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Robert Gibbs Contracting Company, Bridge Works, Hoddesdon, Herts.

 

www.facebook.com/nigadwphotography/

Captured from Signal Hill

 

The Cape Town Stadium (Afrikaans: Kaapstad-stadion; Xhosa: Inkundla yezemidlalo yaseKapa) in Cape Town, South Africa is a stadium that was built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. During the planning stage, it was known as the Green Point Stadium, which was the name of the previous stadium on the site, and this name was also used frequently during World Cup media coverage. It is the home ground of Premier Soccer League clubs Ajax Cape Town (since 2010) and Cape Town City (since 2016). It has also hosted the South Africa Sevens rugby tournament since 2015.

 

The stadium is located in Green Point, between Signal Hill and the Atlantic Ocean, close to the Cape Town city centre and to the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, a popular tourist and shopping venue. The stadium had a seating capacity of 64,100 during the 2010 World Cup, later reduced to 55,000. The stadium is connected to the waterfront by a new road connection, Granger Bay Boulevard

 

Construction of the Cape Town Stadium, located on the Green Point Common, began in March 2007. In 33 months, joint contractors Murray & Roberts and WBHO completed the project at a cost of R4.4billion – or approximately US$600million. The project architects were an association between GMP Architects of Germany and two local firms, Louis Karol and Associates and Point Architects. The structural engineers comprised a joint venture between BKS, Henry Fagan & Partners, KFD Wilkinson, Goba, Iliso and Arcus Gibb

Stowe House was begun by Sir Richard Temple in 1676, his family having risen from sheep farmers under Elizabeth I. Over the next century, Viscount Cobham and then Earl Temple (Cobham’s Grenville nephew) rebuilt it into the great classical show House and landscape which still amazes visitors today.

 

Numerous famous architects worked at Stowe House and Gardens. Among them were Sir John Vanbrugh, William Kent, James Gibbs, Robert Adam, Thomas Pitt and Sir John Soane, making Stowe one of the most important houses and estates in the country.

Sorry, but with so much time on my hands, I had to play around painting, with Photoshop!

"Click here" Oil Painting! ............. Your turn to have a go; if you have Photoshop CS3, or later!

 

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

From the Achieves, reprocessed, using Photoshop CC 2020.

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

Monte Vista, located below Ewing, Va. near Elydale School, was built by Rev. Arthur Erwin Robertson and Margaret Ely Robertson. She was the eldest daughter of Robert and Susan Gibbs Ely, who owned the estate that Wilderness Road State Park is now located.

 

Robert and Susan built a mansion on the property in 1877-1888, and called it "Elydale." Later, that home was sold and renamed "Karlan." Monte Vista is less than a mile west of the Karlan mansion.

  

This wonderful lighthouse was engineered and designed by Robert Stevenson in 1827. The red bands make it slightly more unique they were hand painted in 1907. John Gibb of Aberdeen was the contractor responsible for the building of Buchan Ness and the tower stands at 35 meters high. The lighthouse cottages are now available for rent and I believe they are very popular the lighthouse tower remains under the care of The Northern Lighthouse Board in Edinburgh.

 

Situated near Torry in Aberdeen and at the entrance of the River Dee, Girdleness Lighthouse was designed by Robert Louis Stevenson (grandfather to the author of the same name who wrote Treasure Island, Kidnapped and other novels) and built by James Gibb in 1833.

Petitions were received by the Commissioners in 1819 from the Magistrates, town Councils and Harbour trustees of Peterhead, to have a lighthouse erected on Buchan Ness or any more eligible part of the coast. The area was surveyed by Robert Stevenson, Engineer to the Board (also grandfather of Robert Louis Stevenson), who decided on the present position of the village Boddam. It was not, however, until 1827 that the light was exhibited.

John Gibb of Aberdeen was the contractor responsible for the building of Buchan Ness. The red bands were added In 1907 to distinguish it as a day mark.

 

During the Second World War, a drifting mine washed ashore and exploded 50 yards south of the station. No one was injured and the material damage consisted of 3 lantern panes cracked and 12 other glass panes broken in the tower, engine room and dwelling houses. Part of the ceilings of the kitchen and one bedroom of the 1st Assistant's house were brought down and the locks, hinges and bolts of 4 doors damaged. There were also 20 slates blown off the roof storehouse.

 

There have been many changes since 1827 in the light, in 1910 to dioptric, in 1978 the lantern was especially enlarged with the candlepower raised from 6,500 to 786,000 and in 1978, it was converted to electric operation, candlepower 2,000,000.

 

The lighthouse was automated in 1988 and is now remotely monitored from the Board’s headquarters in Edinburgh. The fog horn was discontinued in 2000.

This late afternoon shot was taken at “The Bee Gees Way”, Redcliffe, Queensland where a large commemoration of the lives of this famous group was established several years ago. The family moved to Redcliffe in 1952 from the UK and they played their first gig in 1958. The rest is, as they say, history.

 

www.visitmoretonbayregion.com.au/blog/history-of-bee-gees...

 

The Bee Gees were a pop music group formed in 1958. Their lineup consisted of brothers Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb. The trio were especially successful as a popular music act in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and later as prominent performers of the disco music era in the mid-to-late 1970s. The group sang recognisable three-part tight harmonies; Robin's clear vibrato lead vocals were a hallmark of their earlier hits, while Barry's R&B falsetto became their signature sound during the mid-to-late 1970s and 1980s. The Bee Gees wrote all of their own hits, as well as writing and producing several major hits for other artists.

 

Born on the Isle of Man to English parents, the Gibb brothers lived in Chorlton, Manchester, England, until the late 1950s. There, in 1955, they formed the skiffle/rock and roll group the Rattlesnakes. The family then moved to Redcliffe, in the Moreton Bay Region, Queensland, Australia, and then to Cribb Island. After achieving their first chart success in Australia as the Bee Gees with "Spicks and Specks" (their 12th single), they returned to the UK in January 1967, when producer Robert Stigwood began promoting them to a worldwide audience.

 

The Bee Gees have sold more than 220 million records worldwide, making them one of the world's best-selling artists of all time. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997; the presenter of the award to "Britain's first family of harmony" was Brian Wilson, historical frontman of the Beach Boys, another "family act" featuring three harmonising brothers. The Bee Gees' Hall of Fame citation says, "Only Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Michael Jackson, Garth Brooks and Paul McCartney have outsold the Bee Gees.". The Bee Gees are the third most successful band in Billboard charts history after The Beatles and The Supremes.

 

From Wikipedia.

 

Here’s the lot. The second link is for fans who might read the complete article and wonder what Skiffle Rock is!

 

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee_Gees

 

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skiffle

Memorial tablets on the wall of St Mary’s Anglican Cathedral in Harare, representing two very different phases of Zimbabwean church history: the top one the end of a long period of chaos, the bottom one the end of a long period of stability.

 

Robert Mugabe was never a friend of the Anglican Church, despite the presence of a considerable number of Anglicans in Bush War/Chimurenga-era guerrilla forces and in ZANU-PF’s post-1980 leadership. In the mid-2000s, he imposed a politically compliant bishop on the Diocese of Harare against its will and proper elective processes, and the faithful Anglicans of the diocese were effectively barred from their own churches for a period of up to seven years. This ended in 2012, when a lengthy court process finally ended up in the country’s Supreme Court, and the Diocesan Cathedral was returned to the properly elected bishop, Chad Gandiyah, although serious property damage had occurred in the intervening years.

 

The lower plaque commemorates the completion of half a century of construction of the Cathedral in 1963, by Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, himself a faithful worshipper at 8 o’clock Communion in St Mary’s who played a significant role as a senior lay volunteer in the expansion of Anglicanism in the country. These were the last days of the Central African Federation and the last days before Ian Smith’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence, the last days before full-scale apartheid-style legislation was brought to what was then Rhodesia, and then the long guerrilla war that would eventually overthrow White rule in 1979-80. Gibbs, always a loyal servant of the Queen, refused to acknowledge Smith’s illegal declaration of independence and spent four years under house arrest, with his family harassed and threatened, before capitulating to the inevitable after a Republic was declared after a massive majority in a Whites-only referendum in 1969. Gibb, always the most establishment of figures, would later go on to lead the racial integration of the country’s leading private school after the transition to Zimbabwe. Robert Mugabe’s warm, indeed emotional, encomium to Gibb in the introduction to Alan Megahey’s biography of Gibb is an interesting read for outsiders who have a simplistic understanding of a country that is complex and fascinating, tortured but beautiful.

PLEASE, NO invitations or self promotions, THEY WILL BE DELETED. My photos are FREE to use, just give me credit and it would be nice if you let me know, thanks.

 

The Cenotaph honours those who served and those who fell in the First World War, the Second World War and the Korean Conflict. It is the focus of Halifax's Remembrance Day Ceremonies, honouring service personnel from those wars as well as the men and women who have served and died in subsequent peace keeping initiatives and military conflicts. The Grand Parade Cenotaph was dedicated on Dominion Day (July 1st) 1929 by Former Prime Minister Robert Borden.

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St. Paul’s is the oldest building in Halifax and the oldest existing Protestant place of worship in Canada. Founded by proclamation of King George II in 1749, the building was erected in the summer of 1750. The architectural plans were based on St. Peter’s Church, Vere Street, London which was designed in 1722 by James Gibbs, a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren. The timbers of St. Paul’s were cut in Saco, Maine and shipped to Halifax. Most of the materials including the bricks to line the walls were made locally. Over two and a half centuries later, the original wooden structure remains as sound as the day it was built. Charles Inglis, first overseas Bishop of the Church of England, arrived in 1787 making St. Paul’s his cathedral. Until the construction of a garrison chapel in 1844, St. Paul’s was also the first garrison church in Halifax.

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

From the Achieves, reprocessed, using Photoshop CC 2020.

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

If you like Dahlias, take a look "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

I thought others might appreciate these tidbits of forgotten history of People of Color.

 

Students Listed:

Julian H. Lewis, R.C. Jackson, H.M. Smith, "Theodore B. Nix, Jr.", Arthur F. Redding, L. Beatrice Morton, K.V. Lambkins, Louise Mason, L.S. Hart, Catherine Grigsby, Alice I. Brown, T.T. Riley, James A. Gardiner, George R. Dorsey, Russell Davis, Sterling A. Brown, R.A. Harewood,Dr. William S. Quinland, J.A. Lane, Charles H. Houston, Lamar Perkins, Jesse S. Heslip, Jasper A. Atkins, John F. Williams, Cicero C. Simmons, Cornelius Johnson, Frank E. Bowles, R.C. Crump, M.E. Goode, Julia Rumford, Harcourt A. Tynes, Katherine Robinson, Willa L. Harrison, James W. Pryor, William Powell, Simone Chapoteau, Robert W. Cheers,Carter W. Wesley, N.L. Barnett, J.H. Wilson, E.E. Simpson, H.S. Lindsay, S.M. Greene, L.P. Miller, P. Eugene Davenport, Irwin Tillman Dorch, George Washington Gregory, George Arnett Singleton, Peyton Elliott Womack, John Herman Bougs, Willis Gittens Price, A.W. Easton, C.A. Hays, Demerald Williams, Anna Jones Robinson, Enid Thorpe, Garland N. Adamson, Ernest F. Alleyne, Oscar L. Barland, Theodore Blake, Wilhelmina B. Bowles, Emerson W. Brown, Perry M. Brown, Roscoe C. Bryant, Herman H. Clay, James A. Crooke, Rodman F. Doyle, Alfred C. Dungee, Frederick D. Funderburg, William B. Glenn, James M. Holloway, Richard H. Jackson, James H. Lewis, Andrew J. Love, Cassell A. Mott, James M. McGriff, Lee M. Owen, Titus M. Perry, Linwood L. Rayford, James W. Ross, Braxton R. Selden, Edward C. Smith, William M. Smith, Jackson P. Taylor, Price Terrell, Lucilius C. Youngblood, Walter A. Zuber, James H. Lewis, Gertrude Donaway, Robert H. Gross, T.C. Hammons, Hardy Haywood, Arthur Morris, L.B. Baker, W.M. Bishop, R.N. Gordon, J.R. Hackney, E.A. Bennett, W.N. Bowser, G.L. Brown, M.N. Gibbs, C.L. Holland, P.L. Martin, J.H. Patterson, S.L. Scott, W.H. Wormley, James Edward Caraway, Timothy Bertram Echols, Arthur Buxton Keeling, Roger Williams,

St Albans Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, is a Church of England cathedral church within St Albans, England. At 84 metres (276 ft), its nave is the longest of any cathedral in England. With much of its present architecture dating from Norman times, it was formerly known as St Albans Abbey before it became a cathedral in 1877. It is the second longest cathedral in the United Kingdom (after Winchester). Local residents often call it "the abbey", although the present cathedral represents only the church of the old Benedictine abbey.

 

The abbey church, although legally a cathedral church, differs in certain particulars from most of the other cathedrals in England: it is also used as a parish church, of which the dean is rector. He has the same powers, responsibilities and duties as the rector of any other parish.

 

Alban was a pagan living in the Roman city of Verulamium, now Verulamium Park, in St Albans, in Hertfordshire, England, about 22 miles (35 km) north of London along Watling Street. Before Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, local Christians were being persecuted by the Romans. Alban sheltered their priest, Saint Amphibalus, in his home and was converted to the Christian faith by him. When the soldiers came to Alban's house looking for the priest, Alban exchanged cloaks with the priest and let himself be arrested in his place. Alban was taken before the magistrate, where he avowed his new Christian faith and was condemned for it. He was beheaded, according to legend, on the spot where the cathedral named after him now stands. The site is on a steep hill and legend has it that his head rolled down the hill after being cut off and that a well sprang up at the point where it stopped.

A well certainly exists today and the road up to the cathedral is named Holywell Hill. However the current well structure is no older than the late 19th century and it is thought that the name of the street derives from the "Halywell" river and "Halywell Bridge", not from the well.

 

The date of Alban's execution is a matter of some debate and is generally given as "circa 250"—scholars generally suggest dates of 209, 254 or 304.

 

History of the abbey and cathedral

 

A memoria over the execution point and holding the remains of Alban existed at the site from the mid-4th century (possibly earlier); Bedementions a church and Gildas a shrine. Bishop Germanus of Auxerre visited in 429 and took a portion of the apparently still bloody earth away. The style of this structure is unknown; the 13th century chronicler Matthew Paris (see below) claimed that the Saxons destroyed the building in 586.

 

Saxon buildings

Offa II of Mercia, who ruled in the 8th century, is said to have founded the Benedictine abbey and monastery at St Albans. All later religious structures are dated from the foundation of Offa's abbey in 793. The abbey was built on Holmhurst Hill—now Holywell Hill—across the River Ver from the ruins of Verulamium. Again there is no information to the form of the first abbey. The abbey was probably sacked by the Danes around 890 and, despite Paris's claims, the office of abbot remained empty from around 920 until the 970s when the efforts of Dunstanreached the town.

 

There was an intention to rebuild the abbey in 1005 when Abbot Ealdred was licensed to remove building material from Verulamium. With the town resting on clay and chalk the only tough stone is flint. This was used with a lime mortar and then either plastered over or left bare. With the great quantities of brick, tile and other stone in Verulamium the Roman site became a prime source of building material for the abbeys, and other projects in the area, up to the 18th century. Sections demanding worked stone used Lincolnshire limestone (Barnack stone) from Verulamium, later worked stones include Totternhoe freestone from Bedfordshire, Purbeck marble, and different limestones (Ancaster, Chilmark, Clipsham, etc.).

Renewed Viking raids from 1016 stalled the Saxon efforts and very little from the Saxon abbey was incorporated in the later forms.

 

The nave. The north wall (left) features a mix of Norman arches dating back to 1077 and arches in the Early English style of 1200.

 

Norman abbey

Much of the current layout and proportions of the structure date from the first Norman abbot, Paul of Caen (1077–1093). The 14th abbot, he was appointed by the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc.

