Jahren bekannte Exbundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder freimütig, er habe 1999 mit dem Jugoslawien-Krieg Völkerrechtsbruch, also ein Kriegsverbrechen begangen. Er sagte damals auf einem Forum der Zeit, »unsere Flugzeuge, unsere Tornados« seien nach Serbien geschickt worden, »und die haben zusammen mit der NATO einen souveränen Staat gebombt – ohne dass es einen Sicherheitsratsbeschluss gegeben hätte«. Gab es Versuche, Schröder juristisch zu belangen?

 

Bei der Bundesanwaltschaft gingen 1999 viele Strafanzeigen wegen der Vorbereitung eines Angriffskrieges bzw. der Aufstacheln zum Angriffskrieg ein. Es wurden jedoch keine Ermittlungen eingeleitet. Begründet wurde es damit, dass Anhaltspunkte für eine Straftat fehlten. Auch vor dem ICTY wurden Strafanzeigen gestellt. Dabei ging es um die als »Kollateralschäden« bekannt gewordene Bombardierung von Zivilisten, Krankenhäusern, Schulen u. s. w. Das ICTY hat ebenfalls und nicht überraschend keine Anklagen erhoben, weil man den NATO-Staaten keine Absicht nachweisen könne. Aus dem entsprechenden Bericht geht hervor, dass sich die Ermittler des ICTY bei ihrer Untersuchung fast ausschließlich auf NATO-Quellen berufen haben.

 

Cathrin Schütz, Diplompolitologin und jW-Autorin, war ab 2002 Mitglied im Verteidigungsteam von Slobodan Milosevic vor dem Internationalen Strafgerichtshof für das ehemalige Jugoslawien (ICTY). Unter ihrer Mitarbeit erschien dazu 2006 im Zambon-Verlag das Buch »Die Zerstörung Jugoslawiens – Slobodan Milosevic antwortet seinen Anklägern«

(aus www.jungewelt.de/2016/03-11/012.php)

  

bildmarz 056

UN-Tribunal für Bush und Obama

von Uli Gellermann in rationalgalerie.de

  

Geradezu euphorisch notierten die deutschen Medien die Verurteilung des ehemaligen bosnisch-serbischen Präsidenten Radovan Karadzic wegen Völkermordes. Die TAGESSCHAU, ein zentraler Taktgeber des bundesrepublikanischen Medien-Orchesters, fragte in einer Überschrift sogar strafverschärfend: „Warum eigentlich nicht lebenslänglich?“

 

Von solch juristischer Kühnheit sind deutsche Medien in einem anderen Fall völlig frei: Immer wenn das scharfe Schwert des Völkerrechts die USA treffen könnte, schweigt das offizielle und öffentliche Deutschland beredt.

Traditionell begann auch der Irak-Krieg mit einer Lüge. Jener über Massenvernichtungsmittel, die der Irak angeblich besitzen sollte, aber nicht besaß. Brav kolportierten die deutschen Medien den Betrug. Eine Entschuldigung steht bis heute ebenso aus wie eine Selbstanalyse der Kriegsbefürworter. Der Krieg endet leider bis heute nicht. Aber die geschätzten Opferzahlen nach dem offiziellen Kriegsende im Irak – von 109.000 Opfern (US-Kriegsministerium) bis zur Studie der John Hopkins University, die von 654.965 Toten durch den Krieg und die Kriegsfolgen ausgeht – überschreiten die Zahlen der diversen Jugoslawienkriege bei weitem.

 

Auch an Grausamkeit lassen sich die USA und ihre Verbündeten nur schwer übertreffen: Vom bekannten Foltergefängnis Abu-Ghraib, über die düsteren Gefängnisse der US-Behörden im Ausland, bis zum Einsatz von Uranmunition und weißem Phosphor gegen die Männer, Frauen und Kinder eines zivilen Protestes im irakischen Ort Falludscha. Zwei Jahre nach den Angriffen vom Frühjahr 2004 traten dort in sehr großer Zahl, überwiegend bei Kindern, Fälle von Leukämie, Meningitis, Thalassämie, Septicämie, angeborene Missbildungen der Nieren und Gehirntumore auf.

 

Schon bei der psychologischen Vorbereitung des Krieges, den mörderischen Sanktionen der USA gegen die irakische Bevölkerung, erreichten US-Offizielle einen seltenen Höhepunkt des Zynismus. Jene 500.000 irakischen Kinder, die im Ergebnis der Strafsanktionen unter George H. W. Bush und Bill Clinton starben, kommentierte die US-Außenministerin Albright fröhlich mit „ein Preis, der es wert war“.

 

Neben den faktischen Verbrechen sind auch die juristischen nicht unbekannt. Selbst der Wissenschaftliche Dienst des Bundestages vertrat die Auffassung, dass die USA kein Mandat der Vereinten Nationen für ihren Krieg hatten. Oder, um es mit den Worten des Völkerrechtlers Michael Bothe zu sagen: "Hier zeigt sich eine Entwicklung, die dahin geht, dass die USA bewusst das Völkerrecht im Sinne einer hegemonialen Weltordnung umgestalten wollen." Fraglos brachen die USA und ihr Oberbefehlshaber George W. Bush das Verbot eines Angriffskrieges, wie es in der UN-Charta festgelegt ist. Und ebenso fraglos wäre das ein Fall für den „Internationalen Strafgerichtshof“.

