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The bath house at Forum Hadriani in Voorburg was excavated in the early 19th century by the world’s first professor of archaeology, C.J.C. Reuvens. He meticulously recorded his finds and even measured the height of the features, which was very unusual for that time. Since he had so little material for comparison, it was difficult for him to interpret the features. But his precise records and beautiful drawings have allowed them to be interpreted more recently. The bath house was probably built between AD 120 and 150. The remains consist mainly of stone foundations, fragments of wall paintings and other finds. Little remained of the standing walls. It appears to have been a bath house of the ‘row type’, like the bath house in Heerlen. On leaving the changing room one would first enter the frigidarium, the cold plunge pool. Beyond that lay the tepidarium, where the temperature was more pleasant. The final pool in the row was the caldarium, the hot water bath. The water in this room was heated by a furnace behind the caldarium. The bathing rooms were along one side of an inner courtyard. On the other side there was probably a water tower. The walls of this structure have heavier foundations, and buttresses were even added at a later stage to support the great weight of the water. There was also a large public toilet in the building, which was probably also used by people entering from outside the bath house.



Park Arentsburg in modern Voorburg, the site of ancient Forum Hadriani, the main settlement of the Cananefates, named after the emperor Hadrian.