 

Building work started in the year of Abbot Paul's arrival. The design and construction was overseen by the Norman Robert the Mason. The plan has very limited Anglo-Saxon elements and is clearly influenced by the French work at Cluny, Bernay, and Caen and shares a similar floor plan to Saint-Étienne and Lanfranc's Canterbury—although the poorer quality building material was a new challenge for Robert and he clearly borrowed some Roman techniques, learned while gathering material in Verulamium. To take maximum use of the hilltop the abbey was oriented to the south-east. The cruciform abbey was the largest built in England at that time, it had a chancel of four bays, a transept containing seven apses, and a nave of ten bays—fifteen bays long overall. Robert gave particular attention to solid foundations, running a continuous wall of layered bricks, flints and mortar below and pushing the foundations down to twelve feet to hit bedrock. Below the crossing tower special large stones were used.

 

The tower was a particular triumph—it is the only 11th century great crossing tower still standing in England. Robert began with special thick supporting walls and four massive brick piers. The four-level tower tapers at each stage with clasping buttresses on the three lower levels and circular buttresses on the fourth stage. The entire structure masses 5,000 tons and is 144 feet high. The tower was probably topped with a Norman pyramidal roof; the current roof is flat. The original ringing chamber had five bells—two paid for by the Abbot, two by a wealthy townsman, and one donated by the rector of Hoddesdon. None of these bells has survived.

There was a widespread belief that the abbey had two additional, smaller towers at the west end. No remains have been found.

 

The monastic abbey was completed in 1089 but not consecrated until Holy Innocents' Day, 1115, (28 Dec) by the Archbishop of Rouen. King Henry I attended as did many bishops and nobles.

A nunnery (Sopwell Priory) was founded nearby in 1140.

 

Internally the abbey was bare of sculpture, almost stark. The plaster walls were coloured and patterned in parts, with extensive tapestries adding colour. Sculptural decoration was added, mainly ornaments, as it became more fashionable in the 12th century—especially after the Gothic style arrived in England around 1170.

 

In the current structure the original Norman arches survive principally under the central tower and on the north side of the nave. The arches in the rest of the building are Gothic, following medieval rebuilding and extensions, and Victorian era restoration.

 

The abbey was extended in the 1190s by Abbot John de Cella (also known as John of Wallingford) (1195–1214); as the number of monks grew from fifty to over a hundred, the abbey was extended westwards with three bays added to the nave. The severe Norman west front was also rebuilt by Hugh de Goldclif—although how is uncertain, it was very costly but its 'rapid' weathering and later alterations have erased all but fragments. A more prominent shrine and altar to Saint Amphibalus were also added. The work was very slow under de Cella and was not completed until the time of Abbot William de Trumpington (1214–35). The low Norman tower roof was demolished and a new, much higher, broached spire was raised, sheathed in lead.

The St Albans Psalter (ca. 1130–45) is the best known of a number of important Romanesque illuminated manuscripts produced in the Abbey scriptorium. Later, Matthew Paris, a monk at St Albans from 1217 until his death in 1259, was important both as a chronicler and an artist. Eighteen of his manuscripts survive and are a rich source of contemporary information for historians.

Nicholas Breakspear was born near St Albans and applied to be admitted to the abbey as a novice, but he was turned down. He eventually managed to be accepted into an abbey in France. In 1154 he was elected Pope Adrian IV, the only English Pope there has ever been. The head of the abbey was confirmed as the premier abbot in England also in 1154.

 

13th to 15th centuries

 

An earthquake shook the abbey in 1250 and damaged the eastern end of the church. In 1257 the dangerously cracked sections were knocked down—three apses and two bays. The thick Presbytery wall supporting the tower was left. The rebuilding and updating was completed during the rule of Abbot Roger de Norton (1263–90).

 

On 10 October 1323 two piers on the south side of the nave collapsed dragging down much of the roof and wrecking five bays. Mason Henry Wy undertook the rebuilding, matching the Early English style of the rest of the bays but adding distinctly 14th century detailing and ornaments. The shrine to St Amphibalus had also been damaged and was remade.

 

Abbey Gateway, now part of St. Albans School.

Richard of Wallingford, abbot from 1297 to 1336 and a mathematician and astronomer, designed a celebrated clock, which was completed by William of Walsham after his death, but apparently destroyed during the reformation.

 

A new gateway, now called the Abbey Gateway, was built to the abbey grounds in 1365, which was the only part of the monastery buildings (besides the church) to survive the dissolution, later being used as a prison and now part of St Albans School. The other monastic buildings were located to the south of the gateway and church.

 

In the 15th century a large west window of nine main lights and a deep traced head was commissioned by John of Wheathampstead. The spire was reduced to a 'Hertfordshire spike', the roof pitch greatly reduced and battlements liberally added. Further new windows, at £50 each, were put in the transept by Abbot Wallingford (also known as William of Wallingford), who also had a new high altar screen made.

 

Dissolution and after

After the death of Abbot Ramryge in 1521 the abbey fell into debt and slow decay under three weak abbots. At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and its surrender on 5 December 1539 the income was £2,100 annually. The abbot and remaining forty monks were pensioned off and then the buildings were looted. All gold, silver and gilt objects were carted away with all other valuables; stonework was broken and defaced and graves opened to burn the contents.

 

The abbey became part of the diocese of Lincoln in 1542 and was moved to the diocese of London in 1550. The buildings suffered—neglect, second-rate repairs, even active damage. Richard Lee purchased all the buildings, except the church and chapel and some other Crown premises, in 1550. Lee then began the systematic demolition for building material to improve Lee Hall at Sopwell. In 1551, with the stone removed, Lee returned the land to the abbot. The area was named Abbey Ruins for the next 200 years or so.

 

In 1553 the Lady chapel became a school, the Great Gatehouse a town jail, some other buildings passed to the Crown, and the Abbey Church was sold to the town for £400 in 1553 by King Edward VI to be the church of the parish.

 

The cost of upkeep fell upon the town, although in 1596 and at irregular intervals later the Archdeacon was allowed to collect money for repairs by Brief in the diocese. After James I visited in 1612 he authorised another Brief, which collected around £2,000—most of which went on roof repairs. The English Civil War slashed the monies spent on repairs, while the abbey was used to hold prisoners of war and suffered from their vandalism, as well as that of their guards. Most of the metal objects that had survived the Dissolution were also removed and other ornamental parts were damaged in Puritan sternness. Another round of fund-raising in 1681–84 was again spent on the roof, repairing the Presbytery vault. A royal grant from William and Mary in 1689 went on general maintenance, 'repairs' to conceal some of the unfashionable Gothic features, and on new internal fittings. There was a second royal grant from William in 1698.

By the end of the 17th century the dilapidation was sufficient for a number of writers to comment upon it.

 

In 1703, from 26 November to 1 December, the Great Storm raged across southern England; the abbey lost the south transept window which was replaced in wood at a cost of £40. The window was clear glass with five lights and three transoms in an early Gothic Revival style by John Hawgood. Other windows, although not damaged in the storm, were a constant drain on the abbey budget in the 18th century.

 

A brief in 1723–24, seeking £5,775, notes a great crack in the south wall, that the north wall was eighteen inches from vertical, and that the roof timbers were decayed to the point of danger. The money raised was spent on the nave roof over ten bays.

 

Another brief was not issued until 1764. Again the roof was rotting, as was the south transept window, walls were cracked or shattered in part and the south wall had subsided and now leant outwards. Despite a target of £2,500 a mere £600 was raised.

In the 1770s the abbey came close to demolition; the expense of repairs meant a scheme to destroy the abbey and erect a smaller church almost succeeded.

 

A storm in 1797 caused some subsidence, cracking open graves, scattering pavement tiles, flooding the church interior and leaving a few more arches off-vertical.

 

19th century

 

The Wallingford Screen of c. 1480—the statues are Victorian replacements (1884–89) of the originals, destroyed in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, when the screen itself was also damaged. Statues of St Alban and St Amphibalus stand on either side of the altar.

 

This century was marked with a number of repair schemes. The abbey received some money from the 1818 "Million Act", and in 1820 £450 was raised to buy an organ—a second-hand example made in 1670.

 

The major efforts to revive the abbey church came under four men—L. N. Cottingham, Rector H. J. B. Nicholson, and, especially, George Gilbert Scott and Edmund Beckett, first Baron Grimthorpe.

 

In February 1832 a portion of the clerestory wall fell through the roof of the south aisle, leaving a hole almost thirty feet long. With the need for serious repair work evident the architect Lewis Nockalls Cottingham was called in to survey the building. His Survey was presented in 1832 and was worrying reading: everywhere mortar was in a wretched condition and wooden beams were rotting and twisting. Cottingham recommended new beams throughout the roof and a new steeper pitch, removal of the spire and new timbers in the tower, new paving, ironwork to hold the west transept wall up, a new stone south transept window, new buttresses, a new drainage system for the roof, new ironwork on almost all the windows, and on and on. He estimated a cost of £14,000. A public subscription of £4,000 was raised, of which £1,700 vanished in expenses. With the limited funds the clerestory wall was rebuilt, the nave roof re-leaded, the tower spike removed, some forty blocked windows reopened and glazed, and the south window remade in stone.

 

Henry Nicholson, rector from 1835 to 1866, was also active in repairing the abbey church—as far as he could, and in uncovering lost or neglected Gothic features.

 

In 1856 repair efforts began again; £4,000 was raised and slow moves started to gain the abbey the status of cathedral. George Gilbert Scottwas appointed the project architect and oversaw a number of works from 1860 until his death in 1878.

Scott began by having the medieval floor restored, necessitating the removal of tons of earth, and fixing the north aisle roof. From 1872–77 the restored floors were re-tiled in matching stone and copies of old tile designs. A further 2,000 tons of earth were shifted in 1863 during work on the foundation and a new drainage system. In 1870 the tower piers were found to be badly weakened with many cracks and cavities. Huge timbers were inserted and the arches filled with brick as an emergency measure. Repair work took until May 1871 and cost over £2,000. The south wall of the nave was now far from straight; Scott reinforced the north wall and put in scaffolding to take the weight of the roof off the wall, then had it jacked straight in under three hours. The wall was then buttressed with five huge new masses and set right. Scott was lauded as "saviour of the Abbey." From 1870–75 around £20,000 was spent on the abbey.

In 1845 St Albans was transferred from the Diocese of Lincoln to the Diocese of Rochester. Then, in 1875, the Bishopric of St Albans Act was passed and on 30 April 1877 the See of St Albans was created, which comprises about 300 churches in the counties of Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire. The then Bishop of Rochester, the Right Revd Dr Thomas Legh Claughton, elected to take the northern division of his old diocese and on 12 June 1877 was enthroned first Bishop of St Albans, a position he held until 1890. He is buried in the churchyard on the north side of the nave.

George Gilbert Scott was working on the nave roof, vaulting and west bay when he died on 27 March 1878. His plans were partially completed by his son, John Oldrid Scott, but the remaining work fell into the hands of Lord Grimthorpe, whose efforts have attracted much controversy—Nikolaus Pevsner calling him a "pompous, righteous bully." However, he donated much of the immense sum of £130,000 the work cost.

 

Whereas Scott's work had clearly been in sympathy with the existing building, Grimthorpe's plans reflected the Victorian ideal. Indeed, he spent considerable time dismissing and criticising the work of Scott and the efforts of his son.

Grimthorpe first reinstated the original pitch of the roof, although the battlements added for the lower roof were retained. Completed in 1879, the roof was leaded, following on Scott's desires.

 

1805 engraving of the west front of the abbey showing the lost Wheathampstead window.

His second major project was the most controversial. The west front, with the great Wheathampstead window, was cracked and leaning, and Grimthorpe, never more than an amateur architect, designed the new front himself—attacked as dense, misproportioned and unsympathetic: "His impoverishment as a designer ... [is] evident"; "this man, so practical and ingenious, was utterly devoid of taste ... his great qualities were marred by arrogance ... and a lack of historic sense". Counter proposals were deliberately substituted by Grimthorpe for poorly drawn versions and Grimthorpe's design was accepted?. During building it was considerably reworked in order to fit the actual frontage and is not improved by the poor quality sculpture. Work began in 1880 and was completed in April 1883, having cost £20,000.

 

The Lady Chapel at the east end of the cathedral.

Grimthorpe was noted for his aversion to the Perpendicular—to the extent that he would have sections he disliked demolished as "too rotten" rather than remade. In his reconstruction, especially of windows, he commonly mixed architectural styles carelessly (see the south aisle, the south choir screen and vaulting). He spent £50,000 remaking the nave. Elsewhere he completely rebuilt the south wall cloisters, with new heavy buttresses, and removed the arcading of the east cloisters during rebuilding the south transept walls. In the south transept he completely remade the south face, completed in 1885, including the huge lancet window group—his proudest achievement—and the flanking turrets; a weighty new tiled roof was also made. In the north transept Grimthorpe had the Perpendicular window demolished and his design inserted—a rose window of circles, cusped circles and lozenges arrayed in five rings around the central light, sixty-four lights in total, each circle with a different glazing pattern.

 

Grimthorpe continued through the Presbytery in his own style, adapting the antechapel for Consistory Courts, and into the Lady Chapel. After a pointed lawsuit with Henry Hucks Gibbs, first Baron Aldenham over who should direct the restoration, Grimthorpe had the vault remade and reproportioned in stone, made the floor in black and white marble (1893), and had new Victorian arcading and sculpture put below the canopy work. Externally the buttresses were expanded to support the new roof, and the walls were refaced.

As early as 1897, Grimthorpe was having to return to previously renovated sections to make repairs. His use of over-strong cement led to cracking, while his fondness for ironwork in windows led to corrosion and damage to the surrounding stone.

Grimthorpe died in 1905 and was interred in the churchyard. He left a bequest for continuing work on the buildings.

 

During this century the name St Albans Abbey was given to one of the town's railway stations.

 

20th century

John Oldrid Scott (died 1913) (George Gilbert Scott's son), despite frequent clashes with Grimthorpe, had continued working within the cathedral. Scott was a steadfast supporter of the Gothic revival and designed the tomb of the first bishop; he had a new bishop's throne built (1903), together with commemorative stalls for Bishop Festing and two Archdeacons, and new choir stalls. He also repositioned and rebuilt the organ (1907). Further work was interrupted by the war.

A number of memorials to the war were added to the cathedral, notably the painting The Passing of Eleanor by Frank Salisbury (stolen 1973) and the reglazing of the main west window, dedicated in 1925.

 

Following the Enabling Act of 1919 control of the buildings passed to a Parochial Church Council (replaced by the Cathedral Council in 1968), who appointed the woodwork specialist John Rogers as Architect and Surveyor of the Fabric. He uncovered extensive death watch beetledamage in the presbytery vault and oversaw the repair (1930–31). He had four tons of rubbish removed from the crossing tower and the main timbers reinforced (1931–32), and invested in the extensive use of insecticide throughout the wood structures. In 1934, the eight bells were overhauled and four new bells added to be used in the celebration of George V's jubilee.

 

Cecil Brown was architect and surveyor from 1939 to 1962. At first he merely oversaw the lowering of the bells for the war and established a fire watch, with the pump in the slype. After the war, in the 1950s, the organ was removed, rebuilt and reinstalled and new pews added. His major work was on the crossing tower. Grimthorpe's cement was found to be damaging the Roman bricks: every brick in the tower was replaced as needed and reset in proper mortar by one man, Walter Barrett. The tower ceiling was renovated as were the nave murals. Brown established the Muniments Room to gather and hold all the church documents.

In 1972, to encourage a closer link between celebrant and congregation, the massive nine-ton pulpit along with the choir stalls and permanent pews was dismantled and removed. The altar space was enlarged and improved. New 'lighter' wood (limed oak) choir stalls were put in, and chairs replaced the pews. A new wooden pulpit was acquired from a Norfolk church and installed in 1974. External floodlighting was added in 1975.

A major survey in 1974 revealed new leaks, decay and other deterioration, and a ten-year restoration plan was agreed. Again the roofing required much work. The nave and clerestory roofs were repaired in four stages with new leading. The nave project was completed in 1984 at a total cost of £1.75 million. The clerestory windows were repaired with the corroded iron replaced with delta bronze and other Grimthorpe work on the clerestory was replaced. Seventy-two new heads for the corbel table were made. Grimthorpe's west front was cracking, again due to the use originally of too strong a mortar, and was repaired.