Ein weiteres Gutachten des Wissenschaftlichen Dienstes des Bundestages trägt den bedeutenden Titel "Ausübung militärischer Gewalt durch ausländische Staaten von Militärbasen" und verurteilt den Einsatz von US-Drohnen als "völkerrechtswidrige Militäroperationen“. Wieder ist es ein US-Oberbefehlshaber, der mit schrecklicher Regelmäßigkeit völkerrechtswidrige Anschläge anordnet: Präsident Barack Obama lässt sich regelmäßig eine Liste für gezielte Tötungen vorlegen. Er ist Richter und Henker zugleich. Inzwischen genügt schon der bloße Verdacht auf terroristische Aktivität, um einen Drohnen-Einsatz zu legitimieren. Wie bei den gewöhnlichen Terror-Attentaten, die zurzeit die Schlagzeilen dominieren, ist die Zahl ziviler Opfer der angeblich gezielten „Operationen“ beträchtlich. Mit Obama drängt sich die nächste Anklage vor dem „Internationalen Strafgerichtshof“ geradezu auf. Allerdings nicht in den deutschen Gewohnheits-Medien.

 

Und wahrscheinlich auch nicht vor dem Gerichtshof. Obwohl die Institution höchst geeignet wäre. Umfasst ihr Verfolgungsgebiet doch Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit, Kriegsverbrechen und Völkermord sowie das Delikt des Verbrechens der Aggression. Und so ziemlich all diese Delikte sind bei den erwähnten Präsidenten der USA festzustellen. Aber die USA haben dem Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen als dem Verwahrer des Gerichtshof-Statuts bei dessen Gründung mitgeteilt, dass sie nicht beabsichtigen, das Statut zu ratifizieren. Die Vereinigten Staaten verweigern sich schlicht der internationalen Gerichtsbarkeit.

Aber der Fall Karadzic lässt hoffen. Sind dessen Verbrechen doch lange vor Gründung des Gerichtshofes auf dem Territorium eines Staates verübt worden, der das Statut gar nicht hat unterschreiben können. Offenkundig darf das Gericht also auch rückwirkend und gegen Nicht-Unterzeichner tätig werden. Vielleicht kann die TAGESSCHAU dann künftig auch in den Fällen Bush und Obama die Frage stellen: Warum eigentlich nicht lebenslänglich?

  

DSC_5490

logotype

i made this logo for the one nice library in prijepolje, serbia. it's named by one of the most valuable serbs from the past, by the man who is the creator of the / one of the/ best alphabet in the world "azbuka"- vuk stefanovic karadzic.

his quote is: "write as you speak and read as it is written"- great isn't it?!!!

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vuk_Stefanovi%C4%87_Karad%C5%BEi%C4%87

 

one letter = one sound phoneme = one character.

 

explore

Poco tempo fa al Tribunale Internazionale dell'Aia l'ex capo politico dei serbi di Bosnia Radovan Karadzic - latitante per 13 anni - è stato assolto dall'accusa di genocidio in Bosnia dal Tribunale penale internazionale per l'ex Jugoslavia.

Per Karadzic rimane l'accusa di genocidio a Srebrenica e altri nove capi d'accusa per crimini contro l'umanità nella guerra di Bosnia del '92 e '95.

Il 9 luglio è ripreso a L'Aja il processo a Ratko Mladic.

 

Oggi, per l'ennesimo anniversario del genocidio, a Potočari sono state sepolte altre 520 vittime identificate.

Uno strazio che non ha fine, che non trova giustizia nè memoria.

    

La libertà

 

La terra fatta di sangue

scorreva sotto i miei piedi.

La mia gente fatta di dolore

sfilava davanti ai miei occhi.

Nel silenzio della disperazione

sentivo le risate dei bambini,

o forse era la mia infanzia

che mi inseguiva ridendo?

La miseria della città distrutta

era enorme quanto quella della mia vita.

L'immensità delle tombe finiva là,

in un punto dell'orizzonte,

dove Dio accarezza il mondo.

Disperatamente vi cercavo

intorno ai palazzi bruciati;

inutilmente mi aggiravo

tra le macerie della città,

per salvare le vostre vite.

Illusa!

Volevo vedervi,

correndo per le strade ferite.

E' questo il prezzo

per vedere il nostro cielo libero.

Ma che è la libertà

se le tenebre della morte

son più scure delle notti invernali?

e siamo tutti un po' orfani,

un po' vedove, un po' morti?

Che è la libertà

se i prati dei nostri cimiteri

si protraggono oltre l'infinità del cielo?

 

Elvira Mujčić

Leggetela. Conoscetela.

EXPLORE: Highest position: 436 on Thursday, March 4, 2010

 

3,000-year-old bones from the British Museum.

 

On the subject of bones and dead bodies, Radovan Karadzic says that the massacre in Srebrenica in July 1995 is a myth. He must have missed this great BBC documentary. Not for the faint-hearted....

The courtyard

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

The district of Tabán lies in the depression between Castle Hill and Gellért Hill. During the time of the Turkish occupation Turkish in particular were settled here. In the 18th century there was an influx of Serbian refugees. In 1810 a fierce fire devastated the area.

At the foot of Castle Hill of Buda lies a more or less lonesome symbol of the demolished romantic area of Tabán and the historic Rácváros, a strange, horseshoe-shaped corner house, which was named for the colorful high relief depicting a stag being chased by hounds above its portico.

An inn and restaurant have been operating in the building, originally built in 1811. There have been references to the inn evocative of its name as early as in 1704. The capital's first restaurant serving game dishes was opened amidst the ancient walls of this nearly 300-year-old building.

It was built in the "pigtail" or "Zopf" style. This style of building, which was so popular in Hungary and represents a transition from late Baroque (or Rococo) to Neo-classical, was named after the pigtail-like plaited garlands forming part of the decorative motifs which were frequently incorporated in the design. aranyszarvas.hu/eles/index_eng.php#autoload

 

Már 1705-ben szerepel egy írásos dokumentumban egy Aranyszarvashoz címzett kocsma. A Várhegy és a Tabán találkozásánál lévő copf sarokház 1810-ben nyerte el mai formáját. Az épület egyike a keveseknek, melyek a régi Tabán városrészből megmaradtak.

 

A II. világháború után itt nyílt meg Budapest első - és sokáig egyetlen - vadvendéglője. Az épület alatti pincében a 70-es 80-as években egy kedvelt diáktanya, a Szarvas-pince működött, ahol csak bort és zsíroskenyeret lehetett fogyasztani, tangóharmonika zene mellett.

A ház részletes története

 

Az óriási rácvárosi tűzvész utáni évben, 1811-ben Sághy Ferenc, az Egyetemi Nyomda gondnoka megvesz és összeépíttet három házat. Az egyikben ősidők óta vendéglátóhely volt: a tér nevét adó Szarvas kocsmát már 1705-ben említi a krónika. Modern szelek fújnak: Sághy a saroképületben kávéházat alakíttat ki, amely aztán jó negyven évre nemzetközi irodalmártanya lesz.

 

A tabáni szerb értelmiségiek - élükön Vitkovics Mihály fivére, Jovan, a tabáni pópa - a magyar nyelvújítással párhuzamosan itt, éttermünk árkádjai alatt dolgozzák ki a modern szerb ábécét és nyelvtant. Kétszer is időzik körükben a fürdőkben gyógyulást kereső filológus Vuk Karadžić, akinek a hatására Goethe elkezdett szerbül tanulni. Az emeleten lakik Jakov Ignjatović budai főjegyző, "a szerbek Jókaija". Szalonjában - s a Szarvas kávéházban is - éppúgy megfordul az irodalom minden jelese, mint a szemközt lakó pálos atya, Virág Benedek almaillatú szobácskájában. Soroljuk? A leghíresebb magyarok: Batsányi, Kölcsey, Kazinczy, Berzsenyi, Bajza, Vörösmarty, Toldy Ferenc, Döbrentei Gábor.

 

Az 1838-as nagy árvíz idején a Szarvas sokaknak nyújt menedéket - az akkori tulajdonost, Christen kávést a "bátor és önfeláldozó magatartásukkal kitűnt polgárok" névsorában találjuk.

A tabáni szerbek létszáma fogy, cserébe gyarapszik a németeké. 1840-ben itt dominóznak, s "fejvakarva borzadoznak ama rettentő csapás ellenében, miszerint a magyar szó Buda városában is széltében lábacskára kapogatni kezdeget..." Mire a forradalom kitör, magyar fészek már ez. 1849 januárjában állítólag itt fogják el a forradalmár pap-költőt, Czuczor Gergelyt, akit Riadó című verse miatt hatévi várfogságra ítélnek. A várostrom idején Aulich tábornok hadiszállása és elsősegély helye telepszik a házba s a kávéház termeibe.

 

Ezután már csak annyi izgalom adódik, hogy Martinovics Elek kávés 1862-ben színes üvegű verandát építtet üzletéhez, amely sok gazdaváltással, de egészen az első világháború végéig szolgálja a tabániakat. A két háború között a helyiségekben már patika ragyog.

 

Az Arany Szarvas vadvendéglőként támadt fel, az 1971-es budapesti Vadászati Világkiállítás alkalmából teljesen felújították. Évekig az egyetlen hely volt a városban, ahol vadat lehetett kapni. Az utolsó harminc év törzsvendégei közül emlékezzünk meg a költő-festő házaspárról, Vas Istvánról és Szántó Piroskáról, de főként Zórád Ernőről, a Tabán festőjéről, aki oly sokszor üldögélt nyaranta a teraszon.

Forrás: Aranyszarvas Étterem

hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

The district of Tabán lies in the depression between Castle Hill and Gellért Hill. During the time of the Turkish occupation Turkish in particular were settled here. In the 18th century there was an influx of Serbian refugees. In 1810 a fierce fire devastated the area.

At the foot of Castle Hill of Buda lies a more or less lonesome symbol of the demolished romantic area of Tabán and the historic Rácváros, a strange, horseshoe-shaped corner house, which was named for the colorful high relief depicting a stag being chased by hounds above its portico.

An inn and restaurant have been operating in the building, originally built in 1811. There have been references to the inn evocative of its name as early as in 1704. The capital's first restaurant serving game dishes was opened amidst the ancient walls of this nearly 300-year-old building.

It was built in the "pigtail" or "Zopf" style. This style of building, which was so popular in Hungary and represents a transition from late Baroque (or Rococo) to Neo-classical, was named after the pigtail-like plaited garlands forming part of the decorative motifs which were frequently incorporated in the design. aranyszarvas.hu/eles/index_eng.php#autoload

 

Már 1705-ben szerepel egy írásos dokumentumban egy Aranyszarvashoz címzett kocsma. A Várhegy és a Tabán találkozásánál lévő copf sarokház 1810-ben nyerte el mai formáját. Az épület egyike a keveseknek, melyek a régi Tabán városrészből megmaradtak.

 

A II. világháború után itt nyílt meg Budapest első - és sokáig egyetlen - vadvendéglője. Az épület alatti pincében a 70-es 80-as években egy kedvelt diáktanya, a Szarvas-pince működött, ahol csak bort és zsíroskenyeret lehetett fogyasztani, tangóharmonika zene mellett.

A ház részletes története

 

Az óriási rácvárosi tűzvész utáni évben, 1811-ben Sághy Ferenc, az Egyetemi Nyomda gondnoka megvesz és összeépíttet három házat. Az egyikben ősidők óta vendéglátóhely volt: a tér nevét adó Szarvas kocsmát már 1705-ben említi a krónika. Modern szelek fújnak: Sághy a saroképületben kávéházat alakíttat ki, amely aztán jó negyven évre nemzetközi irodalmártanya lesz.