 

A new visitors' centre was proposed in 1970. Planning permission was sought in 1973; there was a public inquiry and approval was granted in 1977. Constructed to the south side of the cathedral close to the site of the original chapter house of the abbey, the new 'Chapter House' cost around £1 million and was officially opened on 8 June 1982 by Queen Elizabeth. The main building material was 500,000 replica Roman bricks.

 

Other late 20th-century works include the restoration of Alban's shrine, with a new embroidered canopy, and the stained glass designed by Alan Younger for Grimthorpe's north transept rose window, unveiled in 1989 by Diana, Princess of Wales.

 

Modern times

The Bishop is the Right Reverend Alan Smith, installed in September 2009. The Venerable Jonathan Smith is Archdeacon of St Albans, installed in October 2008. On 2 July 2004, the Very Reverend Canon Dr Jeffrey John became the ninth Dean of the Cathedral.

 

Robert Runcie, later Archbishop of Canterbury, was bishop of St Albans from 1970 to 1980 and returned to live in the city after his retirement; he is commemorated by a gargoyle on the Cathedral as well as being buried in the graveyard. Colin Slee, former Dean of Southwark Cathedral, was sub-dean at St Albans under Runcie and then Dean, Peter Moore. The bishop's house is in Abbey Mill Lane, St Albans, as is the house of the Bishop of Hertford. The Reverend Canon Eric James, Chaplain Extraordinary to HM the Queen, was Canon at St Albans for many years.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Albans_Cathedral

 

© Saúl Tuñón Loureda

 

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El Royal Albert Hall es una sala de conciertos en Londres. Inaugurado el 29 de marzo de 1871, es uno de los teatros más emblemáticos del mundo y una de las construcciones más distintivas del Reino Unido. Está ubicado en Albertopolis, en el extremo norte del área de South Kensington, en la ciudad de Westminster.

 

El Royal Albert Hall fue construido para cumplir la visión del príncipe Alberto, consorte de la reina Victoria, de un "Salón Central" que fuera utilizado para promover las artes y las ciencias en South Kensington, rodeado de museos y centros de aprendizaje.1

 

Iba a llamarse The Central Hall of Arts and Sciences, pero se lo renombró Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences por decisión de Victoria, en memoria de su esposo.

 

En 1851, con motivo de la Gran Exposición en Hyde Park (Londres), se construyó el The Crystal Palace. La exposición tuvo un gran éxito y esto hizo que el príncipe Alberto propusiera la construcción de una serie de instalaciones permanentes para la cultura y educación de la gente.

 

La propuesta fue aprobada y el sitio fue comprado con una parte de los beneficios recaudados en la exposición. En abril de 1867 la reina Victoria firmó la «Royal Charter of the Corporation of the Hall of Arts and Sciences» para poder iniciar la construcción y operación del teatro y el 20 de mayo se colocó la primera piedra. Sin embargo, el progreso del proyecto fue muy lento y, en 1861, Alberto murió sin poder ver realizadas sus ideas. No obstante, se propuso la construcción de un monumento en su memoria, el Albert Memorial, orientado hacia el Royal Albert Hall.

 

La ceremonia oficial de inauguración fue el 29 de marzo de 1871. El discurso de bienvenida estuvo a cargo de Eduardo, Príncipe de Gales. Aunque Victoria no dio un discurso, sí comentó que el edificio le recordaba a la Constitución Británica.

 

El Royal Albert Hall, monumento clasificado de Grado 1, fue diseñado por los ingenieros civiles Francis Fowke y Henry Young Darracott Scott, de la Royal Engineers, y construido por los hermanos contratistas Thomas y Charles Lucas.3 Los diseñadores estuvieron fuertemente influenciados por la forma de los antiguos anfiteatros, así como también por las ideas de Gottfried Semper, mientras él trabajaba en el South Kensington Museum.

 

Para su construcción se emplearon ladrillos rojos de Fareham, con bloques de decoración hechos de terracota, fabricados por Gibbs and Canning Limited. Tiene un tamaño de 83 metros (eje mayor) por 72 metros (eje menor) y una forma elíptica. El domo, diseñado por el ingeniero Rowland Mason Ordish, está hecho de cristal y acero forjado, se encuentra a 41 metros de altura en el techo. Originalmente, el teatro fue diseñado para poder albergar 8000 personas, capacidad que ha sido aumentada hasta 9000, aunque las medidas de seguridad actuales han restringido la capacidad máxima permitida, lo que permite un cupo de 5544, incluyendo gente de pie en la Galería.

 

Desde su inauguración, han pasado por su escenario artistas reconocidos internacionalmente, de música clásica hasta bandas de rock. Ha sido sede de galas benéficas, entregas de premios, banquetes, conferencias, eventos públicos y torneos de tenis. Se llevaron a cabo las graduaciones del Imperial College, acogió el Festival de Eurovisión 1968, el primero transmitido en color, y albergó a celebridades como Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Fogerty, Lady Gaga, Cream, Tony Bennett, Glen Hansard, Laura Pausini, Paul McCartney, Elton John, Slash, B.B. King, David Bisbal, Yanni, bond, Eric Clapton, Mark Knopfler, George Harrison, David Gilmour, Deep Purple, Bob Dylan, Led Zeppelin, Rod Stewart, Camel, Sting, Eric Idle, Michael Palin, Terry Jones, Terry Gilliam, Umberto Tozzi, Jack Bruce, Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, Sarah Brightman, Julio Iglesias, Mick Jagger, Muse, Frank Sinatra, Phil Collins, Pete Townshend, The Corrs, Robbie Williams, The Last Shadow Puppets, Arctic Monkeys, Enrique Iglesias, Noel Gallagher, Depeche Mode, Snow Patrol, The Stranglers, The Killers, Jake Bugg, Porcupine Tree, Coldplay y, recientemente Steven Wilson, Opeth, Emeli Sandé, Adele, Florence and the Machine, Mystery Jets, Foals, Bring Me The Horizon , McFly y Juan Luis Guerra.

 

El Royal Albert Hall es la sede de The BBC Proms, el mayor festival mundial de música clásica que se realiza anualmente durante el verano, con una duración de ocho semanas y con un maratón de solistas, coros y orquestas transmitido a todo el mundo por la BBC.6 Por los Proms han pasado importantes figuras de la música clásica como Adrian Boult, Malcom Sargent, Colin Davis, Georg Solti, Evgeny Kissin, Joshua Bell, John Williams (guitarrista), Luciano Pavarotti, Jessye Norman, Plácido Domingo, Sarah Brightman, Renée Fleming, Bryn Terfel y Simon Rattle, entre otros.

 

La tradicional última noche de los Proms es uno de los hitos del verano londinense. Es un show que reúne multitudes dentro del hall y en Hyde Park y otros parques en otros lugares del Reino Unido. El último concierto del festival (a menudo la Novena Sinfonía de Beethoven) finaliza con bises de clásicos la cultura victoriana como Pompa y circunstancia de Sir Edward Elgar, Land of Hope and Glory, Rule Britannia, Jerusalem y God Save the Queen.

 

El Cirque du Soleil ha realizado numerosas presentaciones en este teatro desde 1996, con el espectáculo Saltimbanco, que se presentó hasta 1997. En 1998 y 1999, presentaron Alegría. En 2003 se presentan nuevamente con Saltimbanco. En 2004 y 2005 montaron el espectáculo Dralion. En 2006 y 2007 se dio el regreso de Alegría, mientras que en el 2008, realizaron la premiere de Varekai, espectáculo con el que regresaron en 2010, con motivo de la celebración de los 25 años de la compañía. En 2011 y 2012 se presentaron con Totem. En 2013 estarán presentando Kooza.

 

Desde 1998, el English National Ballet se ha presentado en numerosas temporadas en sociedad con el teatro y Raymond Gubbay con, entre otros, La bella durmiente (2000), Romeo y Julieta (2001 y 2005), El lago de los cisnes (2002, 2004, 2007 y 2010) y Strictly Gershwin (2008 y 2011).

 

The Festival of Remembrance de la Royal British Legion se celebra anualmente, un día antes del Rembrance Sunday, fecha en la que se recuerda a todos aquellos que han perdido la vida en conflictos bélicos.7

Teenage Cancer Trust

 

Desde el año 2000, el Teenage Cancer Trust ha celebrado anualmente conciertos de caridad. Iniciaron como un evento sencillo, pero a través de los años se han ido expandiendo hasta presentar una semana o más de presentaciones.

 

Roger Daltrey, vocalista de The Who, ha estado profundamente envuelto en la realización de los conciertos para este evento.8

Ceremonias de graduación

 

El teatro es usado anualmente por el Royal College of Art y el Imperial College London para sus ceremonias de graduación.

 

La Kingston University celebró también sus ceremonias de graduación hasta 2008, año en que cambió de sede al nuevo Rose Theatre, Kingston.

 

es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Albert_Hall

 

The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which holds the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941. It has a capacity of up to 5,272 seats. The Hall is a registered charity held in trust for the nation and receives no public or government funding.[1]

 

Since its opening by Queen Victoria in 1871, the world's leading artists from many performance genres have appeared on its stage and it has become one of the UK's most treasured and distinctive buildings. The location of some of the most notable events in British culture, each year it hosts more than 390 shows in the main auditorium, including classical, rock and pop concerts, ballet, opera, film screenings with live orchestra, sports, award ceremonies, school and community events, charity performances and banquets. A further 400 events are held each year in the non-auditorium spaces.

 

The Hall was originally supposed to have been called the Central Hall of Arts and Sciences, but the name was changed to the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences by Queen Victoria upon laying the Hall's foundation stone in 1867, in memory of her husband consort, Prince Albert who had died six years earlier. It forms the practical part of a memorial to the Prince Consort – the decorative part is the Albert Memorial directly to the north in Kensington Gardens, now separated from the Hall by Kensington Gore.

 

he Hall, a Grade I listed building,[22] is an ellipse in plan, with major and minor axes of 83 m (272 ft) and 72 m (236 ft). The great glass and wrought-iron dome roofing the Hall is 41 m (135 ft) high. It was originally designed with a capacity for 8,000 people and has accommodated as many as 9,000 (although modern safety restrictions mean that the maximum permitted capacity is now 5,544 including standing in the Gallery).

 

Around the outside of the building is a great mosaic frieze, depicting "The Triumph of Arts and Sciences", in reference to the Hall's dedication. Proceeding anti-clockwise from the north side the sixteen subjects of the frieze are: (1) Various Countries of the World bringing in their Offerings to the Exhibition of 1851; (2) Music; (3) Sculpture; (4) Painting; (5) Princes, Art Patrons and Artists; (6) Workers in Stone; (7) Workers in Wood and Brick; (8) Architecture; (9) The Infancy of the Arts and Sciences; (10) Agriculture; (11) Horticulture and Land Surveying; (12) Astronomy and Navigation; (13) A Group of Philosophers, Sages and Students; (14) Engineering; (15) The Mechanical Powers; and (16) Pottery and Glassmaking.

 

Above the frieze is an inscription in 12-inch-high (300 mm) terracotta letters that combines historical fact and Biblical quotations: "This hall was erected for the advancement of the arts and sciences and works of industry of all nations in fulfilment of the intention of Albert Prince Consort. The site was purchased with the proceeds of the Great Exhibition of the year MDCCCLI. The first stone of the Hall was laid by Her Majesty Queen Victoria on the twentieth day of May MDCCCLXVII and it was opened by Her Majesty the Twenty Ninth of March in the year MDCCCLXXI. Thine O Lord is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty. For all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Thine. The wise and their works are in the hand of God. Glory be to God on high and on earth peace."

 

Below the Arena floor there are two 4000 gallon water tanks, which are used for shows that flood the arena like Madam Butterfly.

 

The Hall has been affectionately titled "The Nation's Village Hall".[24] The first concert was Arthur Sullivan's cantata On Shore and Sea, performed on 1 May 1871.[25][26]

 

Many events are promoted by the Hall, whilst since the early 1970s promoter Raymond Gubbay has brought a range of events to the Hall including opera, ballet and classical music. Some events include classical and rock concerts, conferences, banquets, ballroom dancing, poetry recitals, educational talks, motor shows, ballet, opera, film screenings and circus shows. It has hosted many sporting events, including boxing, squash, table tennis, basketball, wrestling including the first Sumo wrestling tournament to be held in London as well as UFC 38 (the first UFC event to be held in the UK), tennis and even a marathon.[27][28]

 

On 6 April 1968, the Hall was the host venue for the Eurovision Song Contest which was broadcast in colour for the first time.[29] One notable event was a Pink Floyd concert held 26 June 1969, the night they were banned from ever playing at the Hall again after shooting cannons, nailing things to the stage, and having a man in a gorilla suit roam the audience. At one point Rick Wright went to the pipe organ and began to play "The End Of The Beginning", the final part of "Saucerful Of Secrets", joined by the brass section of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (led by the conductor, Norman Smith) and the ladies of the Ealing Central Amateur Choir.[30] A portion of the pipe organ recording is included on Pink Floyd's album The Endless River.[31]

 

On 30 June 2 and 3 July 2011, Janet Jackson brought her Number Ones, Up Close and Personal Tour here, These were her first headlining UK shows in 13 years.

 

Kylie Minogue performed a show here on 11 December 2015, to promote Kylie Christmas, her first Christmas album and thirteenth studio album. She will return with two more shows on 9 & 10 December 2016.

 

Benefit concerts in include the 1997 Music for Montserrat concert, arranged and produced by George Martin, an event which featured artists such as Phil Collins, Mark Knopfler, Sting, Elton John, Eric Clapton and Paul McCartney,[32] and 2012 Sunflower Jam charity concert with Queen guitarist Brian May performing alongside bassist John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin, drummer Ian Paice of Deep Purple, and vocalists Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden and Alice Cooper.[33]

 

On 2 October 2011, the Hall staged the 25th anniversary performance of Andrew Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera, which was broadcast live to cinemas across the world and filmed for DVD.[34] Lloyd Webber, the original London cast including Sarah Brightman and Michael Crawford, and four previous actors of the titular character, among others, were in attendance – Brightman and the previous Phantoms (aside from Crawford) performed an encore.

 

On 24 September 2012, Classic FM celebrated the 20th anniversary of their launch with a concert at the Hall. The programme featured live performances of works by Handel, Puccini, Rachmaninoff, Parry, Vaughan Williams, Tchaikovsky and Karl Jenkins who conducted his piece The Benedictus from The Armed Man in person.[35]

 

On 19 November 2012, the Hall hosted the 100th anniversary performance of the Royal Variety Performance, attended by the Queen and Prince Philip, with boyband One Direction among the performers.[36]

 

Between 1996 and 2008, the Hall hosted the annual National Television Awards all of which were hosted by Sir Trevor McDonald.

Regular events

Royal Choral Society

The Royal Choral Society is the longest running regular performance at the Hall, having given its first performance as the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society on 8 May 1872. From 1878 it established the annual Good Friday performance of Handel's Messiah.

 

The BBC Promenade Concerts, known as "The Proms", is a popular annual eight-week summer season of daily classical music concerts and other events at the Hall. In 1942, following the destruction of the Queen's Hall in an air raid, the Hall was chosen as the new venue for the proms.[37] In 1944 with increased danger to the Hall, part of the proms were held in the Bedford Corn Exchange. Following the end of World War II the proms continued in the Hall and have done so annually every summer since. The event was founded in 1895, and now each season consists of over 70 concerts, in addition to a series of events at other venues across the United Kingdom on the last night. In 2009, the total number of concerts reached 100 for the first time. Jiří Bělohlávek described The Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival" of all such events in the world of classical music festivals.[38]

 

Proms (short for promenade concerts) is a term which arose from the original practice of the audience promenading, or strolling, in some areas during the concert. Proms concert-goers, particularly those who stand, are sometimes described as "Promenaders", but are most commonly referred to as "Prommers".[39]

Tennis

 

Tennis was first played at the Hall in March 1970 and the ATP Champions Tour Masters has been played annually every December since 1997.