 

A tabáni szerb értelmiségiek - élükön Vitkovics Mihály fivére, Jovan, a tabáni pópa - a magyar nyelvújítással párhuzamosan itt, éttermünk árkádjai alatt dolgozzák ki a modern szerb ábécét és nyelvtant. Kétszer is időzik körükben a fürdőkben gyógyulást kereső filológus Vuk Karadžić, akinek a hatására Goethe elkezdett szerbül tanulni. Az emeleten lakik Jakov Ignjatović budai főjegyző, "a szerbek Jókaija". Szalonjában - s a Szarvas kávéházban is - éppúgy megfordul az irodalom minden jelese, mint a szemközt lakó pálos atya, Virág Benedek almaillatú szobácskájában. Soroljuk? A leghíresebb magyarok: Batsányi, Kölcsey, Kazinczy, Berzsenyi, Bajza, Vörösmarty, Toldy Ferenc, Döbrentei Gábor.

 

Az 1838-as nagy árvíz idején a Szarvas sokaknak nyújt menedéket - az akkori tulajdonost, Christen kávést a "bátor és önfeláldozó magatartásukkal kitűnt polgárok" névsorában találjuk.

A tabáni szerbek létszáma fogy, cserébe gyarapszik a németeké. 1840-ben itt dominóznak, s "fejvakarva borzadoznak ama rettentő csapás ellenében, miszerint a magyar szó Buda városában is széltében lábacskára kapogatni kezdeget..." Mire a forradalom kitör, magyar fészek már ez. 1849 januárjában állítólag itt fogják el a forradalmár pap-költőt, Czuczor Gergelyt, akit Riadó című verse miatt hatévi várfogságra ítélnek. A várostrom idején Aulich tábornok hadiszállása és elsősegély helye telepszik a házba s a kávéház termeibe.

 

Ezután már csak annyi izgalom adódik, hogy Martinovics Elek kávés 1862-ben színes üvegű verandát építtet üzletéhez, amely sok gazdaváltással, de egészen az első világháború végéig szolgálja a tabániakat. A két háború között a helyiségekben már patika ragyog.

 

Az Arany Szarvas vadvendéglőként támadt fel, az 1971-es budapesti Vadászati Világkiállítás alkalmából teljesen felújították. Évekig az egyetlen hely volt a városban, ahol vadat lehetett kapni. Az utolsó harminc év törzsvendégei közül emlékezzünk meg a költő-festő házaspárról, Vas Istvánról és Szántó Piroskáról, de főként Zórád Ernőről, a Tabán festőjéről, aki oly sokszor üldögélt nyaranta a teraszon.

Forrás: Aranyszarvas Étterem

hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

The district of Tabán lies in the depression between Castle Hill and Gellért Hill. During the time of the Turkish occupation Turkish in particular were settled here. In the 18th century there was an influx of Serbian refugees. In 1810 a fierce fire devastated the area.

At the foot of Castle Hill of Buda lies a more or less lonesome symbol of the demolished romantic area of Tabán and the historic Rácváros, a strange, horseshoe-shaped corner house, which was named for the colorful high relief depicting a stag being chased by hounds above its portico.

An inn and restaurant have been operating in the building, originally built in 1811. There have been references to the inn evocative of its name as early as in 1704. The capital's first restaurant serving game dishes was opened amidst the ancient walls of this nearly 300-year-old building.

It was built in the "pigtail" or "Zopf" style. This style of building, which was so popular in Hungary and represents a transition from late Baroque (or Rococo) to Neo-classical, was named after the pigtail-like plaited garlands forming part of the decorative motifs which were frequently incorporated in the design. aranyszarvas.hu/eles/index_eng.php#autoload

 

Már 1705-ben szerepel egy írásos dokumentumban egy Aranyszarvashoz címzett kocsma. A Várhegy és a Tabán találkozásánál lévő copf sarokház 1810-ben nyerte el mai formáját. Az épület egyike a keveseknek, melyek a régi Tabán városrészből megmaradtak.

 

A II. világháború után itt nyílt meg Budapest első - és sokáig egyetlen - vadvendéglője. Az épület alatti pincében a 70-es 80-as években egy kedvelt diáktanya, a Szarvas-pince működött, ahol csak bort és zsíroskenyeret lehetett fogyasztani, tangóharmonika zene mellett.

A ház részletes története

 

Az óriási rácvárosi tűzvész utáni évben, 1811-ben Sághy Ferenc, az Egyetemi Nyomda gondnoka megvesz és összeépíttet három házat. Az egyikben ősidők óta vendéglátóhely volt: a tér nevét adó Szarvas kocsmát már 1705-ben említi a krónika. Modern szelek fújnak: Sághy a saroképületben kávéházat alakíttat ki, amely aztán jó negyven évre nemzetközi irodalmártanya lesz.

 

A tabáni szerb értelmiségiek - élükön Vitkovics Mihály fivére, Jovan, a tabáni pópa - a magyar nyelvújítással párhuzamosan itt, éttermünk árkádjai alatt dolgozzák ki a modern szerb ábécét és nyelvtant. Kétszer is időzik körükben a fürdőkben gyógyulást kereső filológus Vuk Karadžić, akinek a hatására Goethe elkezdett szerbül tanulni. Az emeleten lakik Jakov Ignjatović budai főjegyző, "a szerbek Jókaija". Szalonjában - s a Szarvas kávéházban is - éppúgy megfordul az irodalom minden jelese, mint a szemközt lakó pálos atya, Virág Benedek almaillatú szobácskájában. Soroljuk? A leghíresebb magyarok: Batsányi, Kölcsey, Kazinczy, Berzsenyi, Bajza, Vörösmarty, Toldy Ferenc, Döbrentei Gábor.

 

Az 1838-as nagy árvíz idején a Szarvas sokaknak nyújt menedéket - az akkori tulajdonost, Christen kávést a "bátor és önfeláldozó magatartásukkal kitűnt polgárok" névsorában találjuk.

A tabáni szerbek létszáma fogy, cserébe gyarapszik a németeké. 1840-ben itt dominóznak, s "fejvakarva borzadoznak ama rettentő csapás ellenében, miszerint a magyar szó Buda városában is széltében lábacskára kapogatni kezdeget..." Mire a forradalom kitör, magyar fészek már ez. 1849 januárjában állítólag itt fogják el a forradalmár pap-költőt, Czuczor Gergelyt, akit Riadó című verse miatt hatévi várfogságra ítélnek. A várostrom idején Aulich tábornok hadiszállása és elsősegély helye telepszik a házba s a kávéház termeibe.

 

Ezután már csak annyi izgalom adódik, hogy Martinovics Elek kávés 1862-ben színes üvegű verandát építtet üzletéhez, amely sok gazdaváltással, de egészen az első világháború végéig szolgálja a tabániakat. A két háború között a helyiségekben már patika ragyog.

 

Az Arany Szarvas vadvendéglőként támadt fel, az 1971-es budapesti Vadászati Világkiállítás alkalmából teljesen felújították. Évekig az egyetlen hely volt a városban, ahol vadat lehetett kapni. Az utolsó harminc év törzsvendégei közül emlékezzünk meg a költő-festő házaspárról, Vas Istvánról és Szántó Piroskáról, de főként Zórád Ernőről, a Tabán festőjéről, aki oly sokszor üldögélt nyaranta a teraszon.

Forrás: Aranyszarvas Étterem

hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

 

Beograd, Srbija - Belgrade, Serbia

 

A picture taken in Skadarlija - located in Belgrade's municipality of Stari Grad (old city) and generally considered the main bohemian quarter of Belgrade, styled the Belgrade's Montmartre.

 

Skadarlija, a short and curved street which is a remarkable Belgrade tourist attraction, includes well-known restaurants, hotel Le Petit Piaf, art galleries, antique and souvenir shops, Sebilj fountain, etc. Groups singing either Gypsy music or traditional city music and actors dressed in traditional Serb costumes perform freely down the street. Unlike other similar and popular places in Belgrade, Skadarlija is known as a place visited by the entire families with children and young couples, as Skadarlija is popular as a romantic place. Restaurants offer the typical national cuisine, most notably the roštilj (grilled meat) with pivo (beer). Skadarlija's cafes, restaurants, art exhibits and cobblestone promenade attract up to 20,000 people daily.

 

The history of Skadarlija began in the 1830s with the settlement of Gypsies in the abandoned trenches in front of the ramparts. The 1854 town plan of Belgrade reveals that the Gypsy hovels had been replaced by brick buildings into which artisans, caterers, petty clerks and others moved. The whole locality was referred to as the Gypsy Quarter until 1872, when the street was named after the city of Shkodër (Serbian: Skadar), which was part of the Serbian medieval state (today in Albania). Skadarska ulica, Serbian for "Skadar street" is still the official name.

 

Skadarlija began to acquire its bohemian character in the last few decades of the 19th century and particularly after 1901, when the well-known Dardaneli inn was demolished and its guests, prominent writers and actors, moved to the Skadarlija inns. The best-known of these were Tri šešira (Three hats), Dva jelena ("Two deers"), Zlatni bokal (Golden chalice), Bandist, East, Guild, Vuk Karadžić, Two Sergeants. First three still survive today, accompanied by some new restaurants, like Ima dana ("There will be days"), Skadarlija (demolished in 2006), Dva bela goluba ("Two white doves"), etc.

   

1298 R Rijeka luka 1965 godina

 

The first record of a port in Rijeka dates back to 1281, when the Great Council of the Republic of Venice reported a conflict of Venetian merchants and ship owners from Zadar and Rab. In 1719, the Port of Rijeka was granted a charter as a free port by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, and the first road connecting the port to the hinterland, the Caroline road, was completed in 1728. The inland connections were gradually improved by the construction of the Josephina and Louisiana roads in 1779 and 1810 respectively.

In 1776, Rijeka became a corpus separatum within the Habsburg Monarchy, known under its Hungarian/Italian name of Fiume, and was transferred to the Kingdom of Hungary in order to foster trade. Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Rijeka gained greater importance as the sole Hungarian seaport, and in the second half of the 19th century a new artificial harbor was completed, as well as railway lines to Budapest via Zagreb and to Pivka in present-day Slovenia, where the railway joined the Austrian Southern Railway connecting Vienna and Trieste. The development in this period boosted the Port of Rijeka to rank tenth in transport volume among European ports as it reached a peak in 1913. In the second half of the 19th century, a large breakwater was built along with wharfs in the city of Rijeka itself, moving the shoreline between 100 metres (330 feet) and 200 metres (660 feet). In the period, railway infrastructure was also built to the north of the port, along with storage facilities, administrative buildings and other necessary structures. The railway facilities were designed by Jozsef Bainville, while the port itself was designed by Hilarion Pascal, who had previously designed the Port of Marseille, and Antal Hajnal. The design was presented as a model port at the Weltausstellung in Vienna in 1873 and at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1878.

After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I and the Treaty of Rapallo of 1920, Rijeka became an independent city-state known as the Free State of Fiume. That marked the beginning of the port's decline, as it lost a large portion of its major market, Hungary Italy annexed Rijeka in 1924 by the Treaty of Rome, and the port became peripherally located, with no modern railway or road links to the rest of the country, further adding to the already obvious economic decline.

During World War II, Rijeka was targeted by around 30 Allied bombing raids, and in 1945 the retreating Germans damaged approximately 90% of the port facilities. Among the ships sunk in the port was the German auxiliary cruiser Kiebitz, which would later be raised and repaired to become the Yugoslav Navy Yacht Galeb. The city of Rijeka purchased the ship, which was subsequently moored in the port and eventually opened as a museum in 2011.