Classical Spectacular

 

Classical Spectacular, a Raymond Gubbay production, has been coming to the Hall since 1988. It combines classical music, lights and special effects.

Cirque du Soleil

 

Cirque du Soleil has performed several of its shows at the Hall beginning in 1996 with Saltimbanco, a show which returned in 1997. In 1998 they had their UK première of Alegría and returned in 1999. After a few years away they returned in 2003 with Saltimbanco. Their European première of Dralion was held at the Hall in 2004 and returned in 2005. 2006 and 2007 saw the return of Alegría whilst 2008 saw the UK première of Varekai, which returned in 2010 marking 25 years of Cirque du Soleil. Quidam returned to London (but a first for this show at the Hall) in 2009 and again in January 2014. In January and February 2011 and again in 2012 they presented Totem. From January–February 2013 and again from January–February 2015, the hall held performances of Koozå.

Classic Brit Awards

 

Since 2000, the Classic Brit Awards has been hosted annually in May at the Hall. It is organised by the British Phonographic Industry.

Festival of Remembrance

 

The Royal British Legion Festival of Remembrance is held annually the day before Remembrance Sunday.[40]

Institute of Directors

 

For 60 years the Institute of Directors' Annual Convention has been synonymous with the Hall, although in 2011 and 2012 it was held at indigO2.

English National Ballet

 

Since 1998 the English National Ballet has had several specially staged arena summer seasons in partnership with the Hall and Raymond Gubbay. These include Strictly Gershwin, June 2008 and 2011, Swan Lake, June 2002, 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013, Romeo & Juliet (Deane), June 2001 and 2005 and The Sleeping Beauty, April – June 2000.[41]

Teenage Cancer Trust

 

Starting in the year 2000 the Teenage Cancer Trust has held annual charity concerts (with the exception of 2001). They started as a one off event but have expanded over the years to a week or more of evenings events. Roger Daltrey of the Who has been intimately involved with the planning of the events.[42]

Graduation Ceremonies

 

The Hall is used annually by the neighbouring Imperial College London and the Royal College of Art for graduation ceremonies. Kingston University also held its graduation ceremonies at the Hall until 2008.

Films, premières and live orchestra screenings

 

The venue has screened several films since the early silent days. It was the only London venue to show William Fox's The Queen of Sheba in the 1920s.

 

The Hall has hosted many premières, including the UK première of Fritz Lang's Die Nibelungen, 101 Dalmatians on 4 December 1996, the European première of Spandau Ballet's Soul Boys of the Western World[43] and three James Bond royal world premières; Die Another Day on 18 November 2002 (attended by Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip), Skyfall on 23 October 2012 (attended by Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall)[44] and SPECTRE on 26 October 2015 (attended by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge).[45]

 

The Hall held its first 3D world première of Titanic 3D, on 27 March 2012, with James Cameron and Kate Winslet in attendance.[46]

 

The Hall has curated regular seasons of film-and-live-orchestra screenings since 2009, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Gladiator, Star Trek, Star Trek Into Darkness, Interstellar, The Matrix, West Side Story, Breakfast at Tiffany's, Back to the Future and the world première of Titanic Live in Concert.

Beyond the main stage

 

The Hall hosts hundreds of events and activities beyond its main auditorium. There are regular free art exhibitions in the ground floor amphi corridor, which can be viewed when attending events or on dedicated viewing dates. You can take a guided tour of the Hall on most days. The most common is the one-hour Grand Tour which includes most front-of-house areas, the auditorium, the gallery and the Royal Retiring Room. Other tours include Story of the Proms, Behind the Scenes, Inside Out and School tours. Children's events include Storytelling and Music Sessions for 0 - 4 year olds which take place in the Door 9 Porch and Albert's Band sessions in the Elgar Room during school holidays. "Live Music in Verdi" takes place in the Italian restaurant on a Friday night featuring different artists each week. "Late Night Jazz" events in the Elgar Room, generally on a Thursday night, feature cabaret style seating and a relaxed atmosphere with drinks available. "Classical Coffee Mornings" are held on Sundays in the Elgar Room with musicians from the Royal College of Music accompanied with drinks and pastries. Sunday brunch events take place in Verdi Italian restaurant and features different genres of music.[47]

Regular performers

 

Eric Clapton is a regular performer at the Hall, it having played host to his concerts almost annually for over 20 years. In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Hall with the Yardbirds. It was also the venue for his band Cream's farewell concerts in 1968 and reunion shows in 2005. He also instigated the Concert for George, which was held at the Hall on 29 November 2002 to pay tribute to Clapton's lifelong friend, former Beatle George Harrison. Since 1964, Clapton has performed at the Hall almost 200 times, and has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room".[48][49]

 

David Gilmour played at the Hall in support of two solo albums, while also releasing a live concert on September 2006 entitled Remember That Night which was recorded during his three nights playing at the Hall for his 2006 On an Island tour. Notable guests were Robert Wyatt and David Bowie (who sang lead for "Arnold Layne" and "Comfortably Numb"). The live concert was televised by BBC One on 9 September 2007 and again on 25 May. Gilmour is set to return to the Hall; having previously played five nights in September 2015, to end his 34-day Rattle That Lock Tour on September 2016 by playing another four nights at the Hall. He will also make an appearance on 24 April 2016 as part of the Teenage Cancer Trust event.

 

Shirley Bassey has appeared many times at the Hall, usually as a special guest. In 2001, she sang "Happy Birthday" for the Duke of Edinburgh's 80th birthday concert. In 2007, she sang at Fashion Rocks in aid of the Prince's Trust. On 30 March 2011, she sang at a gala celebrating the 80th birthday of Mikhail Gorbachev.[50] In May 2011, she performed at the Classic Brit Awards, singing "Goldfinger" in tribute to the recently deceased composer John Barry.[51] On 20 June 2011, she returned and sang "Diamonds Are Forever" and "Goldfinger", accompanied by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, as the climax to the memorial concert for Barry.

 

James Last appeared 90 times at the Hall between 1973 and 2015, making him the most frequent non–British performer to have played the venue.[52]

Education & Outreach

 

The Hall's Education & Outreach programme engages 100,000 people a year. It includes workshops for local teenagers led by musicians such as Foals, Jake Bugg, Emeli Sandé, Nicola Benedetti, Alison Balsom and First Aid Kit, innovative science and maths lessons in partnership with Samsung, visits to local residential homes from the venue's in-house group, Albert's Band, under the 'Songbook' banner, and the Friendship Matinee: an orchestral concert for community groups, with £5 admission.

Management

The Hall is managed day to day by the chief executive Chris Cotton and five senior executives: the chief operating & financial officer, director of operations, director of business development, director of events and director of external affairs. They are accountable to the Council of the Corporation, which is the Trustee body of the charity. The Council is composed of the annually elected president, currently Mr Jon Moynihan OBE, 18 elected Members (either corporate or individual seat owners) and five Appointed Members, one each from Imperial College London, Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, British Museum of Natural History and the Royal College of Music.

 

Pop culture references

 

A large mural by Sir Peter Blake is displayed in the amphi corridor of Door 12 at the Hall. Unveiled in April 2014, it shows more than 400 famous figures who have appeared on the stage.

 

In 1955, English film director Alfred Hitchcock filmed the climax of The Man Who Knew Too Much at the Hall.[63] The 15-minute sequence featured James Stewart, Doris Day and composer Bernard Herrmann, and was filmed partly in the Queen's Box. Hitchcock was a long-time patron of the Hall and has already set the finale of his 1927 film, The Ring at the venue, as well as his initial version of The Man Who Knew Too Much, starring Leslie Banks, Edna Best and Peter Lorre.[64]

 

Other notable films shot at the Hall include Major Barbara, Love Story, The Seventh Veil, The Ipcress File, A Touch of Class, Shine and Spice World.

 

In the song "A Day in the Life" by the Beatles, the Albert Hall is mentioned. The verse goes as follows:

 

I read the news today, oh boy

four thousand holes in Blackburn, Lancashire

and though the holes were rather small

they had to count them all

now they know how many holes it takes to fill the Albert Hall

I'd love to turn you on.

 

The song "Session Man" by the Kinks references the Hall:

 

He never will forget at all

The day he played at Albert Hall.

 

In the song "Shame" by Robbie Williams and Gary Barlow, Gary mentions the Hall in his verse:

 

I read your mind and tried to call, my tears could fill the Albert Hall.

 

In some variants of "Hitler Has Only Got One Ball", Hitler's second testicle is mentioned to be in the Hall.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Albert_Hall

© Saúl Tuñón Loureda

 

twitter.com/Woody_Twitt

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El Royal Albert Hall es una sala de conciertos en Londres. Inaugurado el 29 de marzo de 1871, es uno de los teatros más emblemáticos del mundo y una de las construcciones más distintivas del Reino Unido. Está ubicado en Albertopolis, en el extremo norte del área de South Kensington, en la ciudad de Westminster.

 

El Royal Albert Hall fue construido para cumplir la visión del príncipe Alberto, consorte de la reina Victoria, de un "Salón Central" que fuera utilizado para promover las artes y las ciencias en South Kensington, rodeado de museos y centros de aprendizaje.1

 

Iba a llamarse The Central Hall of Arts and Sciences, pero se lo renombró Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences por decisión de Victoria, en memoria de su esposo.

 

En 1851, con motivo de la Gran Exposición en Hyde Park (Londres), se construyó el The Crystal Palace. La exposición tuvo un gran éxito y esto hizo que el príncipe Alberto propusiera la construcción de una serie de instalaciones permanentes para la cultura y educación de la gente.

 

La propuesta fue aprobada y el sitio fue comprado con una parte de los beneficios recaudados en la exposición. En abril de 1867 la reina Victoria firmó la «Royal Charter of the Corporation of the Hall of Arts and Sciences» para poder iniciar la construcción y operación del teatro y el 20 de mayo se colocó la primera piedra. Sin embargo, el progreso del proyecto fue muy lento y, en 1861, Alberto murió sin poder ver realizadas sus ideas. No obstante, se propuso la construcción de un monumento en su memoria, el Albert Memorial, orientado hacia el Royal Albert Hall.

 

La ceremonia oficial de inauguración fue el 29 de marzo de 1871. El discurso de bienvenida estuvo a cargo de Eduardo, Príncipe de Gales. Aunque Victoria no dio un discurso, sí comentó que el edificio le recordaba a la Constitución Británica.

 

El Royal Albert Hall, monumento clasificado de Grado 1, fue diseñado por los ingenieros civiles Francis Fowke y Henry Young Darracott Scott, de la Royal Engineers, y construido por los hermanos contratistas Thomas y Charles Lucas.3 Los diseñadores estuvieron fuertemente influenciados por la forma de los antiguos anfiteatros, así como también por las ideas de Gottfried Semper, mientras él trabajaba en el South Kensington Museum.

 

Para su construcción se emplearon ladrillos rojos de Fareham, con bloques de decoración hechos de terracota, fabricados por Gibbs and Canning Limited. Tiene un tamaño de 83 metros (eje mayor) por 72 metros (eje menor) y una forma elíptica. El domo, diseñado por el ingeniero Rowland Mason Ordish, está hecho de cristal y acero forjado, se encuentra a 41 metros de altura en el techo. Originalmente, el teatro fue diseñado para poder albergar 8000 personas, capacidad que ha sido aumentada hasta 9000, aunque las medidas de seguridad actuales han restringido la capacidad máxima permitida, lo que permite un cupo de 5544, incluyendo gente de pie en la Galería.

 

Desde su inauguración, han pasado por su escenario artistas reconocidos internacionalmente, de música clásica hasta bandas de rock. Ha sido sede de galas benéficas, entregas de premios, banquetes, conferencias, eventos públicos y torneos de tenis. Se llevaron a cabo las graduaciones del Imperial College, acogió el Festival de Eurovisión 1968, el primero transmitido en color, y albergó a celebridades como Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Fogerty, Lady Gaga, Cream, Tony Bennett, Glen Hansard, Laura Pausini, Paul McCartney, Elton John, Slash, B.B. King, David Bisbal, Yanni, bond, Eric Clapton, Mark Knopfler, George Harrison, David Gilmour, Deep Purple, Bob Dylan, Led Zeppelin, Rod Stewart, Camel, Sting, Eric Idle, Michael Palin, Terry Jones, Terry Gilliam, Umberto Tozzi, Jack Bruce, Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, Sarah Brightman, Julio Iglesias, Mick Jagger, Muse, Frank Sinatra, Phil Collins, Pete Townshend, The Corrs, Robbie Williams, The Last Shadow Puppets, Arctic Monkeys, Enrique Iglesias, Noel Gallagher, Depeche Mode, Snow Patrol, The Stranglers, The Killers, Jake Bugg, Porcupine Tree, Coldplay y, recientemente Steven Wilson, Opeth, Emeli Sandé, Adele, Florence and the Machine, Mystery Jets, Foals, Bring Me The Horizon , McFly y Juan Luis Guerra.

 

El Royal Albert Hall es la sede de The BBC Proms, el mayor festival mundial de música clásica que se realiza anualmente durante el verano, con una duración de ocho semanas y con un maratón de solistas, coros y orquestas transmitido a todo el mundo por la BBC.6 Por los Proms han pasado importantes figuras de la música clásica como Adrian Boult, Malcom Sargent, Colin Davis, Georg Solti, Evgeny Kissin, Joshua Bell, John Williams (guitarrista), Luciano Pavarotti, Jessye Norman, Plácido Domingo, Sarah Brightman, Renée Fleming, Bryn Terfel y Simon Rattle, entre otros.

 

La tradicional última noche de los Proms es uno de los hitos del verano londinense. Es un show que reúne multitudes dentro del hall y en Hyde Park y otros parques en otros lugares del Reino Unido. El último concierto del festival (a menudo la Novena Sinfonía de Beethoven) finaliza con bises de clásicos la cultura victoriana como Pompa y circunstancia de Sir Edward Elgar, Land of Hope and Glory, Rule Britannia, Jerusalem y God Save the Queen.

 

El Cirque du Soleil ha realizado numerosas presentaciones en este teatro desde 1996, con el espectáculo Saltimbanco, que se presentó hasta 1997. En 1998 y 1999, presentaron Alegría. En 2003 se presentan nuevamente con Saltimbanco. En 2004 y 2005 montaron el espectáculo Dralion. En 2006 y 2007 se dio el regreso de Alegría, mientras que en el 2008, realizaron la premiere de Varekai, espectáculo con el que regresaron en 2010, con motivo de la celebración de los 25 años de la compañía. En 2011 y 2012 se presentaron con Totem. En 2013 estarán presentando Kooza.

 

Desde 1998, el English National Ballet se ha presentado en numerosas temporadas en sociedad con el teatro y Raymond Gubbay con, entre otros, La bella durmiente (2000), Romeo y Julieta (2001 y 2005), El lago de los cisnes (2002, 2004, 2007 y 2010) y Strictly Gershwin (2008 y 2011).

 

The Festival of Remembrance de la Royal British Legion se celebra anualmente, un día antes del Rembrance Sunday, fecha en la que se recuerda a todos aquellos que han perdido la vida en conflictos bélicos.

 

Teenage Cancer Trust

 

Desde el año 2000, el Teenage Cancer Trust ha celebrado anualmente conciertos de caridad. Iniciaron como un evento sencillo, pero a través de los años se han ido expandiendo hasta presentar una semana o más de presentaciones.

 

Roger Daltrey, vocalista de The Who, ha estado profundamente envuelto en la realización de los conciertos para este evento.

 

Ceremonias de graduación

 

El teatro es usado anualmente por el Royal College of Art y el Imperial College London para sus ceremonias de graduación.

 

La Kingston University celebró también sus ceremonias de graduación hasta 2008, año en que cambió de sede al nuevo Rose Theatre, Kingston.