Following World War II and the Paris Peace Treaties, Rijeka became a part of Croatia and Yugoslavia. This provided the Port of Rijeka with a new market and sparked further development. A bulk cargo terminal was completed in 1967, followed by warehouses in Škrljevo in 1978. In 1979, a container terminal in Sušak, a phosphate terminal in Rijeka and a timber terminal in Bršica were added. Joining them were a livestock terminal in Bršica and a general cargo terminal with a roll-on/roll-off ramp in the Bakar area in 1982 and 1983 respectively. The greatest volume of cargo was recorded in 1980, when 20.2 million tonnes, including 13.1 million tonnes of liquid cargo, were transported. The port suffered another period of stagnation in the 1990s due to the Croatian War of Independence, when a portion of the port's shipping switched to Trieste and Koper. Since 1996, the volume of operations of the Port of Rijeka has again been gradually growing.

 

Petar Ubavkić. National Museum of Serbia (Народни музеј Србије / Narodni muzej Srbije), Republic Square, Belgrade, Serbia. Трг републике, Београд, Србија.

Really unobtrusive are the graves of Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Carl and Wilhelm Carl with the byname Brothers Grimm , German Brüder Grimm German brothers famous for their classic collections of folk songs and folktales, especially for Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1812–22; generally known as Grimm's Fairy Tales), which led to the birth of the science of folklore. Jacob, especially, did important work in historical linguistics and Germanic philology.

 

Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Carl was born January 4, 1785, Hanau, Hesse-Kassel and died September 20, 1863, Berlin

 

Grimm, Wilhelm Carl was born February 24, 1786, Hanau and died December 16, 1859, Berlin

 

Beginnings and Kassel period.

 

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm and Wilhelm Carl Grimm were the oldest in a family of five brothers and one sister. Their father, Philipp Wilhelm, a lawyer, was town clerk in Hanau and later justiciary in Steinau, another small Hessian town, where his father and grandfather had been ministers of the Calvinistic Reformed Church. The father's death in 1796 brought social hardships to the family; the death of the mother in 1808 left 23-year-old Jacob with the responsibility of four brothers and one sister. Jacob, a scholarly type, was small and slender with sharply cut features, while Wilhelm was taller, had a softer face, and was sociable and fond of all the arts. After attending the high school in Kassel, the brothers followed their father's footsteps and studied law at the University of Marburg (1802-06) with the intention of entering civil service. At Marburg they came under the influence of Clemens Brentano, who awakened in both a love of folk poetry, and Friedrich Karl von Savigny, cofounder of the historical school of jurisprudence, who taught them a method of antiquarian investigation that formed the real basis of all their later work. Others, too, strongly influenced the Grimms, particularly the philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), with his ideas on folk poetry. Essentially, they remained individuals, creating their work according to their own principles. In 1805 Jacob accompanied Savigny to Paris to do research on legal manuscripts of the Middle Ages; the following year he became secretary to the war office in Kassel. Because of his health, Wilhelm remained without regular employment until 1814. After the French entered in 1806, Jacob became private librarian to King Jérôme of Westphalia in 1808 and a year later auditeur of the Conseil d'État but returned to Hessian service in 1813 after Napoleon's defeat. As secretary to the legation, he went twice to Paris (1814–15), to recover precious books and paintings taken by the French from Hesse and Prussia. He also took part in the Congress of Vienna (September 1814–June 1815). Meantime, Wilhelm had become secretary at the Elector's library in Kassel (1814), and Jacob joined him there in 1816. By that time the brothers had definitely given up thoughts of a legal career in favour of purely literary research. In the years to follow they lived frugally and worked steadily, laying the foundations for their lifelong interests. Their whole thinking was rooted in the social and political changes of their time and the challenge these changes held. Jacob and Wilhelm had nothing in common with the fashionable “Gothic” Romanticism of the 18th and 19th centuries. Their state of mind made them more Realists than Romantics. They investigated the distant past and saw in antiquity the foundation of all social institutions of their days. But their efforts to preserve these foundations did not mean that they wanted to return to the past. From the beginning, the Grimms sought to include material from beyond their own frontiers—from the literary traditions of Scandinavia, Spain, The Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland, England, Serbia, and Finland.

 

They first collected folk songs and tales for their friends Achim von Arnim and Brentano, who had collaborated on an influential collection of folk lyrics in 1805, and the brothers examined in some critical essays the essential difference between folk literature and other writing. To them, folk poetry was the only true poetry, expressing the eternal joys and sorrows, the hopes and fears of mankind.

 

Encouraged by Arnim, they published their collected tales as the Kinder- und Hausmärchen, implying in the title that the stories were meant for adults and children alike. In contrast to the extravagant fantasy of the Romantic school's poetical fairy tales, the 200 stories of this collection (mostly taken from oral sources, though a few were from printed sources) aimed at conveying the soul, imagination, and beliefs of people through the centuries—or at a genuine reproduction of the teller's words and ways. The great merit of Wilhelm Grimm is that he gave the fairy tales a readable form without changing their folkloric character. The results were threefold: the collection enjoyed wide distribution in Germany and eventually in all parts of the globe (there are now translations in 70 languages); it became and remains a model for the collecting of folktales everywhere; and the Grimms' notes to the tales, along with other investigations, formed the basis for the science of the folk narrative and even of folklore. To this day the tales remain the earliest “scientific” collection of folktales. The Kinder- und Hausmärchen was followed by a collection of historical and local legends of Germany, Deutsche Sagen (1816–18), which never gained wide popular appeal, though it influenced both literature and the study of the folk narrative. The brothers then published (in 1826) a translation of Thomas Crofton Croker's Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, prefacing the edition with a lengthy introduction of their own on fairy lore. At the same time, the Grimms gave their attention to the written documents of early literature, bringing out new editions of ancient texts, from both the Germanic and other languages. Wilhelm's outstanding contribution was Die deutsche Heldensage (“The German Heroic Tale”), a collection of themes and names from heroic legends mentioned in literature and art from the 6th to the 16th centuries, together with essays on the art of the saga.