 

es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Albert_Hall

 

The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which holds the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941. It has a capacity of up to 5,272 seats. The Hall is a registered charity held in trust for the nation and receives no public or government funding.[1]

 

Since its opening by Queen Victoria in 1871, the world's leading artists from many performance genres have appeared on its stage and it has become one of the UK's most treasured and distinctive buildings. The location of some of the most notable events in British culture, each year it hosts more than 390 shows in the main auditorium, including classical, rock and pop concerts, ballet, opera, film screenings with live orchestra, sports, award ceremonies, school and community events, charity performances and banquets. A further 400 events are held each year in the non-auditorium spaces.

 

The Hall was originally supposed to have been called the Central Hall of Arts and Sciences, but the name was changed to the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences by Queen Victoria upon laying the Hall's foundation stone in 1867, in memory of her husband consort, Prince Albert who had died six years earlier. It forms the practical part of a memorial to the Prince Consort – the decorative part is the Albert Memorial directly to the north in Kensington Gardens, now separated from the Hall by Kensington Gore.

 

he Hall, a Grade I listed building,[22] is an ellipse in plan, with major and minor axes of 83 m (272 ft) and 72 m (236 ft). The great glass and wrought-iron dome roofing the Hall is 41 m (135 ft) high. It was originally designed with a capacity for 8,000 people and has accommodated as many as 9,000 (although modern safety restrictions mean that the maximum permitted capacity is now 5,544 including standing in the Gallery).

 

Around the outside of the building is a great mosaic frieze, depicting "The Triumph of Arts and Sciences", in reference to the Hall's dedication. Proceeding anti-clockwise from the north side the sixteen subjects of the frieze are: (1) Various Countries of the World bringing in their Offerings to the Exhibition of 1851; (2) Music; (3) Sculpture; (4) Painting; (5) Princes, Art Patrons and Artists; (6) Workers in Stone; (7) Workers in Wood and Brick; (8) Architecture; (9) The Infancy of the Arts and Sciences; (10) Agriculture; (11) Horticulture and Land Surveying; (12) Astronomy and Navigation; (13) A Group of Philosophers, Sages and Students; (14) Engineering; (15) The Mechanical Powers; and (16) Pottery and Glassmaking.

 

Above the frieze is an inscription in 12-inch-high (300 mm) terracotta letters that combines historical fact and Biblical quotations: "This hall was erected for the advancement of the arts and sciences and works of industry of all nations in fulfilment of the intention of Albert Prince Consort. The site was purchased with the proceeds of the Great Exhibition of the year MDCCCLI. The first stone of the Hall was laid by Her Majesty Queen Victoria on the twentieth day of May MDCCCLXVII and it was opened by Her Majesty the Twenty Ninth of March in the year MDCCCLXXI. Thine O Lord is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty. For all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Thine. The wise and their works are in the hand of God. Glory be to God on high and on earth peace."

 

Below the Arena floor there are two 4000 gallon water tanks, which are used for shows that flood the arena like Madam Butterfly.

 

The Hall has been affectionately titled "The Nation's Village Hall".[24] The first concert was Arthur Sullivan's cantata On Shore and Sea, performed on 1 May 1871.[25][26]

 

Many events are promoted by the Hall, whilst since the early 1970s promoter Raymond Gubbay has brought a range of events to the Hall including opera, ballet and classical music. Some events include classical and rock concerts, conferences, banquets, ballroom dancing, poetry recitals, educational talks, motor shows, ballet, opera, film screenings and circus shows. It has hosted many sporting events, including boxing, squash, table tennis, basketball, wrestling including the first Sumo wrestling tournament to be held in London as well as UFC 38 (the first UFC event to be held in the UK), tennis and even a marathon.[27][28]

 

On 6 April 1968, the Hall was the host venue for the Eurovision Song Contest which was broadcast in colour for the first time.[29] One notable event was a Pink Floyd concert held 26 June 1969, the night they were banned from ever playing at the Hall again after shooting cannons, nailing things to the stage, and having a man in a gorilla suit roam the audience. At one point Rick Wright went to the pipe organ and began to play "The End Of The Beginning", the final part of "Saucerful Of Secrets", joined by the brass section of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (led by the conductor, Norman Smith) and the ladies of the Ealing Central Amateur Choir.[30] A portion of the pipe organ recording is included on Pink Floyd's album The Endless River.[31]

 

On 30 June 2 and 3 July 2011, Janet Jackson brought her Number Ones, Up Close and Personal Tour here, These were her first headlining UK shows in 13 years.

 

Kylie Minogue performed a show here on 11 December 2015, to promote Kylie Christmas, her first Christmas album and thirteenth studio album. She will return with two more shows on 9 & 10 December 2016.

 

Benefit concerts in include the 1997 Music for Montserrat concert, arranged and produced by George Martin, an event which featured artists such as Phil Collins, Mark Knopfler, Sting, Elton John, Eric Clapton and Paul McCartney,[32] and 2012 Sunflower Jam charity concert with Queen guitarist Brian May performing alongside bassist John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin, drummer Ian Paice of Deep Purple, and vocalists Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden and Alice Cooper.[33]

 

On 2 October 2011, the Hall staged the 25th anniversary performance of Andrew Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera, which was broadcast live to cinemas across the world and filmed for DVD.[34] Lloyd Webber, the original London cast including Sarah Brightman and Michael Crawford, and four previous actors of the titular character, among others, were in attendance – Brightman and the previous Phantoms (aside from Crawford) performed an encore.

 

On 24 September 2012, Classic FM celebrated the 20th anniversary of their launch with a concert at the Hall. The programme featured live performances of works by Handel, Puccini, Rachmaninoff, Parry, Vaughan Williams, Tchaikovsky and Karl Jenkins who conducted his piece The Benedictus from The Armed Man in person.[35]

 

On 19 November 2012, the Hall hosted the 100th anniversary performance of the Royal Variety Performance, attended by the Queen and Prince Philip, with boyband One Direction among the performers.[36]

 

Between 1996 and 2008, the Hall hosted the annual National Television Awards all of which were hosted by Sir Trevor McDonald.

Regular events

Royal Choral Society

The Royal Choral Society is the longest running regular performance at the Hall, having given its first performance as the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society on 8 May 1872. From 1878 it established the annual Good Friday performance of Handel's Messiah.

 

The BBC Promenade Concerts, known as "The Proms", is a popular annual eight-week summer season of daily classical music concerts and other events at the Hall. In 1942, following the destruction of the Queen's Hall in an air raid, the Hall was chosen as the new venue for the proms.[37] In 1944 with increased danger to the Hall, part of the proms were held in the Bedford Corn Exchange. Following the end of World War II the proms continued in the Hall and have done so annually every summer since. The event was founded in 1895, and now each season consists of over 70 concerts, in addition to a series of events at other venues across the United Kingdom on the last night. In 2009, the total number of concerts reached 100 for the first time. Jiří Bělohlávek described The Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival" of all such events in the world of classical music festivals.[38]

 

Proms (short for promenade concerts) is a term which arose from the original practice of the audience promenading, or strolling, in some areas during the concert. Proms concert-goers, particularly those who stand, are sometimes described as "Promenaders", but are most commonly referred to as "Prommers".[39]

Tennis

 

Tennis was first played at the Hall in March 1970 and the ATP Champions Tour Masters has been played annually every December since 1997.

Classical Spectacular

 

Classical Spectacular, a Raymond Gubbay production, has been coming to the Hall since 1988. It combines classical music, lights and special effects.

Cirque du Soleil

 

Cirque du Soleil has performed several of its shows at the Hall beginning in 1996 with Saltimbanco, a show which returned in 1997. In 1998 they had their UK première of Alegría and returned in 1999. After a few years away they returned in 2003 with Saltimbanco. Their European première of Dralion was held at the Hall in 2004 and returned in 2005. 2006 and 2007 saw the return of Alegría whilst 2008 saw the UK première of Varekai, which returned in 2010 marking 25 years of Cirque du Soleil. Quidam returned to London (but a first for this show at the Hall) in 2009 and again in January 2014. In January and February 2011 and again in 2012 they presented Totem. From January–February 2013 and again from January–February 2015, the hall held performances of Koozå.

Classic Brit Awards

 

Since 2000, the Classic Brit Awards has been hosted annually in May at the Hall. It is organised by the British Phonographic Industry.

Festival of Remembrance

 

The Royal British Legion Festival of Remembrance is held annually the day before Remembrance Sunday.[40]

Institute of Directors

 

For 60 years the Institute of Directors' Annual Convention has been synonymous with the Hall, although in 2011 and 2012 it was held at indigO2.

English National Ballet

 

Since 1998 the English National Ballet has had several specially staged arena summer seasons in partnership with the Hall and Raymond Gubbay. These include Strictly Gershwin, June 2008 and 2011, Swan Lake, June 2002, 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013, Romeo & Juliet (Deane), June 2001 and 2005 and The Sleeping Beauty, April – June 2000.[41]

Teenage Cancer Trust

 

Starting in the year 2000 the Teenage Cancer Trust has held annual charity concerts (with the exception of 2001). They started as a one off event but have expanded over the years to a week or more of evenings events. Roger Daltrey of the Who has been intimately involved with the planning of the events.[42]

Graduation Ceremonies

 

The Hall is used annually by the neighbouring Imperial College London and the Royal College of Art for graduation ceremonies. Kingston University also held its graduation ceremonies at the Hall until 2008.

Films, premières and live orchestra screenings

 

The venue has screened several films since the early silent days. It was the only London venue to show William Fox's The Queen of Sheba in the 1920s.

 

The Hall has hosted many premières, including the UK première of Fritz Lang's Die Nibelungen, 101 Dalmatians on 4 December 1996, the European première of Spandau Ballet's Soul Boys of the Western World[43] and three James Bond royal world premières; Die Another Day on 18 November 2002 (attended by Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip), Skyfall on 23 October 2012 (attended by Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall)[44] and SPECTRE on 26 October 2015 (attended by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge).[45]

 

The Hall held its first 3D world première of Titanic 3D, on 27 March 2012, with James Cameron and Kate Winslet in attendance.[46]

 

The Hall has curated regular seasons of film-and-live-orchestra screenings since 2009, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Gladiator, Star Trek, Star Trek Into Darkness, Interstellar, The Matrix, West Side Story, Breakfast at Tiffany's, Back to the Future and the world première of Titanic Live in Concert.

Beyond the main stage

 

The Hall hosts hundreds of events and activities beyond its main auditorium. There are regular free art exhibitions in the ground floor amphi corridor, which can be viewed when attending events or on dedicated viewing dates. You can take a guided tour of the Hall on most days. The most common is the one-hour Grand Tour which includes most front-of-house areas, the auditorium, the gallery and the Royal Retiring Room. Other tours include Story of the Proms, Behind the Scenes, Inside Out and School tours. Children's events include Storytelling and Music Sessions for 0 - 4 year olds which take place in the Door 9 Porch and Albert's Band sessions in the Elgar Room during school holidays. "Live Music in Verdi" takes place in the Italian restaurant on a Friday night featuring different artists each week. "Late Night Jazz" events in the Elgar Room, generally on a Thursday night, feature cabaret style seating and a relaxed atmosphere with drinks available. "Classical Coffee Mornings" are held on Sundays in the Elgar Room with musicians from the Royal College of Music accompanied with drinks and pastries. Sunday brunch events take place in Verdi Italian restaurant and features different genres of music.[47]

Regular performers

 

Eric Clapton is a regular performer at the Hall, it having played host to his concerts almost annually for over 20 years. In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Hall with the Yardbirds. It was also the venue for his band Cream's farewell concerts in 1968 and reunion shows in 2005. He also instigated the Concert for George, which was held at the Hall on 29 November 2002 to pay tribute to Clapton's lifelong friend, former Beatle George Harrison. Since 1964, Clapton has performed at the Hall almost 200 times, and has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room".[48][49]

 

David Gilmour played at the Hall in support of two solo albums, while also releasing a live concert on September 2006 entitled Remember That Night which was recorded during his three nights playing at the Hall for his 2006 On an Island tour. Notable guests were Robert Wyatt and David Bowie (who sang lead for "Arnold Layne" and "Comfortably Numb"). The live concert was televised by BBC One on 9 September 2007 and again on 25 May. Gilmour is set to return to the Hall; having previously played five nights in September 2015, to end his 34-day Rattle That Lock Tour on September 2016 by playing another four nights at the Hall. He will also make an appearance on 24 April 2016 as part of the Teenage Cancer Trust event.

 

Shirley Bassey has appeared many times at the Hall, usually as a special guest. In 2001, she sang "Happy Birthday" for the Duke of Edinburgh's 80th birthday concert. In 2007, she sang at Fashion Rocks in aid of the Prince's Trust. On 30 March 2011, she sang at a gala celebrating the 80th birthday of Mikhail Gorbachev.[50] In May 2011, she performed at the Classic Brit Awards, singing "Goldfinger" in tribute to the recently deceased composer John Barry.[51] On 20 June 2011, she returned and sang "Diamonds Are Forever" and "Goldfinger", accompanied by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, as the climax to the memorial concert for Barry.

 

James Last appeared 90 times at the Hall between 1973 and 2015, making him the most frequent non–British performer to have played the venue.[52]

Education & Outreach

 

The Hall's Education & Outreach programme engages 100,000 people a year. It includes workshops for local teenagers led by musicians such as Foals, Jake Bugg, Emeli Sandé, Nicola Benedetti, Alison Balsom and First Aid Kit, innovative science and maths lessons in partnership with Samsung, visits to local residential homes from the venue's in-house group, Albert's Band, under the 'Songbook' banner, and the Friendship Matinee: an orchestral concert for community groups, with £5 admission.

Management

The Hall is managed day to day by the chief executive Chris Cotton and five senior executives: the chief operating & financial officer, director of operations, director of business development, director of events and director of external affairs. They are accountable to the Council of the Corporation, which is the Trustee body of the charity. The Council is composed of the annually elected president, currently Mr Jon Moynihan OBE, 18 elected Members (either corporate or individual seat owners) and five Appointed Members, one each from Imperial College London, Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, British Museum of Natural History and the Royal College of Music.

 

Pop culture references

 

A large mural by Sir Peter Blake is displayed in the amphi corridor of Door 12 at the Hall. Unveiled in April 2014, it shows more than 400 famous figures who have appeared on the stage.

 

In 1955, English film director Alfred Hitchcock filmed the climax of The Man Who Knew Too Much at the Hall.[63] The 15-minute sequence featured James Stewart, Doris Day and composer Bernard Herrmann, and was filmed partly in the Queen's Box. Hitchcock was a long-time patron of the Hall and has already set the finale of his 1927 film, The Ring at the venue, as well as his initial version of The Man Who Knew Too Much, starring Leslie Banks, Edna Best and Peter Lorre.[64]

 

Other notable films shot at the Hall include Major Barbara, Love Story, The Seventh Veil, The Ipcress File, A Touch of Class, Shine and Spice World.

 

In the song "A Day in the Life" by the Beatles, the Albert Hall is mentioned. The verse goes as follows:

 

I read the news today, oh boy

four thousand holes in Blackburn, Lancashire

and though the holes were rather small

they had to count them all

now they know how many holes it takes to fill the Albert Hall

I'd love to turn you on.

 

The song "Session Man" by the Kinks references the Hall:

 

He never will forget at all

The day he played at Albert Hall.

 

In the song "Shame" by Robbie Williams and Gary Barlow, Gary mentions the Hall in his verse:

 

I read your mind and tried to call, my tears could fill the Albert Hall.

 

In some variants of "Hitler Has Only Got One Ball", Hitler's second testicle is mentioned to be in the Hall.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Albert_Hall

Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, c. March 1822[1] – March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist and political activist. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some 13 missions to rescue approximately 70 enslaved people, including family and friends,[2] using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. During the American Civil War, she served as an armed scout and spy for the Union Army. In her later years, Tubman was an activist in the struggle for women's suffrage.

 

Born enslaved in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. Early in life, she suffered a traumatic head wound when an irate overseer threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave, but hit her instead. The injury caused dizziness, pain, and spells of hypersomnia, which occurred throughout her life. After her injury, Tubman began experiencing strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God. These experiences, combined with her Methodist upbringing, led her to become devoutly religious.

 

In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, only to return to Maryland to rescue her family soon after. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, and eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. Traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman (or "Moses", as she was called) "never lost a passenger".[3] After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America (Canada), and helped newly freed slaves find work. Tubman met John Brown in 1858, and helped him plan and recruit supporters for his 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry.

 

When the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 slaves. After the war, she retired to the family home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her, and she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped to establish years earlier. After her death in 1913, she became an icon of courage and freedom.

 

Birth and family

 

Tubman was born Araminta "Minty" Ross to enslaved parents, Harriet ("Rit") Green and Ben Ross. Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess (and later her son Edward). Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Mary Brodess's second husband, and who ran a large plantation near the Blackwater River in the Madison area of Dorchester County, Maryland. As with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Tubman's birth is known, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Kate Larson records the year as 1822, based on a midwife payment and several other historical documents, including her runaway advertisement,[1] while Jean Humez says "the best current evidence suggests that Tubman was born in 1820, but it might have been a year or two later".[4] Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820.[5]

 

Modesty, Tubman's maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a slave ship from Africa; no information is available about her other ancestors.[6] As a child, Tubman was told that she seemed like an Ashanti person because of her character traits, though no evidence exists to confirm or deny this lineage.[7] Her mother, Rit (who may have had a white father),[7][8] was a cook for the Brodess family.[4] Her father, Ben, was a skilled woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompson's plantation.[7] They married around 1808 and, according to court records, had nine children together: Linah, Mariah Ritty, Soph, Robert, Minty (Harriet), Ben, Rachel, Henry, and Moses.[9]

 

Rit struggled to keep her family together as slavery threatened to tear it apart. Edward Brodess sold three of her daughters (Linah, Mariah Ritty, and Soph), separating them from the family forever.[10] When a trader from Georgia approached Brodess about buying Rit's youngest son, Moses, she hid him for a month, aided by other slaves and free blacks in the community.[11] At one point she confronted her owner about the sale.[12] Finally, Brodess and "the Georgia man" came toward the slave quarters to seize the child, where Rit told them, "You are after my son; but the first man that comes into my house, I will split his head open."[12] Brodess backed away and abandoned the sale.[13] Tubman's biographers agree that stories told about this event within the family influenced her belief in the possibilities of resistance.[13][14]

 

Childhood

 

Tubman's mother was assigned to "the big house"[15][16] and had scarce time for her family; consequently, as a child Tubman took care of a younger brother and baby, as was typical in large families.[17] When she was five or six years old, Brodess hired her out as a nursemaid to a woman named "Miss Susan". Tubman was ordered to care for the baby and rock its cradle as it slept; when it woke up and cried, she was whipped. She later recounted a particular day when she was lashed five times before breakfast. She carried the scars for the rest of her life.[18] She found ways to resist, such as running away for five days,[19] wearing layers of clothing as protection against beatings, and fighting back.[20]

 

As a child, Tubman also worked at the home of a planter named James Cook. She had to check the muskrat traps in nearby marshes, even after contracting measles. She became so ill that Cook sent her back to Brodess, where her mother nursed her back to health. Brodess then hired her out again. She spoke later of her acute childhood homesickness, comparing herself to "the boy on the Swanee River", an allusion to Stephen Foster's song "Old Folks at Home".[21] As she grew older and stronger, she was assigned to field and forest work, driving oxen, plowing, and hauling logs.[22]

 

As an adolescent, Tubman suffered a severe head injury when an overseer threw a two-pound metal weight at another slave who was attempting to flee. The weight struck Tubman instead, which she said: "broke my skull". Bleeding and unconscious, she was returned to her owner's house and laid on the seat of a loom, where she remained without medical care for two days.[23] After this incident, Tubman frequently experienced extremely painful headaches.[24] She also began having seizures and would seemingly fall unconscious, although she claimed to be aware of her surroundings while appearing to be asleep. This condition remained with her for the rest of her life; Larson suggests she may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy as a result of the injury.[25][26]

 

After her injury, Tubman began experiencing visions and vivid dreams, which she interpreted as revelations from God. These spiritual experiences had a profound effect on Tubman's personality and she acquired a passionate faith in God.[27] Although Tubman was illiterate, she was told Bible stories by her mother and likely attended a Methodist church with her family.[28][29] She rejected the teachings of the New Testament that urged slaves to be obedient, and found guidance in the Old Testament tales of deliverance. This religious perspective informed her actions throughout her life.[30]

 

Family and marriage

 

Anthony Thompson promised to manumit Tubman's father at the age of 45. After Thompson died, his son followed through with that promise in 1840. Tubman's father continued working as a timber estimator and foreman for the Thompson family.[31] Several years later, Tubman contacted a white attorney and paid him five dollars to investigate her mother's legal status. The lawyer discovered that a former owner had issued instructions that Tubman's mother, Rit, like her husband, would be manumitted at the age of 45. The record showed that a similar provision would apply to Rit's children, and that any children born after she reached 45 years of age were legally free, but the Pattison and Brodess families ignored this stipulation when they inherited the slaves. Challenging it legally was an impossible task for Tubman.[32]

 

Around 1844, she married a free black man named John Tubman.[33] Although little is known about him or their time together, the union was complicated because of her slave status. The mother's status dictated that of children, and any children born to Harriet and John would be enslaved. Such blended marriages – free people of color marrying enslaved people – were not uncommon on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, where by this time, half the black population was free. Most African-American families had both free and enslaved members. Larson suggests that they might have planned to buy Tubman's freedom.[34]

 

Tubman changed her name from Araminta to Harriet soon after her marriage, though the exact timing is unclear. Larson suggests this happened right after the wedding,[33] and Clinton suggests that it coincided with Tubman's plans to escape from slavery.[35] She adopted her mother's name, possibly as part of a religious conversion, or to honor another relative.[33][35]

Escape from slavery

 

In 1849, Tubman became ill again, which diminished her value as a slave. Edward Brodess tried to sell her, but could not find a buyer.[36] Angry at him for trying to sell her and for continuing to enslave her relatives, Tubman began to pray for her owner, asking God to make him change his ways.[37] She said later: "I prayed all night long for my master till the first of March; and all the time he was bringing people to look at me, and trying to sell me." When it appeared as though a sale was being concluded, "I changed my prayer", she said. "First of March I began to pray, 'Oh Lord, if you ain't never going to change that man's heart, kill him, Lord, and take him out of the way.'"[38] A week later, Brodess died, and Tubman expressed regret for her earlier sentiments.[39]

 

As in many estate settlements, Brodess's death increased the likelihood that Tubman would be sold and her family broken apart.[40] His widow, Eliza, began working to sell the family's slaves.[41] Tubman refused to wait for the Brodess family to decide her fate, despite her husband's efforts to dissuade her.[42] "[T]here was one of two things I had a right to", she explained later, "liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other".[43]

 

Tubman and her brothers, Ben and Henry, escaped from slavery on September 17, 1849. Tubman had been hired out to Anthony Thompson (the son of her father's former owner), who owned a large plantation in an area called Poplar Neck in neighboring Caroline County; it is likely her brothers labored for Thompson as well. Because the slaves were hired out to another household, Eliza Brodess probably did not recognize their absence as an escape attempt for some time. Two weeks later, she posted a runaway notice in the Cambridge Democrat, offering a reward of up to $100 for each slave returned.[44] Once they had left, Tubman's brothers had second thoughts. Ben may have just become a father. The two men went back, forcing Tubman to return with them.[45]

 

Soon afterward, Tubman escaped again, this time without her brothers.[46] She tried to send word of her plans beforehand to her mother. She sang a coded song to Mary, a trusted fellow slave, that was a farewell. "I'll meet you in the morning", she intoned, "I'm bound for the promised land."[47] While her exact route is unknown, Tubman made use of the network known as the Underground Railroad. This informal but well-organized system was composed of free and enslaved blacks, white abolitionists, and other activists. Most prominent among the latter in Maryland at the time were members of the Religious Society of Friends, often called Quakers.[46] The Preston area near Poplar Neck contained a substantial Quaker community and was probably an important first stop during Tubman's escape.[48] From there, she probably took a common route for fleeing slaves – northeast along the Choptank River, through Delaware and then north into Pennsylvania.[49] A journey of nearly 90 miles (145 km) by foot would have taken between five days and three weeks.[50]

 

Tubman had to travel by night, guided by the North Star and trying to avoid slave catchers eager to collect rewards for fugitive slaves.[51] The "conductors" in the Underground Railroad used deceptions for protection. At an early stop, the lady of the house instructed Tubman to sweep the yard so as to seem to be working for the family. When night fell, the family hid her in a cart and took her to the next friendly house.[52] Given her familiarity with the woods and marshes of the region, Tubman likely hid in these locales during the day.[49] The particulars of her first journey are unknown; because other fugitive slaves used the routes, Tubman did not discuss them until later in life.[53] She crossed into Pennsylvania with a feeling of relief and awe, and recalled the experience years later:

 

When I found I had crossed that line, I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything; the sun came like gold through the trees, and over the fields, and I felt like I was in Heaven.[47]

 

Nicknamed "Moses"

 

After reaching Philadelphia, Tubman thought of her family. "I was a stranger in a strange land," she said later. "[M]y father, my mother, my brothers, and sisters, and friends were [in Maryland]. But I was free, and they should be free."[54] She worked odd jobs and saved money.[55] The U.S. Congress meanwhile passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which heavily punished abetting escape and forced law enforcement officials – even in states that had outlawed slavery – to assist in their capture. The law increased risks for escaped slaves, more of whom therefore sought refuge in Southern Ontario (then part of the United Province of Canada) which, as part of the British Empire, had abolished slavery.[56] Racial tensions were also increasing in Philadelphia as waves of poor Irish immigrants competed with free blacks for work.[57]

 

In December 1850, Tubman was warned that her niece Kessiah and her two children, six-year-old James Alfred, and baby Araminta, soon would be sold in Cambridge. Tubman went to Baltimore, where her brother-in-law Tom Tubman hid her until the sale. Kessiah's husband, a free black man named John Bowley, made the winning bid for his wife. Then, while the auctioneer stepped away to have lunch, John, Kessiah and their children escaped to a nearby safe house. When night fell, Bowley sailed the family on a log canoe 60 miles (97 kilometres) to Baltimore, where they met with Tubman, who brought the family to Philadelphia.[58]

 

The next spring she returned to Maryland to help guide away other family members. During her second trip, she recovered her brother Moses and two unidentified men.[59] Tubman likely worked with abolitionist Thomas Garrett, a Quaker working in Wilmington, Delaware.[60] Word of her exploits had encouraged her family, and biographers agree that with each trip to Maryland, she became more confident.[59][61]

 

In the fall of 1851, Tubman returned to Dorchester County for the first time since her escape, this time to find her husband John. She saved money from various jobs, purchased a suit for him, and made her way south. Meanwhile, John had married another woman named Caroline. Tubman sent word that he should join her, but he insisted that he was happy where he was. Tubman at first prepared to storm their house and make a scene, but then decided he was not worth the trouble. Suppressing her anger, she found some slaves who wanted to escape and led them to Philadelphia.[62] John and Caroline raised a family together, until he was killed 16 years later in a roadside argument with a white man named Robert Vincent.[63]

 

Because the Fugitive Slave Law had made the northern United States a more dangerous place for escaped slaves to remain, many escaped slaves began migrating to Southern Ontario. In December 1851, Tubman guided an unidentified group of 11 fugitives, possibly including the Bowleys and several others she had helped rescue earlier, northward. There is evidence to suggest that Tubman and her group stopped at the home of abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass.[64] In his third autobiography, Douglass wrote: "On one occasion I had eleven fugitives at the same time under my roof, and it was necessary for them to remain with me until I could collect sufficient money to get them on to Canada. It was the largest number I ever had at any one time, and I had some difficulty in providing so many with food and shelter. ... "[65] The number of travelers and the time of the visit make it likely that this was Tubman's group.[64]

 

Douglass and Tubman admired one another greatly as they both struggled against slavery. When an early biography of Tubman was being prepared in 1868, Douglass wrote a letter to honor her. He compared his own efforts with hers, writing:

 

The difference between us is very marked. Most that I have done and suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, and I have received much encouragement at every step of the way. You, on the other hand, have labored in a private way. I have wrought in the day – you in the night. ... The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism. Excepting John Brown – of sacred memory – I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than you have.[66]

 

Over 11 years, Tubman returned repeatedly to the Eastern Shore of Maryland, rescuing some 70 slaves in about 13 expeditions,[2] including her other brothers, Henry, Ben, and Robert, their wives and some of their children. She also provided specific instructions to 50 to 60 additional fugitives who escaped to the north.[2] Because of her efforts, she was nicknamed "Moses", alluding to the prophet in the Book of Exodus who led the Hebrews to freedom from Egypt.[67] One of her last missions into Maryland was to retrieve her aging parents. Her father, Ben, had purchased Rit, her mother, in 1855 from Eliza Brodess for $20.[68] But even when they were both free, the area became hostile to their presence. Two years later, Tubman received word that her father was at risk of arrest for harboring a group of eight escaped slaves. She traveled to the Eastern Shore and led them north to St. Catharines, Ontario, where a community of former slaves (including Tubman's brothers, other relatives, and many friends) had gathered.[69]

 

Routes and methods

 

Tubman's dangerous work required tremendous ingenuity; she usually worked during winter months, to minimize the likelihood that the group would be seen. One admirer of Tubman said: "She always came in the winter, when the nights are long and dark, and people who have homes stay in them."[70] Once she had made contact with escaping slaves, they left town on Saturday evenings, since newspapers would not print runaway notices until Monday morning.[71]

 

Her journeys into the land of slavery put her at tremendous risk, and she used a variety of subterfuges to avoid detection. Tubman once disguised herself with a bonnet and carried two live chickens to give the appearance of running errands. Suddenly finding herself walking toward a former owner in Dorchester County, she yanked the strings holding the birds' legs, and their agitation allowed her to avoid eye contact.[72] Later she recognized a fellow train passenger as another former master; she snatched a nearby newspaper and pretended to read. Since Tubman was known to be illiterate, the man ignored her.[73]

 

While being interviewed by author Wilbur Siebert in 1897, Tubman named some of the people who helped her and places that she stayed along the Underground Railroad. She stayed with Sam Green, a free black minister living in East New Market, Maryland; she also hid near her parents' home at Poplar Neck. She would travel from there northeast to Sandtown and Willow Grove, Delaware, and to the Camden area where free black agents, William and Nat Brinkley and Abraham Gibbs, guided her north past Dover, Smyrna, and Blackbird, where other agents would take her across the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal to New Castle and Wilmington. In Wilmington, Quaker Thomas Garrett would secure transportation to William Still's office or the homes of other Underground Railroad operators in the greater Philadelphia area. Still is credited with aiding hundreds of freedom seekers escape to safer places farther north in New York, New England, and present-day Southern Ontario.[74]

 

Tubman's religious faith was another important resource as she ventured repeatedly into Maryland. The visions from her childhood head injury continued, and she saw them as divine premonitions. She spoke of "consulting with God", and trusted that He would keep her safe.[75] Thomas Garrett once said of her, "I never met with any person of any color who had more confidence in the voice of God, as spoken direct to her soul."[76] Her faith in the divine also provided immediate assistance. She used spirituals as coded messages, warning fellow travelers of danger or to signal a clear path. She sang versions of "Go Down Moses" and changed the lyrics to indicate that it was either safe or too dangerous to proceed.[77] As she led fugitives across the border, she would call out, "Glory to God and Jesus, too. One more soul is safe!"[78]

 

Tubman also carried a revolver, and was not afraid to use it. The gun afforded some protection from the ever-present slave catchers and their dogs; however, she also purportedly threatened to shoot any escaped slave who tried to turn back on the journey since that would threaten the safety of the remaining group.[79] Tubman told the tale of one man who insisted he was going to go back to the plantation when morale got low among a group of fugitive slaves. She pointed the gun at his head and said, "You go on or die."[80] Several days later, he was with the group as they entered Canada.[75]

 

Slaveholders in the region, meanwhile, never knew that "Minty", the petite, five-foot-tall (150 cm), disabled slave who had run away years before and never come back, was behind so many slave escapes in their community. By the late 1850s, they began to suspect a northern white abolitionist was secretly enticing their slaves away. While a popular legend persists about a reward of $40,000 for Tubman's capture, this is a manufactured figure. In 1868, in an effort to drum up support for Tubman's claim for a Civil War military pension, a former abolitionist named Salley Holley wrote an article claiming $40,000 "was not too great a reward for Maryland slaveholders to offer for her".[81] Such a high reward would have garnered national attention, especially at a time when a small farm could be purchased for a mere $400 (equivalent to $11,400 in 2019). No such reward has been found in period newspapers. (The federal government offered $25,000 for the capture of each of John Wilkes Booth's co-conspirators in President Lincoln's assassination.) A reward offering of $12,000 has also been claimed, though no documentation exists for that figure either. Catherine Clinton suggests that the $40,000 figure may have been a combined total of the various bounties offered around the region.[82]

 

Despite the best efforts of the slaveholders, Tubman was never captured, and neither were the fugitives she guided. Years later, she told an audience: "I was conductor of the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can't say – I never ran my train off the track and I never lost a passenger."[3]

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman

Saturday.