 

While collaborating on these subjects for two decades (1806–26), Jacob also turned to the study of philology with an extensive work on grammar, the Deutsche Grammatik (1819–37). The word deutsch in the title does not mean strictly “German,” but it rather refers to the etymological meaning of “common,” thus being used to apply to all of the Germanic languages, the historical development of which is traced for the first time. He represented the natural laws of sound change (both vowels and consonants) in various languages and thus created bases for a method of scientific etymology; i.e., research into relationships between languages and development of meaning. In what was to become known as Grimm's law, Jacob demonstrated the principle of the regularity of correspondence among consonants in genetically related languages, a principle previously observed by the Dane Rasmus Rask. Jacob's work on grammar exercised an enormous influence on the contemporary study of linguistics, Germanic, Romance, and Slavic, and it remains of value and in use even now. In 1824 Jacob Grimm translated a Serbian grammar by his friend Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, writing an erudite introduction on Slavic languages and literature.

 

He extended his investigations into the Germanic folk-culture with a study of ancient law practices and beliefs published as Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer (1828), providing systematic source material but excluding actual laws. The work stimulated other publications in France, The Netherlands, Russia, and the southern Slavic countries and has not yet been superseded.

  

The Göttingen years.

 

The quiet contentment of the years at Kassel ended in 1829, when the brothers suffered a snub—perhaps motivated politically—from the Elector of Hessen-Kassel: they were not given advancement following the death of a senior colleague. Consequently, they moved to the nearby University of Göttingen, where they were appointed librarians and professors. Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie, written during this period, was to be of far-reaching influence. From poetry, fairy tales, and folkloristic elements, he traced the pre-Christian faith and superstitions of the Germanic people, contrasting the beliefs to those of classical mythology and Christianity. The Mythologie had many successors all over Europe, but often disciples were not as careful in their judgments as Jacob had been. Wilhelm published here his outstanding edition of Freidank's epigrams. But again fate overtook them. When Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, became king of Hanover, he high-handedly repealed the constitution of 1833, which he considered too liberal. Two weeks after the King's declaration, the Grimms, together with five other professors (the “Göttingen Seven”), sent a protest to the King, explaining that they felt themselves bound by oath to the old constitution. As a result they were dismissed, and three professors, including Jacob, were ordered to leave the kingdom of Hanover at once. Through their part in this protest directed against despotic authority, they clearly demonstrated the academic's sense of civil responsibilities, manifesting their own liberal convictions at the same time. During three years of exile in Kassel, institutions in Germany and beyond (Hamburg, Marburg, Rostock, Weimar, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland) tried to obtain the brothers' services.

  

The Berlin period.

 

In 1840 they accepted an invitation from the king of Prussia, Frederick William IV, to go to Berlin, where as members of the Royal Academy of Sciences they lectured at the university. There they began their most ambitious enterprise, the Deutsches Wörterbuch, a large German dictionary intended as a guide for the user of the written and spoken word as well as a scholarly reference work. In the dictionary, all German words found in the literature of the three centuries “from Luther to Goethe” were given with their historical variants, their etymology, and their semantic development; their usage in specialized and everyday language was illustrated by quoting idioms and proverbs. Begun as a source of income in 1838 for the brothers after their dismissal from Göttingen, the work required generations of successors to bring the gigantic task to an end in our day. Jacob lived to see the work proceed to the letter F, while Wilhelm only finished the letter D. The dictionary became an example for similar publications in other countries: Britain, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. Jacob's philological research later led to a history of the German language, Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, in which he attempted to combine the historical study of language with the study of early history. Research into names and dialects was stimulated by Jacob Grimm's work, as were ways of writing and spelling—for example, he used roman type and advocated spelling German nouns without capital letters.

 

For some 20 years they worked in Prussia's capital, respected and free from financial worries. Much of importance can be found in the brothers' lectures and essays, the prefaces and reviews (Kleinere Schriften) they wrote in this period. In Berlin they witnessed the Revolution of 1848 and took an active part in the political strife of the succeeding years. In spite of close and even emotional ties to their homeland, the Grimms were not nationalists in the narrow sense. They maintained genuine—even political—friendships with colleagues at home and abroad, among them the jurists Savigny and Eichhorn; the historians F.C. Dahlmann, G.G. Gervinus, and Jules Michelet; and the philologists Karl Lachmann, John Mitchell Kemble, Jan Frans Willems, Vuk Karadžić, and Pavel Josef Šafařik. Nearly all academies in Europe were proud to count Jacob and Wilhelm among their members. The more robust Jacob undertook many journeys for scientific investigations, visiting France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Denmark, and Sweden. Jacob remained a bachelor; Wilhelm married Dorothea Wild from Kassel, with whom he had three children: Herman (literary and art historian, 1828–1901), Rudolf (jurist, 1830–89), and Auguste (1832–1919). The graves of the brothers are in the Matthäikirchhof in Berlin.

 

Major Works:

Joint works.

Kinder- und Hausmärchen (2 vol. 1812–15; 3 vol. 1819–22), of which there are many translations into English, generally as Grimm's Fairy Tales, complete edition based on trans. by Margaret Hunt (1944), by Joseph Campbell (1944), by Francis P. Magoun, Jr., and Alexander H. Krappe as The Grimms' German Folk Tales (1960), Altdeutsche Wälder, 3 vol. (1813–16); Deutsche Sagen, 2 vol. (1816–18); Deutsches Wörterbuch (1852–1960; new ed. 1965 ff.).

 

By Jacob.

Über den altdeutschen Meistergesang (1811); Deutsche Grammatik, 4 vol. (1819–37); Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer (1828); Reinhart Fuchs (1834); Deutsche Mythologie (1835); Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, 2 vol. (1848); Kleinere Schriften, 8 vol. (1864–90, reprinted 1965).

 

By Wilhelm.

Altdänische Heldenlieder, Balladen und Märchen (1811); Über deutsche Runen (1821); Grâve Ruodolf (1828); Die deutsche Heldensage (1829); Vrîdankes Bescheidenheit (1834); Kleinere Schriften, 4 vol. (1881–87).

 

Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite . (2008).