 

Up with the larks dead on the nose of half seven. We had breakfast and then decided to head to Preston to look at some plants and also to call at the butcher for something for the weekend. It was a fine morning, so we headed through Deal and out to Sandwich before heading inland to Preston. Whilst Jools did the plant thing, I went into the butcher and ended up with meat for each weekend meal: pork pie lunch, bacon for breakfast and a chicken to roast for Sunday along with stuffing, sausage meat, sausages and bacon to roll round said sausages. It was going to be a meaty weekend!

 

On the way back, I felt the impulse to visit a church I had not been to in nearly 5 years. Elsmstone is unusual in that it serves such a small village, but even more wonderful is that it has no dedication. Or more likely, that over the centuries the dedication was forgotten. So, I thought as it was only a mile or so out of our way, I felt the car turning almost by itself.

 

Once at the church I went round re-photographing it, when the churchwarden turned up and asked if we would like to go inside? Of course!! So, she let us in, and we both snapped it to death; the church has the most wonderful windows, and the spring sunshine was pouring through them casting coloured patterns on the floor. The warden was friendly, and we ended up chatting to her for ages. It was all very pleasant. And I now had it recorded and just need to process the shots to be uploaded.

 

Back home for pork pie and a cuppa. And whilst Jools did some gardening, I ended up making another batch of short cakes as I just fancied one with a cuppa. So, soon the house was filled with the smells of baking, which was all very nice. But even nice was when they were done and I brewed up so we could sit outside sipping tea and munching on still-warm short cakes. The air was full of the sound of bird song, it was all rather wonderful.

 

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This little known church is an absolute gem but being so close to the greats of Sandwich, Ash and Wingham it will probably always be overshadowed. It is a small Norman church extended by the addition of a north aisle and NW tower in the thirteenth century. The arcade is typical of that period. The priest’s stall is fourteenth century and the tale is told of it being made from a boat in which he was shipwrecked! The pulpit is a stunning late 19c design by ES Prior with Voysey-esque linenfold panels. For a small church there is much stained glass of note. The east windows of chancel and aisle are by William Wailes – bright and strident and strongley drawn. In the north aisle is a window by Burlysson and Grylls and an especially fine Nativity scene by Powell’s. Theirs too is the pair of 7c saints in the south wall but something has gone wrong with the proportion and the heads are strangely placed. In the west window is some medieval glass and there is an outstanding medieval roundel of the Lamb of God in the north chancel window. Top all this off with a fine Norman font and you have a church that is worth the effort to make an appointment to visit.

 

www.kentchurches.info/church.asp?p=Elmstone

 

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ELMSTONE.

THE next parish south-eastward from Stourmouth is Elmstone, called in Domesday, Ælvetone, and in other antient records, Elmerstone. There is only one borough in this parish, viz. Elmstone borough, the borsholder of which is chosen at the court leet of the manor of Preston yearly.

 

THE PARISH of Elmstone is very small, it is a retired unfrequented place, having no village, and only six houses and an half in the parish, which happens from one of the houses standing over the stream, one half of which is in this parish, and the other half in Preston, the Stream, which rises in a pond there, separating the two parishes, and running thence near most of those houses, of which the parsonage is one, towards the river Stour north-eastward. The courtlodge stands near the south side of the parish, having round it a moat, which is supplied by a spring rising just above it, the water from which runs from hence towards the river. At a small distance from hence is the church, on the rise of a hill, round which the land is very heathy and common-like. The parish of Wingham comes up within one field of the church. The whole is uneven ground, the inclosures small, and most of the land very poor. There is no fair held here.

 

THE MANOR OF ELMSTONE was part of the antient possessions of the abbot and convent of St. Augustine, of whom it was held by one Ansfrid. Accordingly it is thus entered in the book of Domesday, under the general title of their lands:

 

Anssrid holds of the abbot, AElig;veltone. It was taxed at half a suling and half a yoke. The arable land is . . . . . . In demesne there is one carucate, and three villeins, with three oxen in one team. In this manor Ansfrid holds half a suling, of the demesne of the monks, and pays from thence to St. Augustine one hundred pence per annum. Godessa held it in see simple, and gave from thence to St. Augustine twenty-five pence in alms every year. In the time of king Edward the Confessor it was worth forty shillings, and afterwards ten shillings, now sixty shillings.

 

After which, it appears to have been held by the eminent family of Leyborne, one of whom Roger de Leyborne held it of the abbot, in the 53d year of king Henry III. And in his descendants it continued till Juliana, daughter of Thomas de Leyborne, stiled from the greatness of her possessions, the Infanta of Kent, died possessed of it anno 41 Edward III. when it escheated to the crown for want of heirs, there being found none who could make claim, to her estates, either by direct or even collateral alliance. (fn. 1) After which king Richard II. in his 11th and 22d years, settled it on the priory of Canons, alias Chiltern Langley, in Hertfordshire, where it remained till the dissolution of that house, anno 30 Henry VIII. when it came into the king's hands, who the next year granted it, with the scite of the priory, and other lands and estates belonging to it, to Richard, suffragan bishop of Dover, to hold for his life, or until he should be promoted to some ecclesiastical benefice of the yearly value of one hundred pounds, which happened before the 36th year of that reign; for the year before that, the king granted to Walter Hendley, esq. his attorney general, his manor and advowson of Elmerstone, alias Elmstone, with the woods and underwoods, late parcel of the above priory, or of the monastery of Dartford, or of one of them, to hold in capite by knight's service, being then of the value of fifteen pounds per annum. He was afterwards knighted, and died in the 6th year of king Edward VI. leaving his three daughters his coheirs, who next year joined in the sale of it to Simon Lynch, gent. of Grove, in Staple, who sold this manor, with the advowson of the church appendant to it, in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, to Mr. William Gibbs, descended from a family who were of the rank of gentility in Devonshire, and settled at Folkestone about Henry VII.'s reign, and bore for their arms, Argent, three pole-axes, sable; the patent of which was confirmed by Robert Cooke, clarencieux. (fn. 2) His descendant of the same name, alienated it at the latter end of king Charles I.'s reign, to Robert Jaques, alderman of London, who kept his shrievalty here in 1669, and was afterwards of Luton, in Bedfordshire, and died possessed of it in 1671, leaving two daughters his coheirs, the eldest of whom, Joane, married Henry Partridge, esq. of Berkshire, and Rebecca, the youngest, John Whitfield, gent. of Canterbury, who shared his estate here between them, and on the division of it, the latter had part of the demesne lands of the manor in this parish, and other farms and lands in the adjoining parishes; but the manor of Elmstone itself, with the appendant advowson, was allotted to the former, in whose descendants it continued down to Henry Partridge, esq. recorder of Lyn Regis, in Norsolk, who died in 1793, on which it came to his son, who is the present owner of it. A court baron is held for this manor.

 

There are no parocbial charities. The poor constantly relieved are about seven, casually four.

 

THIS PARISH is within the ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION of the diocese of Canterbury, and deanry of Bridge.

 

¶The church is a small building, consisting of a body, a very small north isle, and a chancel, having a square tower, embattled at the north-west corner, in which there are three bells. In the chancel is a handsome monument, with a marble bust at top, for Robert Jaques, esq. formerly an alderman and sheriff of London, and afterwards of Luton, in Bedfordshire, who died in 1671; his arms were, argent on a sess sable, three escallops, or. A monument for Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Hutchesson, rector, obt. 1768. In the south isle is a monument for Henry Whitfield, second surviving son of John Whitfield, esq. of Canterbury, who lived at Preston, obt. 1774. In the church-yard are several tombs for the Gibs's, of this parish and Preston.

 

There is given towards the repair of the church, a house near it, of the yearly value of three pounds, and a house lately burnt down, and two acres of Land, rented at fifty shilling.

 

This church is a rectory, the advowson of which has always been appendant to the manor of Elmstone, and as such is now of the patronage of Mr. Partridge, as has been already mentioned before. It is valued in the king's books at 6l. 7s. 8½d. and the yearly tenths at 12s. 9¼d. In 1588 it was valued at 401. communicants thirty eight. In 1640 it was valued at 80l. communicants forty. It is now of the clear yearly certified value of 69l. 2s. 2d.

 

There are five acres of glebe land; at the valuation in king Henry the VIIIth.'s reign there were eight.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp131-135

Select "All Sizes" to read an article or to see the image clearly.

 

I thought others might appreciate these tidbits of forgotten history of People of Color.

 

Please feel free to leave any comments or thoughts or impressions... I look forward to reading them!

Situated near Torry in Aberdeen and at the entrance of the River Dee, Girdleness Lighthouse was designed by Robert Louis Stevenson (grandfather to the author of the same name who wrote Treasure Island, Kidnapped and other novels) and built by James Gibb in 1833.

 

Girdleness Lighthouse.

 

Visiting the lighthouse for the first time in over three years I thought I'd capture not only this fine piece of Aberdeen's history, I'll capture everything and anything worthy within a 200 meter radius all around as well, hence the lighthouse earns an album all to itself.

 

I visited 24/3/17, a bright crisp afternoon though time was against me as my first capture was around 16.20pm.

 

I shot around 350 photo's, many have not made it to this album though I post the ones I believe convey the enjoyment I had while visiting this great site , an area of Aberdeen thats either hidden or lacks interest for those who have their own visions of what interests them , if your still reading this then please enjoy.

 

Girdleness Lighthouse Aberdeen Scotland

 

Built 1833 by engineer Robert Stevenson. A handsome tapering tower with lanterns at two levels, rising from a semicircular base; the lower lantern is disused. The wrought-iron railings are of the diamond pattern. Keeper's houses are single storey, with flat roofs. J R Hume 1977.

 

This lighthouse is characterised by its unique minaret-like shape silhouette which reflects the former display of a second (low) light as garland of 13 lamps in a covered gallery at a height of 11m; these were removed in 1890 when a new principal lantern was installed.

 

The cast-iron ladders that give access to the upper part of the lantern were embellished with an ascending and descending procession of crocodiles, and the lighthouse also has a fine collection of cast-iron panels and flue-pipes.

 

The preincipal contractor for the construction was John Gibb, and in 1870 the lighthouse was used for the trial installation of paraffin illumination (superseding sperm oil); a radar beacon (Racon) was installed after 1968.

Girdle Ness lighthouse is situated right on the coast. The lighthouse was engineered and designed by Robert Stevenson, 1833. The lighthouse tower is 37 meters high and there are 182 steps to the top of the tower. The lighthouse was built by Aberdeen contractor James Gibb. They are building a great big pier the other side of the lighthouse at the moment so there will be another pier for entrance into Aberdeen. I think they are hoping for cruise ship traffic once it is up and running.

Newbridge House is a beautiful 18th-century manor, filled with original furniture and boasting one of the finest Georgian interiors in Ireland. It is situated just outside Donabate. The house was built for Archbishop Dr. Charles Cobbe on lands he purchased in 1736. The architecture of the house has been attributed to George Semple (1700-1782) and to the Scottish architect, James Gibbs (1682-1754). Thomas Cobbe, son of the archbishop, inherited Newbridge house in 1765 and added the large drawing room in the rear of the building which retains an ornate Rococo- style plaster work ceiling by Robert West (c 1790). Newbridge House was the family home of the Cobbe family for several generations before it was acquired by Dublin County Council in 1985. The County Council undertook an extensive programme of renovation, reconstruction and restoration of the House to return it to its 18th century eminence prior to its opening in 1986.

 

The grounds at Newbridge, which extend to approx. 360 acres are one of the finest examples of an 18th-century landscape to be found in Ireland. They were developed in the style of the English Landscape movement of which Lancelot Brown was the most famous exponent.

 

The square and cobbled courtyard adjoining the House was designed by Robert Mack and built about 1790. It has been restored and opened as a museum of the late 18th-century rural life. The courtyard has contains: a dairy, carpenters shop, forge, stables and a labourers cottage all of which have been fitted out with original tools, implements and furniture. The Stable House contains the magnificent Lord Chancellors Carriage on loan from the National Museum, which is regarded as one of the most beautiful pieces of carriage work ever executed. The coffee shop is located in the courtyard.

 

Buchan Ness Lighthouse was established in 1827 by Robert Stevenson

Petitions were received by the Commissioners in 1819 from the Magistrates, town Councils and Harbour trustees of Peterhead, to have a lighthouse erected on Buchan Ness or any more eligible part of the coast. The area was surveyed by Robert Stevenson, Engineer to the Board (also grandfather of Robert Louis Stevenson), who decided on the present position of the village Boddam. It was not, however, until 1827 that the light was exhibited.

John Gibb of Aberdeen was the contractor responsible for the building of Buchan Ness. The red bands were added In 1907 to distinguish it as a day mark.

 

During the Second World War, a drifting mine washed ashore and exploded 50 yards south of the station. No one was injured and the material damage consisted of 3 lantern panes cracked and 12 other glass panes broken in the tower, engine room and dwelling houses. Part of the ceilings of the kitchen and one bedroom of the 1st Assistant’s house were brought down and the locks, hinges and bolts of 4 doors damaged. There were also 20 slates blown off the roof storehouse.

 

There have been many changes since 1827 in the light, in 1910 to dioptric, in 1978 the lantern was especially enlarged with the candlepower raised from 6,500 to 786,000 and in 1978, it was converted to electric operation, candlepower 2,000,000.

 

The lighthouse was automated in 1988 and is now remotely monitored from the Board’s headquarters in Edinburgh. The fog horn was discontinued in 2000.

 

It should be noted that at some sites the Northern Lighthouse Board have sold some redundant buildings within the lighthouse complex and are not responsible for the maintenance of these building.

 

Stowe Landscape Gardens, which surround the late 17th century Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, date from the early 18th century and are a significant example of the English Garden style. They have been in the care of the National Trust since 1989. The 750 acres of landscaped grounds, which include two main lakes, have 40 listed temples and monuments within them. A number of outstanding designers and architects worked on the gardens in the 18th century, including Charles Bridgeman, John Vanburgh, Capability Brown and James Gibbs.

 

The Grade I listed country house is the home of Stowe School, which has leased the building since it was founded in 1923. The present house dates from around 1683, when the central part was rebuilt by Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet. The architect was William Cleare, who worked for Sir Christopher Wren. There have been considerable additions over the years under various architects, including Vanbrugh and Robert Adam. The exterior of the house has not been significantly changed since 1779, and the front of the house is over 300 yards wide. A long, straight driveway runs from Buckingham all the way to the front of the house, passing through a 60-foot Corinthian arch on the brow of the hill on the way. The driveway approach to the house is still in use, although it no longer runs through the arch.

  

Robert Gibbs Contracting Company, Bridge Works, Hoddesdon, Herts.

 

www.facebook.com/nigadwphotography/

I think he knows I’m alive, having come down

The three steps of the back porch

And given me a good once over. All afternoon

He’s been moving back and forth,

Gathering odd bits of walnut shells and twigs,

While all about him the great fields tumble

To the blades of the thresher. He’s lucky

To be where he is, wild with all that happens.

He’s lucky he’s not one of the shadows

Living in the blond heart of the wheat.

This autumn when trees bolt, dark with the fires

Of starlight, he’ll curl among their roots,

Wanting nothing but the slow burn of matter

On which he fastens like a small, brown flame.

 

-- Robert Gibb

   

Hearing that Robert got a new early date for their baskettail out in Texas just got me in the mood for odes! It will be awhile though. Spring trees are starting to bloom here especially closer to Atlanta, daffodils are blooming and birds are nesting around the yard. But I haven't seen a butterfly yet. Gibbs Gardens opens March 1 (yay!) for their millions of daffodils - and that will kick off the season for us.

 

Re my husband: thanks everyone for your kind thoughts. He's much better but not 100%. I think he's had several different bugs ... Walker County schools closed here when not only the kids called in sick - but the teachers & bus drivers too. It's been Norovirus, the flu and other stuff combined. I'm not sure they've re-opened. I am so thankful it's passed me by and he's better. Stay well out there! And let me know if the snow got you or if Spring has arrived where you are.

  

Stowe Landscape Gardens, which surround the late 17th century Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, date from the early 18th century and are a significant example of the English Garden style. They have been in the care of the National Trust since 1989. The 750 acres of landscaped grounds, which include two main lakes, have 40 listed temples and monuments within them. A number of outstanding designers and architects worked on the gardens in the 18th century, including Charles Bridgeman, John Vanburgh, Capability Brown and James Gibbs.

 

The Grade I listed country house is the home of Stowe School, which has leased the building since it was founded in 1923. The present house dates from around 1683, when the central part was rebuilt by Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet. The architect was William Cleare, who worked for Sir Christopher Wren. There have been considerable additions over the years under various architects, including Vanbrugh and Robert Adam. The exterior of the house has not been significantly changed since 1779, and the front of the house is over 300 yards wide. A long, straight driveway runs from Buckingham all the way to the front of the house, passing through a 60-foot Corinthian arch on the brow of the hill on the way. The driveway approach to the house is still in use, although it no longer runs through the arch.

   

The Grade I Listed Cathedral of All Saints in Derby, Derbyshire.

 

King Edmund I originally built a royal collegiate church on the site in 943, according to the Domesday book complied at 1086, it belonged to the King, and was served by a college of seven priests. Due to structural instability the church had to be rebuilt in the 14th century and the current tower was built between 1510 to 1530 in a perpendicular Gothic style.

 

Under the Protestant persecutions of Queen Mary, Joan Waste was tried for heresy at the cathedral in 1556. The execution took place on the Burton Road in Derby. Aside from the tower, the building was rebuilt in a classical style to the designs of James Gibbs in 1725. The building, previously known as All Saints' Church, became a cathedral by Order in Council on 1 July 1927.

 

The cathedral contains the oldest ring of ten bells in the United Kingdom, with the 15th century tenor being older than the tower itself. A carillon in the tower uses the same bells to provide a tune at 9am, 12pm, and 6pm.

 

Other treasures include an 18th century nave with a wrought iron rood screen made by Robert Bakewell, for which he charged the church £157.10.0d; a memorial to Bess of Hardwick; and the Cavendish brasses, including those of Henry Cavendish and Georgiana Spencer, the wife of one of the Dukes of Devonshire. The entrance gates were also made by Robert Bakewell, but these were only moved to the cathedral from St Mary's Gate in 1957. Notable 20th century additions are the stained glass windows designed by Ceri Richards, and the bronze crucifix by Ronald Pope.

 

.

From very deep in the Archives! (Hopefully improved, editing in PS CC 2020)

 

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

'

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

From the Archives! (Hopefully improved, editing in PS CC 2019)

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

The library was founded through a bequest by Christopher Codrington (1668–1710), a Fellow of the College. Codrington bequeathed books worth £6,000 and £10,000 in money, which allowed the library to be built and endowed. Codrington was born in Barbados and amassed his fortune from plantation slavery. The library was completed in 1751 and has been in continuous use by scholars since then.

The stone floor of the library is an exercise in geometrical polychromy. Square flags of dressed stone of two different colours are laid in a diagonal pattern with similar flags of polished black marble, which is also used for narrow surrounding bands. These form an edging between the stone floor and a wooden boarded surround immediately next to the bookcases.

 

In the 1740s James Gibbs advised on the bookcases and galleries. The statue is of Christopher Codrington by Sir Henry Cheere.

 

The library is only open to the public on Oxford Open Door Day which takes place in September.

  

The Codrington Library

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

If you like Dahlias, take a look "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

 

If you would rather just view my images of Dahlias, please click "here" ,

 

Dahlias are a genus of bushy, tuberous, herbaceous perennial plants native to Mexico. A member of the Asteraceae (or Compositae), dicotyledonous plants, related species include the sunflower, daisy, chrysanthemum, and zinnia. There are 42 species of dahlia, with hybrids commonly grown as garden plants. Flower forms are variable, with one head per stem; these can be as small as 2 in (5.1 cm) diameter or up to 1 ft (30 cm) ("dinner plate"). This great variety results from dahlias being octoploids—that is, they have eight sets of homologous chromosomes, whereas most plants have only two. In addition, dahlias also contain many transposons—genetic pieces that move from place to place upon an allele—which contributes to their manifesting such great diversity. The stems are leafy, ranging in height from as low as 12 in (30 cm) to more than 6–8 ft (1.8–2.4 m). The majority of species do not produce scented flowers or cultivars. Like most plants that do not attract pollinating insects through scent, they are brightly colored, displaying most hues, with the exception of blue. Perennial plants, with mostly tuberous roots. While some have herbaceous stems, others have stems which lignify in the absence of secondary tissue and resprout following winter dormancy, allowing further seasons of growth. As a member of the Asteraceae the flower head is actually a composite (hence the older name Compositae) with both central disc florets and surrounding ray florets. Each floret is a flower in its own right, but is often incorrectly described as a petal, particularly by horticulturalists. The modern name Asteraceae refers to the appearance of a star with surrounding rays. The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963. The tubers were grown as a food crop by the Aztecs, but this use largely died out after the Spanish Conquest. Attempts to introduce the tubers as a food crop in Europe were unsuccessful.

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Buch zur Ausstellung während des IX. Kongress der IAA/AUAP 1979 im Künstlerhaus Stuttgart

 

with

Achim Duchow / Adriano Spatola / Albrecht D. / Al Souza / Andrzej Partum / Andrzej Wielgosz / Angela Riemann / Angelika Oehms / Anna Banana / Annette Messager / Balce / Ben Vautier / Bill Gaglione / Buster Cleveland / Carl Andre / Carl Camu / Charles Dreyfus / Daniele Ciullini / Dick Higgins / Dietrich Fricker / Dimitris Yeros / Dragoljub Rasa Todosijevic (Text) / E.F. Higgins / Ecart / Ecki Vespa / Endré Tòt / Ernesto De Souza / Eugenia Balcells / Gabor Toht / Gifreu / Grupo Texto Poetico / Guglielmo Achille Cavellini / Guillermo Deisler / György Galantai / Gérald Minkoff / Heinz E. Hirscher / Heinz Zolper jr. / Hermann Gruber / Hervé Fischer / Horacio Zabala / Horst Hahn / Horst Tress / Hubert Kretschmer / Jerry Dreva / Jiri Valoch / Johan Van Geluwe / John Armleder / John M. Bennett / José Antonio Sarmiento / Joyce Cutler-Shaw / Judith A. Hoffberg / Julian Blaine / Jürgen Elsässer (Text) / Jürgen Holwein (Text) / Klaus Groh / Klaus Heuser (Text) / Klaus Staeck / Ko de Jonge / Leonhard F. Duch / Lomholt Formular Press / Lon Spiegelman / Maurizio Nannucci / Max Hetzler / Michael Gibbs / Michael Scott / Nicola Frangione / Paolo Bruscky (Text) / Paul van Dijk / Pawel Petasz / Peter Below (Text) / Peter Weibel / Regula Huegli / Ricardo Cristóbal (Text) / Richard Kostelanetz / Richard Olson / Robert Rehfeldt / Robin Crozier / Rose la Vie / Ruth Marten / Ruth Wolf-Rehfeldt / Ryosuke Cohen / Soft Art Press / Steffen Missmahl / T. Yamamoto / Thierry Tillier / Thomas Grünfeld / Timm Ulrichs / Tomasz Schulz / Tom Winter / Ulises Carrion / Uwe Göbel / Vittore Baroni / Wil Frenken ... ...

This is our lighthouse in Aberdeen. It is situated right on the coast. I liked the different layers of colours in the sky and the sun came out very briefly behind me lighting up the lighthouse tower and buildings. As you can see there is a large perimeter wall which is well kept and maintained. The lighthouse cottages are privately let. The lighthouse was engineered and designed by Robert Stevenson, 1833. The lighthouse tower is 37 meters high and there are 182 steps to the top of the tower. The lighthouse was built by Aberdeen contractor James Gibb. I know you have seen pictures of the lighthouse before, I am sure you wont mind seeing it once more.

An upward look at Girdle Ness Lighthouse in Aberdeen. The lighthouse was engineered and designed by Robert Stevenson, 1833. The lighthouse tower is 37 meters high and there are 182 steps to the top of the tower. The lighthouse was built by Aberdeen contractor James Gibb. I can proudly say I have been up the steps and enjoyed the view.

 

From the Archives! (Hopefully improved, editing in PS CC 2019)

 

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

We finally have a clearer idea of my daughter’s condition after yesterday’s visit to the consultant and overall it seems positive. Without going in to too much medical detail it seems that the surgery was essential and just in time. As far as they can tell it was successful so there is no need for another operation or more chemotherapy. The next step is for radiation treatment and different drug treatment for the foreseeable future so it’s not over yet but does indicate that there is hope for the future and at least more time, however long that may be. I would like to celebrate and I had hoped I could but it’s a guarded optimism because there are no guarantees even now so the joy and relief, while they are there, come with reservations. It’s almost as if I daren’t believe that all is well, it’s a strange mindset to be in but perhaps it’s because it’s been a strain for a very long time.

  

“It is painful to see someone suffering - watching someone you love be so cruelly hurt.”

Jude Morgan

 

“It never ceases to amaze me that in times of amazing human suffering somebody says something that can be so utterly stupid.”

Robert Gibbs

I was really quite annoyed when I read the following statement, it seemed so glib and dismissive...

 

“Life is painful, suffering is optional.”

Sylvia Boorstein

Sorry to say this but I think this is an utterly stupid thing to say. You can’t escape suffering, it’s not a choice, it’s something that happens to you and until it does no one has the right to be so dismissive as to say it’s optional.

 

“For those who understand, no explanation is necessary; for those who don't understand, no explanation is possible”

Elbert Hubbard

 

“If suffering brings wisdom, I would wish to be less wise.”

William Butler Yeats

 

One thing that has surprised me throughout this ordeal is that we have been able to laugh and to have fun and to enjoy some of the simple things in life and thank goodness for that because otherwise the strain would have been intolerable and as the quote below says – we are not defined by our sorrows.

 

“Life is both dreadful and wonderful...How can I smile when I am filled with so much sorrow? It is natural--you need to smile in your sorrow because you are more than your sorrow.”

Thich Nhat Hanh

 

“Pretty much everyone who has suffered – you, me and the people next door – has fallen into a place of paralysis once or twice. Things are SO bad you don’t know which way to turn, so you do nothing. It’s the human equivalent of “deer in the headlights” syndrome”

Wendy Keller

  

I know that we are not the only ones who have lived through a heartbreaking situation, and not necessarily a life threatening illness but in other ways - all of us at some time or other will go through something that tears at your heart, it’s part of this life’s experience and being a human being. As an observer it seems that people react to suffering in many different ways – some with empathy and great concern while others remain indifferent.

 

In all of this experience one small thing has saddened me and that is that while I haven’t been on Flickr so much lately several people have crossed me off their contact list. I can only assume this is because I haven’t been posting or commenting so much. But my time hasn’t been my own for quite a while and other priorities have claimed it so everything else has had to take a back seat. Or maybe they don’t want to know about the circumstances I have been writing about, perhaps it’s too emotional and exposes real feelings. Well, all I can say is I’m sorry about that but that is who I am and I write what I feel about all kinds of things.

 

I’m surprised it bothers me in the scheme of things but somehow it seems rather heartless. But this is heavily outweighed by the gratitude I feel towards all those of you who have been so kind and supportive all this time and genuinely more concerned with the reality of the situation than with the number of views or comments that I might provide!

I think the anonymous quote below sums it up really well!

 

“In life you'll realize that there is a purpose for every person you meet. Some are there to test you, some will use you, some will teach you, and some will bring out the best in you.”

Unknown

 

“Don't Take Anything Personally

Nothing others do is because of you. What others say and do is a projection of their own reality, their own dream. When you are immune to the opinions and actions of others, you won't be the victim of needless suffering.”

Miguel Angel Ruiz

 

“Try not to take things personally.

What people think of you is a reflection of them not you”

Unknown

 

“Not everyone will understand your journey. That's fine. It's not their journey to make sense of. It's yours.”

Unknown Author

 

“Don't forget - no one else sees the world the way you do, so no one else can tell the stories that you have to tell.”

Charles de Lint

 

Perhaps one day the following will come true and all this will be forgotten, I still hold on to this hope...

‘He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.”

Rev 21 v4

 

This is possibly the last page of my “journal” covering this particular journey, I’m not sure what else I could say here and though the journey is far from over for me I think this is likely to be the last I write about it.

 

A huge thank you to all who have left encouraging messages to help me through, your kindness has helped more than you could ever know and I thank you from the bottom of my heart.

 

To view more my images from Wimpole Hall, please click "here"!

 

From the achieves, reprocessed, using Photoshop CC 2020!

 

Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire. Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park. Situated to the north and south of this were three medieval villages: Bennall End, Thresham End and Green End. The house was held by the Chicheley family for over 250 years. The last of this family to hold the house was the politician Thomas Chicheley, who was responsible for the "new" house that was completed in 1650. He enjoyed the house for 36 years until, weighed down by financial problems, he was forced to sell to Sir John Cutler. In 1689, Sir John gave it as a marriage settlement to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Charles Robartes, 2nd Earl of Radnor. On the death of Elizabeth in 1697, without an heir, the estate passed to Edmund Boulter, nephew of Sir John Cutler. In 1710 it was in the possession of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who left it to his daughter Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles upon his death the following year. Upon Henrietta's marriage, in 1713, it became the possession of her husband Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer. In 1740, Edward sold Wimpole to the Earl of Hardwicke, to pay his debts. The Earls of Hardwicke held it until it passed into the hands of Thomas Agar-Robartes, 6th Viscount Clifden, and then his son, Francis Agar-Robartes, 7th Viscount Clifden. In 1938, Capt. George Bambridge and his wife, Elsie, daughter of Rudyard Kipling, purchased it after having been tenants since 1932. They used the inheritance left to them by her father, and the royalties from his books, for the long-needed refurbishment of the house and grounds. The final chapter of Wimpole as an owner-occupied residence was closed in 1976 when Elsie died, leaving the property to the National Trust. Over the centuries many notable architects have worked on it, including James Gibbs (between 1713 and 1730), James Thornhill (1721), Henry Flitcroft (around 1749), John Soane (1790s), and H.E. Kendall (1840s). Wimpole Hall's grounds were laid out and modified by landscape designers such as George London and Henry Wise (1693–1705), Charles Bridgeman (1720s), Robert Greening (1740s), 'Capability' Brown (1767), and Humphry Repton (1801–1809). Bridgeman's formal grand avenue sweeps away from the south front of the house for two and a half miles in contrast with the remainder of the park which was "naturalised" by Capability Brown. The North Park is particularly attractive with its belts of woodland, gentle rolling hills with individual trees and clumps of trees. The central feature of the North Park is the Gothic Tower and the restored lakes in the valley below. In the grounds are a chain of lakes (1695–1767), a church (1749) - there are some pictures and a description of the church at the Cambridgeshire Churches website, a folly (the false Gothic Tower; 1768), a farm (1792), a walled garden (18th century), and a stable block (1851).

 

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"!

  

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