  

Dieses Bild zeigt im Hintergrund eines Jugendstilgrabes, die eigentlich recht bescheidenen (Ehren)-Gräber der Gebrüder Grimm und der beiden Söhne

Weitere Informationen zur Geschichte und Bedeutung der Gebrüder finden Sie:

Jacob Grimm (1785–1863), Germanist und Sammler deutscher Märchen

Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), Germanist und Sammler deutscher Märchen

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebr%c3%bcder_Grimm

copyright: © FSUBF. All rights reserved. Please do not use this image, or any images from my photostream, without my permission.

www.fluidr.com/photos/hsub

 

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić

(Тршић, 6. новембар 1787 - Беч, 7. фебруар 1864)

Haley Renee Fashion Photography Workshop

 

Nina & Emma

Model : Nina Karadzić & Emma Winder-Hipkiss

MUA: Alison Ancell

Fashion Style: Rene Mussared

 

Haley Renee Fashion Photography Workshop James Photographer

 

work with a lot of talent photographer — in Aldgate.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

The district of Tabán lies in the depression between Castle Hill and Gellért Hill. During the time of the Turkish occupation Turkish in particular were settled here. In the 18th century there was an influx of Serbian refugees. In 1810 a fierce fire devastated the area.

At the foot of Castle Hill of Buda lies a more or less lonesome symbol of the demolished romantic area of Tabán and the historic Rácváros, a strange, horseshoe-shaped corner house, which was named for the colorful high relief depicting a stag being chased by hounds above its portico.

An inn and restaurant have been operating in the building, originally built in 1811. There have been references to the inn evocative of its name as early as in 1704. The capital's first restaurant serving game dishes was opened amidst the ancient walls of this nearly 300-year-old building.

It was built in the "pigtail" or "Zopf" style. This style of building, which was so popular in Hungary and represents a transition from late Baroque (or Rococo) to Neo-classical, was named after the pigtail-like plaited garlands forming part of the decorative motifs which were frequently incorporated in the design. aranyszarvas.hu/eles/index_eng.php#autoload

 

Már 1705-ben szerepel egy írásos dokumentumban egy Aranyszarvashoz címzett kocsma. A Várhegy és a Tabán találkozásánál lévő copf sarokház 1810-ben nyerte el mai formáját. Az épület egyike a keveseknek, melyek a régi Tabán városrészből megmaradtak.

 

A II. világháború után itt nyílt meg Budapest első - és sokáig egyetlen - vadvendéglője. Az épület alatti pincében a 70-es 80-as években egy kedvelt diáktanya, a Szarvas-pince működött, ahol csak bort és zsíroskenyeret lehetett fogyasztani, tangóharmonika zene mellett.

A ház részletes története

 

Az óriási rácvárosi tűzvész utáni évben, 1811-ben Sághy Ferenc, az Egyetemi Nyomda gondnoka megvesz és összeépíttet három házat. Az egyikben ősidők óta vendéglátóhely volt: a tér nevét adó Szarvas kocsmát már 1705-ben említi a krónika. Modern szelek fújnak: Sághy a saroképületben kávéházat alakíttat ki, amely aztán jó negyven évre nemzetközi irodalmártanya lesz.

 

A tabáni szerb értelmiségiek - élükön Vitkovics Mihály fivére, Jovan, a tabáni pópa - a magyar nyelvújítással párhuzamosan itt, éttermünk árkádjai alatt dolgozzák ki a modern szerb ábécét és nyelvtant. Kétszer is időzik körükben a fürdőkben gyógyulást kereső filológus Vuk Karadžić, akinek a hatására Goethe elkezdett szerbül tanulni. Az emeleten lakik Jakov Ignjatović budai főjegyző, "a szerbek Jókaija". Szalonjában - s a Szarvas kávéházban is - éppúgy megfordul az irodalom minden jelese, mint a szemközt lakó pálos atya, Virág Benedek almaillatú szobácskájában. Soroljuk? A leghíresebb magyarok: Batsányi, Kölcsey, Kazinczy, Berzsenyi, Bajza, Vörösmarty, Toldy Ferenc, Döbrentei Gábor.

 

Az 1838-as nagy árvíz idején a Szarvas sokaknak nyújt menedéket - az akkori tulajdonost, Christen kávést a "bátor és önfeláldozó magatartásukkal kitűnt polgárok" névsorában találjuk.

A tabáni szerbek létszáma fogy, cserébe gyarapszik a németeké. 1840-ben itt dominóznak, s "fejvakarva borzadoznak ama rettentő csapás ellenében, miszerint a magyar szó Buda városában is széltében lábacskára kapogatni kezdeget..." Mire a forradalom kitör, magyar fészek már ez. 1849 januárjában állítólag itt fogják el a forradalmár pap-költőt, Czuczor Gergelyt, akit Riadó című verse miatt hatévi várfogságra ítélnek. A várostrom idején Aulich tábornok hadiszállása és elsősegély helye telepszik a házba s a kávéház termeibe.

 

Ezután már csak annyi izgalom adódik, hogy Martinovics Elek kávés 1862-ben színes üvegű verandát építtet üzletéhez, amely sok gazdaváltással, de egészen az első világháború végéig szolgálja a tabániakat. A két háború között a helyiségekben már patika ragyog.

 

Az Arany Szarvas vadvendéglőként támadt fel, az 1971-es budapesti Vadászati Világkiállítás alkalmából teljesen felújították. Évekig az egyetlen hely volt a városban, ahol vadat lehetett kapni. Az utolsó harminc év törzsvendégei közül emlékezzünk meg a költő-festő házaspárról, Vas Istvánról és Szántó Piroskáról, de főként Zórád Ernőről, a Tabán festőjéről, aki oly sokszor üldögélt nyaranta a teraszon.

Forrás: Aranyszarvas Étterem

hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tab%C3%A1n

 

1 3 4 5 6 7 ••• 79 80